Skip to main content

Full text of "The philosophy of education; or, The principles and practice of teaching"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



w 

%" 






HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




UBRARY OF THE 

GRADUATE SCHOOL 
OF EDUCATION 






5' 









* i i ■ » t s _. . • r "■ / ■ ' J #» ' 

■ / • , ■ "■ '- > ,■•«•■-» J. ■» ' ' : 

-, '''.'.'^ < ■> * ,. •. 



" f, '- 



J»" 



■' ^ 



..4. '•-. 

< 4 






I •. 



»• 



t /, 



«,' 



O THE 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION; 



OB. 



THE PBmCIPLE^ AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING. 



T. TATE, P,B.A.S., 

▲XriBOB OV TASIOTO SOIBNTIFIC AVD BDUCATIOMAL WORUk 



WITH AN INTBODUCnON BT EDWABD E. SHEIB, A.M., Ph.D. 



NEW YORK; 

E. L. KELLOGG & 00. 

1885. 



HARVARD UNWERSmr 

GIAOUATE SCHOOL OF EOUCATIOi 

HOMbOl C OirilMN UMAH 




i 



.5 



Copyright, 1885, 
By E L. El&LLOGG & 00. 



PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 



The growing desire for treatises on education that is mani- 
festing itself is a most encouraging feature. It indicates real 
progress. Tate's Philosophy of Education has long been held 
in high esteem by thoughtful teachers; and though published 
nearly thirty years ago no more lucid and compact a statement 
of principles has been made, and it well desenres to be reprinted. 
It was in this, volume those educational precepts were found that 
in these modem days are so familar to the teacher : ** From 
the Known to the Unknown;" ** Prom the Simple to the Com- 
plex;" " From the Concrete to the Abstract," etc. 

The work displajrs a vast amount of pedagogical knowledge, 
and gives proof of the prolonged and careful study of the sub- 
ject by the author. It cannot but aid the practical teacher, for 
a marked feature of the present stage of progress in education 
is the desire for the principles that govern the art of teaching. 

That portion of the book devoted to psychology is the least 
attractive, though it fairly represents the ideas that held sway 
during the first half of this century — the period that Tate 
represents. Dissent has been made where it was deemed need- 
ful. The notes which have been added are not intended as 
criticisms, but to indicate here and there the agreement or dis- 



lY PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 

agreement of the statements of the volume with the prevailing 
views on psychology and pedagogy. 

Farts in., ly., and Y. contain suggestions that were valuable 
thirty years ago, and might very properly have been omitted; 
but in order to make the volume complete they are reproduced, 
but in small type. 

The republication of Tate's Philosophy of Education by 
Messrs. E. L. Kellogg & Co. is one of many efforts they are 
making to elevate the rank and dignity and usefulness of the 
teacher's work, and deserves cordial appreciation. 

Edwasd £. Sheeb, 
PrenderU Lauidana BtaU Normal School. 

Baltimobi, Aug. 18, 188S. 



PREFACE. 

This work is the result of the labor and reflection of many 
years ; it, in fact, embodies the experience of my life as a prac- 
tical educator. It contains an exposition of all the leading 
principles upon which my other works on education have been 
written ; and in order to understand fully the drift and pur- 
X>ose of the one, the teacher must study the expositions imd 
principles of the other. Wherever I have adopted the ideas 
of others, I have always, to the best of my recollection, made 
a due acknowledgment of the obligation. 

I am not acquainted with any work which really treats of 
the philosophy of education in connection with the practice 
of it. Our books on education are either too purely specula- 
tive or too exclusively empirical, and, so called, practical. 

My most earnest desire is that this work may be the means 
of directing the attention of the practical educator to the phi- 
losophy of education, and to the development of those systems 
and methods which are best calculated to establish in our 
schools a thoroughly sound and enlightened education. 

T. Tate. 

May, 1857. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 18 

PART I.— ON METHOD AS APPLIED TO 

EDUCATION. 

CHAPTER I. 

Methods and Ststems of Inbtruotion.— Dkfinition or Tkrms, bto. 

Different Methods and Systems of Education at present employed in 
.Elementary Schools. SO-25. 

CHAPTER n. 

Impobtancb of Mbthod. 

Method in Education— in Art— in Science— in Poetry— in Oratory— in 
Nature. A distinguished Teacher must have Method. 25-28. 

A Qlanck at thb History of Method. 

Socrates— Euclid— Bacon— Newton— Archimedes. Primary Education- 
Locke — Rousseau — Pestalozsi — Lancaster — Bell — Government 
Scheme of Education. 28-^. 

Present Condition and Future Progress of Education. 

Necessity of further Progress. Educators divided into two Classes. 
The Baconian Philosophy considered in relation to the Progress of 
Modem Education. 82-40. 

Philosopht of Method. 

Education based on an Induction of Facts. The Principles of Method 
considered subjectively as well as objectively. Difficulties peculiar 



Viii CONTENTS. 

to the Inquiry. Importance of Definitions. Ck>llectlon of Facts. To 
distinguish between Facts and Opinions. Comparison and Claasifl- 
cation of Facts. Relation of Cause and Effect. General Principles. 
Evils of implicit Confidence in Method. Experiments required to 
test Systems and Methods. To estimate the Results of Method. 
40-58. 

CHAPTER in. 

to ascertain the nature of the bsing to be educated. qemcsaa 

Facts relating to the Development of the 

Intellectual Faculties. 59-63. 

Primitive Intelugence as shown in Perception and Intuition, con- 
sidered as the Basis of Development. 62-68. 

Sensation, Befiectlon, and Intuition. The infant Soul contains im- 
plicitly all the Faculties of the developed Intelligence. 

Classification of the Faculties of the Mind. 

Four distinct Stages of Development. Classification of the Faculties of 
the Mind as a whole. Classification of the Intellectual Faculties. 
Explanatory Remarks. First Stage— the Perceptive Faculties.— 
Second Stage— the Conceptive or Representative Faculties.— Third 
Stage— the Cognitive Faculties.— Fourth Stage— the Cogitative Fac- 
ulties. 68-79. 

Essential Points to be considered in relation to Method as 

applied to Education. 

1. Nature of the Faculties. (1) The peculiar Function of each Faculty. 
(2) Mutual Relation of the Faculties— Relation of Succession— Rela- 
tion of Assimilation— Relation of Aggregation. (8) The Faculties 
considered with respect to their simultaneous Action and Cultiva- 
tion. 

8. The Subjects best adapted for the Cultivation of the different Facul- 
ties. 

S. Nature of Motives acting on each Class of Faculties. 

4. The Habits of Action to be established in relation to each Class of 

Faculties. 

5. The Methods of Instruction adapted to each Class of Faculties. 

6. Application of Results to the different Periods of Education; Five 

Educational Periods— Infancy— Early Childhood— Childhood— Early 
Youth— Youth. 79-91. 



CONTEIfTS. ix 

CHAPTER IV. 

QSKKSAL PRINCXPLBS OF TbAOHINO, OB ElIMBIITB OI* BfBTBOD. 

We should follow out the Intentions of Nature. Principle of UtUitj and 
Development. Principle of Harmonious Development. Instruction 
should be progressive. Principle of Self development. We should 
appeal to the Senses. The Reasoning Faculties should be cultivated 
on an enlaiged Basis. Teaching from the Simple to the Complex. 
Facts taught before Causes, etc. The Concrete before the Abstract. 
Constructive Teaching. Principles before Rules. Oral and Collec- 
tive Teaching— Principles of School Classification. Instruction 
should give Pleasure— to secure the Attention— the Principle of 
School Routines— First or Preliminary Lessons— The Infant-School 
System— Imposition of Tasks— School Discipline. Thorough Teach- 
ing—Reproduction of Lessons— Examples and Applications— Reitera- 
tions of Lessons. Cultivation of Habits. 9M41. 



PART II.— ON THE CULTIVATION OP THE INTEL- 
LECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES. 

CHAPTER L 

PRELimiTART NOTIONS. 

Importance of Psychological Analysis in relation to Teaching. A Glance 
at our Childhood and Early Youth. A Cursory View of our Intellec- 
tual and Moral Faculties, as regards their Mode of Development. 
143-152. 

CHAPTER n. 

Cni/nVATTON OF THS IirrKLLBCTUAL FACULTIES— CULTIVATION OF THB 

' Percbptiyb Facultibs and of THB Facuivtibs of PRmrnvB 
JuDOMXNT, Conception, Imitation, Abstraction, 

AND LANOUAOE. 

The Senses. Knowledge derived from Experience. The Cultivation of 
the Senses necessarily includes the Cultivation of the Perceptive 
Faculties. Certain Properties detected by different Senses. Chil- 
dren should express in Language the Results of their Observations 
and Judgments. The Conceptfve Faculties should be cultivated 
with the Perceptive Faculties. Notes of a Lesson for cultivating the 



CONTENTS, 

Conceptive Faculties. Definition of Terms— of Form, etc., how 
given. Children should write their Ideas in their own Lauguage. 
150-161. 



CHAPTER ni. 
Ctltiyation or thb Intbllkctual Faculties, oontinukd— Ctlttya- 

TION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION. 

Importance of the Habit. Attention should be yoluntarj. Suggestive 
Teaching. Causes which tend to destroy the Habit. Fresh Motives, 
etc. Mode of treating Boys of di£Ferent Tempers, Tastes, and Tal- 
ents—the Feeble— the Sluggish— the Volatile— the.Timid— the Quick. 
A Digression on Thought, Language, and Genius. 161-176. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Cultivation of the Intellectual Faculties, continued— Cultfva- 
TiON OF Memory and Recollection. 

Memory influenced by Attention, Habits, and Associations. Philosophi- 
cal Associations. Rules for the Cultivation of Memory, applied to 
various Subjects of Instruction, in the Course of which the Method 
of Contrast and Comparison, and that of picturing out Scenes, are 
fully explained. 177-209. 



CHAPTER V. 

Cultivation of the Intellectual Faculties, continuei>— Imagina- 

TioN AND Taste. 

Imagination dependent on Culture. The Picture Style of Teaching. 
The Imagination cultivated by Poetry, Fables, and Tales. The Sen- 
timent of the Beautiful cultivated by Drawing and Music. 809-215. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Cultivation of the Intellectual Faculties, continued— Reason 
AND Judgment ; Wit and Invention. 

General Principles for the cultivation of the Reasoning Powers. Rela- 
tions of Things and Events, viewed in six Distinct Aspects. How 
Processes of Reasoning should be analyzed. Sources of False Rea- 
soning pointed out. Rules for the Conduct of the Understanding. 
How to foster the Development of the Inventive Powers. 215-237. 



CONTENTS, x\ 

CHAPTER Vn. 

Cui/rrvjLTioif or thb Moral Faoultxu. 
General Principles. Moral Training baaed on Religion. The Senttmenta 
of Veneration and Faith. The BeneTolent Affections. Habits of 
Action. Influence of Example. The three Cardinal School Virtues: 
Truthfulness— Honesty— HumUity. Classiflcation of Subjects in 
relation to the Cultivation of the Intellectual and Moral Faculties. 
S38-254. 



PART III.— ON THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES 

OP DIFFERENT METHODS AND SYSTEMS 

OF INSTRUCTION. 

Ststbms of Instbuotion. 

The Individual and Collective Systems. Home Education. The Pupil- 
Teacher System. The Mixed System. 255-260. 

Methods of Instbuotion. 

Synthetic and Analytic Methods. Examples of the Synthetic and 
A.natytic Methods of Teaching. Interrogative or Catechetical 
Method. Principles and Rules common to the two Forms of Inter- 
rogation—Special Rules for Ebcamination Questions— Special Princi- 
ples and Rules relative to Suggestive Interrogation. Examples of 
good and bad Examination Questions.— Examples of Suggestive In- 
terrogations.— The Simultaneous Method— Examples of Simultane- 
ous Teaching jifter the Catechetical Method— The Elliptical Form of 
Teaching— Examples. The Constructiye Method. The Illustrative 
Method. The Lecturing Method. Mixed Method. On the Repro- 
duction of Lessons in Writing. On certain Plans or Artifices for 
economizing Time, etc.— An Examination Lesson on Spelling— An 
Examination Lesson on Arithmetic. Respective Advantages of the 
three Great Methods of Examination. On the Preparation of Les- 
sons-Notes of a Lesson. On the Periodical Examination of Classes 
and the Registration of Progress. On the Qualifications of the 
Schoolmaster in relation to his Professional Duties— The Teacher's 
Attainments— The Teacher's Capabilities and Character— Aptitude 
for Teaching. On School Registers for recording the Results of 
Different Methods of Instruction, and also for testing the Capabili- 
ties of Teachers in relation to these Methods. General Conclusions 
derived from the Writer*s Registration of the Results of Methods, 
etc. 260-287. 



Xii CONTENTS. 

PART IV.— ON THE APPLICATION OP DIFFERENT 

SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO THE VARIOUS 

BRANCHES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. 

Thb Soripturbs; History; xto. 

Rbading and Spbllino; Etymology; Grammar. 

Specimen of a Reading Lesson. The Look and Say Plan— The Phonic 
Plan. On teaching the Alphabet, etc. Grammar more fully con- 
sidered—Lessons on Grammar— Lessons on Composition and the 
Analysis of Sentences. 288-295. 

Arithmstio. 

Lessons on the Addition of Fractions. Lesson on Rule of Three. Mental 
Arithmetic. 295-297. 

Geography, 297, 298. 

Drawing. 

General Principles and Rules. Model Drawing— Dupuis' System. A 
simple Piece of Apparatus for Teaching the Principles of Perspec- 
tive. Model Lessons on Drawing. 298-309. 

Writing, 809, 810. 

Practical Gbombtry and Mensuration. 

Drawing Instruments, etc. Xjessons on Geometry— Observations relative 
to Familiar Modes of Exposition. 310-312. 

Algebra. A Lesson on Equations. 812-314. 

Mechanical and Physical Science. A Lesson on Chemistry. 314, 315. 

Natural History. 815-317. 



PART v.— ON SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND DIB- 

CIPLINE. 

School Buildings and Fittings. School Apparatus.— List of Appara- 
tus for General Use— Specimen Forms of School Registers— Speci- 
men of a Time-Table and Routine of Lessons. 818-825. 

Classification. The Pupil-Teachers. 826, 827. 

School Discipline. Order, etc. 827-331. 



THE 

PfllLOSOPflY OF EDUCATION; 

OB, 

THE PRmCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING. 



INTRODUCTION. 



As man is not only a physical, but also a thinking and an 
accountable being, so therefore education, in its comprehensiYe 
sense, may be yiewed in three aspects— that is, in relation to oar 
physical, intellectual, and moral nature. I here propose to 
consider the last two departments of education ; to determine, 
if iKMssible, the best methods whereby our nature may be edu- 
cated intellectually and morally. The end of all education 
should be, to promote man's happiness, not only during his 
present transitory existence, but throughout the eternity which 
is to follow. 

The principal means of education in this country are-HKhool 
instruction, books, public lectures and discourses, and exhibi- 
tions of works of science and art. But the efficiency of all the 
popular means of education are dependent upon, and in fact 
inseparably connected with, the primary instruction of the 
schoolroom. The treasures of our literature and science are 
inaccessible to him who has not been taught the first rudiments 
of laaguage. Hence it is, that the brilliant productions of tiie 



14 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

poetic genius, or the gigantic creations of the science of any- 
particular age, afford us no data for estimating the state of 
education among the mass of the people of that age.* 

The schoolmaster must begin the work of education. The 
subject of method, therefore, should be treated chiefly in rela- 
tion to the work of the schoolmaster. 

Education is a Science as Well as an Art< — ^Practical 
teachers, as well as the public generally, had, until recently, 
regarded education more as an art than as a science, consisting 
merely of a few arbitrary and empirical rules which may be 
modified or altered to suit the tastes and attainments of the 
teacher, or to answer the opinions and circumstances of the 
managers of schools. This unfortunate prejudice has, no 
doubt, had its origin, to a great extent, in the fact that the 
greater portion of teachers were unfit for their ofl3ce. Few 
minds were capable of viewing education apart from its misera- 
ble and unworthy representatives, or dissociating it from the 
operation of the schools which came within the sphere of their 
own immediate observation. 

Twenty years ago, anybody was considered good enough for 
a schoolmaster. If a tradesman failed in business, he was 
thought to be learned enough for a schoolmaster; a feeble, 
sickly youth, who was not considered strong enough to practise 
any regular trade, was thought to be suflHciently (qualified to 
undertake the duties of school-keeping ; if a mechanic happened 
to get a limb fractured he would, as a matter of course, save 
himself from starvation hj opening n school ; when a man who 
had seen better days applied to the parish officers for out-door 
relief, they gravely debated the question, whether it was more 



* " Long after the brilliant show of talent, and the creation of literary 
supplies for the national use, in the early part of the last century, the 
deplorable mental condition of the people remained in no very great 
degree altered. To pass from beholding that bright and sumptuous dis> 
play in order to see -what there was corresponding to it in the subse- 
quent state of the popular cultivation, is like going out from some mag- 
nificent apartment, with its lustres, music, refections, and assemblage 
of elegant personages, to be beset by beggars in the gloom and cold of a 
winter night.'' 



EDUCATION A3 A SCIENCE, ETC. 15 

expedient to send him to the quany to bieak stonert, or to con- 
fer upon him the office of parish schoolmaster. Such was the 
low estimate formed of the qualifications requisite for a school- 
master. This state of things, doubtless, tended to retard the 
progress of education both as a science and an art, for the 
odium attached to the office, as well as the insufficiency of the 
remuneration, prevented properly qualified persons from under- 
taking the duties. But within the last fifteen years a change 
in public opinion has been graduaUy ta^g place: the working 
and middle classes have been led to see me value of a sound 
elementary education, and thereby to estimate more highly the 
difficulties and importance of the duties of the common- school 
master. This salutary change is in a great measure due to the 
government schemes of education. I confidentlv hope that the 
day is not distant when the force of public opinion wUl elevate 
education into the rank of a recognized science. 

Elementary education has two great ends: 1. To develop 
the intellectual and moral faculties ; or, in other words, to de- 
velop the faculties of the perfect man ; 2. To communicate to 
the pupil that sort of knowledge which is most likely to be 
useful to him in the sphere of life which Providence has 
assigned him.* 

The science of education must be based upon the nature of 
the being to be educated ; that is to say, upon the laws which 
govern the development of the intellectual and moral faculties. 
These laws may be determined as well by observation as by 
psychological analysis. Every faculty of our nature has its 
proper period and peculiar mode of development. 

Now the philosophical educator will always suit his methods 
of instruction to the age of his pupils, or rather to the state of 
the intellectual and moral development of the faculties of his 
pupils ; and he will also administer to them that intellectual ali- 
ment, both as to kind and degree, which is best calculated to 
promote the growth of the faculties at their different stages of 



* The object of education must remain imperfectly defined so long as 
there is not a clearly expressed intention of making the future man or 
woman a moral power by conferring true worth upon the individuaL 
— E.8. 



16 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

deyelopment* Method, and the principles of method, there- 
fore, necessarily become to him distinct and all-important mat- 
ters of inquiry. 

A good teacher, before laying down an|^ plans for the man- 
agement of his school, makes himself acquainted with the 
tempers, habits, capabilities, and attainments of his pupils. 
He then asks himself the two great questions. What shall I 
teach? How shall I teach? He is well aware that these ques- 
tions cannot be satisfactorily answered without a thorough 
knowledge of the nature of tlie beings whom he has to teach, 
as well as a comprehensive acquaintance with the various 
methods whereby instruction may be communicated. 

All artificial and unnatural methods of Instruction, violating 
the laws of mind, necessarily demand the use of unhealthful 
stimulants. There is always a want of organization in schools 
where the plans and methods of the master are framed without 
any regard to the constitution of the human mind, or the pecu- 
liar tempers, tastes, and capabilities of the pupils : such masters 
always blame their pupils for the failures of their system, but 
never seem to be aware that the excellence of a system depends 
upon its adaptation to the intellectual and mond condition of 
these pupils. 

A teacher, who is iffnorant of human nature, is like an en- 
gineer who sets to W0& to erect a bridee before he has made 
himself acquainted with the proi>ertie8 of the material employed 
in the structure ; when his work is completed, he finds, perhaps, 
that the material is ruptured by the pressure, or by ^e expan- 
sion due to heat ; it is true, he might console himself with the 
r^ection that his plan would have been excellent if it had not 
been for the peculiar properties of the material. A wise en- 
gineer would first make himself acquainted with the nature 



* It is a leading idea of the Herbart School of Philosophy that the 
development of the individual proceeds in a line parallel to that progrean 
observable in the history of the development of the human race ; that 
therefore the material for instruction must In each instance be boi^ 
rowed from such stages in the development of the race as correspond 
with the existing mental conditions of the child.— E. S. 



EDUCATION A8 A BCIENCE, ETO. 17 

and properties of his material, and then, knowing the difflcol- 
ties which he would have to encounter, he would provide 
against them accordingly. 

The teacher who is thoroughly acquainted with the laws xe* 
gulating the juvenile mind suits his methods of instruction to 
the soul which he has to rear, and, fully foreseeing the diffi- 
culties which he has to encounter, lays his plans accordingly : 
he is quite prepared to supply strength to what may he weak, 
and to introduce a self -corrective agency to meet any ebullitions 
of temper or wajrwardness of disposition. 

Our ignorance of mental philosophy has hitherto led us into 
various erroneous methods and systems of education. 

The teacher shows an ignorance of the tastes and capabilities 
of the infant mind when he overtasks his juvenile pupils with 
the dull, dry details of technical learning, in the place of com- 
municating to them that kind of knowledge which is best cal- 
culated to foster the development of their peroeptive and ob- 
serving faculties. 

Teachers at one time believed that the first object of primaiy 
instruction is to cultivate the verbal memory of their pupils, 
when, ui fact, the verbal memory is one of the few faculties of 
our nature which need no cultivation. This erroneous opinion 
led to the adoption of the task system : little boys had to com- 
mit to memory frightful columns of spelling, long paragraphs 
of geography, abstract grammatical definitions, declensions of 
nouns, and conjugations of verbs. The debasing system of 
rewards and punishments formed a necessary adjunct to this 
unnatural system of instruction. In this system the cultivation 
of the reasoning powers was entirely disregarded, and the aids 
of philosophical memory, or the faculty of association, were 
never called in requisition. 

The same erroneous opinion of humax^ nature led to the adop- 
tion of the rule and rote system of instruction, whereby the 
pupil had to work out results by formulas and dogmas rather 
than by the independent and healthful exercise of his own rea- 
soning powers. For example, in the teaching of arithmetic 
2 



18 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

and practical geometry, the pupil was required to work out his 
problems by a rule appealing to his memory and simple ap- 
prehension, rather than by the exercise of his own reasoning 
powers. 

These unnatural methods of instruction gave rise to debasing 
systems of discipline. Under a proper system of teaching, 
children rarely require any other motive to attention than the 
pleasure which the acquisition of knowledge affords them ; but 
what natural motive can induce a child to study what is above 
his capacity, or to conunit to memory what he cannot compre- 
hend ? hence the teacher's only resource was to act upon the 
vanity or the fear of his pupils. 

The art of education consists in the practice of its principles. 
It stands in the same relation to the science of education that 
any other art docs to the scientific principles of that art. 

A man may be thoroughly acquainted with the principles of 
any particular art, without being an adept in the practice of 
it ; in order to have this, he must practise the art until he has 
acquired the requisite amount of tact and skill. At the same 
time, it must be observed that the highest amount of skill can 
only be obtained by a thorough knowled^ of the principles of 
the art, combined with the constant application of these princi- 
ples. Thus, for example, a man may be thoroughly acquainted 
with the principles of architectural construction, and yet he 
may not be able to frame a door or to build a shed. 

A man may be intimately acquainted with all the leading 
principles of education, and yet at the same time he may not 
be able to give efficient instruction to a class of little boys. It 
is a lamentable error to suppose that if a man has knowledge 
he must necessarily possess the art of communicating that 
knowledge. In order that a man may become a good teacher, 
he must not only be thoroughly acquainted with the various 
branches of elementary education, and intimately acquainted 
with the great leading scientific principles of education, but 
he must also acquire that tact and skill in the management of 
numbers and classes, and that fluency of diction, power of 
illustration, and facility of availing himself of contingent cir- 



DIVISION OF THE SUBJECT. 19 

cumstances, which can only be attained by long practice and 
patient study. 

The art of education, without a due regard to its science, de- 
generates into empiricism ; and the science, without the prac- 
tice of the art, becomes little better than a code of barren ab- 
stractions without the vital principle of development. The 
philosophy of education should go hand in hand with the 
practice of it : every step of advance taken by the one should 
be followed by a corresponding progress of the other ; philoso- 
phy should suggest plans and theories, art should test them 
and try them ; philosophy should build up a structure of gen- 
eral principles and rules, art should supply the facts—the ma- 
terials—by which, and upon which, this structure should be 
reared. 

Division of the Subject. 

The philosophy of education may be divided into five parts : 

1. On method as applied to education. 

2. On the cultivation of the iDtellectual and moral faculties. 
8. On the comparative advantages of different systems and 

methods of education. 

4. On the application of different systems and methods to 
the various branches of elementary education. 

6. On school organization and discipline. 



20 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



Pabt L 
ON METHOD AS APPLIED TO EDUCATION.* 



CHAPTER I. 

METHODS A3U} ST8TBMS OF INBTBUGTIOK — DBFINITION OF 

TEBMS. 

Diflferent Methods and Syntenu of Bducation. — By a 
METHOD of Education is meant the i)eculiar way in which a sub- 
ject is taught ; and by a system is meant those peculiar arrange- 
ments, both as to organization and modes of teaching, whereby 
instruction generally may be given to the pupils of a school. 
A system is the development of a method applied to certain 
objects. 



* It would seem that preyious to idl consideration of method the ob- 
ject and the aims of education should be clearly presented. For the 
method must depend, 1, upon the object we have in view ; S, upon the 
possibility of attaining that object ; 3, upon the nature of the subj*'ct 
that is to be educated. Nations, religions, and ages have differed re- 
specting the object of education. It is also important that the possi- 
bility of moulding the child^s mind and character should be demon- 
strated. The limits of this pliability should also be pointed out, and the 
fact that with the advancing years the child*s nature assumes more firm- 
ness and as it approaches maturity opposes further attempts to direct 
and mould its mind. Finally, the selection of a method must be preceded 
by a consideration of man^s moral and psychical nature, as it must con- 
form to the laws governing this mental and moral development. Tate 
speaks of this time and again, but in connection with other tiioughts ; so 
that the subject does not assume the important place which in truth 
belongs to it.— E. S. 



SYNrHESlS AND ANALYSIS. 21 

A difference of opinion at present exists relative to the use of 
the term ' ' meUiod" as applied to education. According to some 
writers, method simply means the way in which a subject of 
instruction may he treated ; so that there are only two methods 
of education, namely. Synthesis and Analysis. Such a restric- 
tive use of the term is not only based on a contracted view of 
the subject, but it does not give the entire conception usually 
associated with the term. We use the term in a more compre- 
hensive sense : A method of teaching comprehends, not mere- 
ly Uie way in which the subject-matter is treated, but also the 
means, artiflces, forms of expression, etc., that are employed 
in conveying instruction to a class of children in a common 
school. 

There are two great methods whereby a subject may be 
treated, viz. , Synthesis and Analysib. By the former method 
we put the parts of a subject together ; by the latter we take 
the subject-matter to pieces. The method of synthesis is the 
method of nmucTiON, whereby we ascend step by step from 
the simple to the complex—from the particular to the general 
formula ; the method of analysis is the method of deduction, 
whereby we descend from the abstract principle to the various 
particular forms which it comprehends. 

As both methods are employed in the discovery of truth, so 
both methods may be used in me exposition of truth. The cx- 
perimentaUst may show the composition of water synthetically 
by holding a tumbler over the flame of a candle (or a flame of 
hydrogen gas), at the same time calling attention to the moisture 
that is formed on the interior surface of the glass; or, more ex- 
actly, by detonating, by means of the electric spark, the proper 
mixture of hydrogen and oxygen: in these experiments water 
is formed by the combination of its elements. He may also 
show the composition of water analytically by means of the 
galvanic batteiy; ui this case the poles of the battery analyze 
or decompose the water, that is, reduce it to its simple elements, 
the hydrogen being attracted by the one pole, and the oxygen 
by the other. We teach arithmetic deductively, or analytically, 
when we lay down a general rule and require our pupils to 
work out the particular example by that rule, for ui this case 
we proceed from the general formula to the particular example 
— from the abstract principle to its special application. On the 
contrary, we teach arithmetic inductively, or synthetically, 
when we proceed at once to work out, step by step, the particu- 



22 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

lar example from certain simple, known elementary principles, 
without taking any abstract rule for granted: in tnis case Hie 
pupils are led to prove the role for themselves. 

The method of synthesis is constbuctiyb; by this method 
the skilful teacher builds up thought upon thought — truth 
upon truth — ^until his pupils have, almost insensibly, acquired 
a vast accumulation of knowledge. I have called the method 
of synthesis a constbuctive method, because it is analogous 
to the way in which mechanical contrivances are completed: 
thus, the ingenious builder lays stone upon stone, beam upon 
beam, until he has reared a vast and beautiful structure, excit- 
ing, it may be, the wonder and admiration of the world: in 
this way, too, surprising results may be attained in education. 
Synthesis may be called a suggestive method of instruction; 
because it is progressive, proceeding, step by step, from the 
known to the unknown, — ^from the simple to ^e complex. 

By far the larger number of the great physical laws of nature 
were discovered by induction, and even many of our leading 
mathematical theorems and principles were established by the 
same process. Kow if it be true (and we have reason to believe 
that it is true) that the method of exposition ^ould correspond 
to the method of discovery, it follows that the method of in- 
duction or synthesis is, for the most part, the more eligible 
for primary instruction. At the same time, it must be obK 
served, that there are certain subjects of knowledge which may 
be efficiently taught by the method of analysis. But this sub- 
ject will hereafter receive a more adequate consideration. 

The methods of synthesis and analysis may be either demon- 
btbative or dogmatic. When the teacher uses the former 
method of communicating knowledge, he addresses the observ- 
ing and reasoning faculties of his pupils, who believe in what 
is communicated to them because they see it to be true, or be- 
cause they can prove it to be true. On the contrary, when he 
uses the latter method, he appeals to the memory and faith of 
his pupils, who, in this case, believe in what is communicated 
to them simply on the testimony of their teacher— they believe 
because their teacher says so. 



DIFFERENT METHODS AND SYSTEMS. 23 

Demonstrative teaching embraces all those plans and artifices 
whereby a knowledge of principles may be more or less com- 
pletely communicated to ^e pupils: on the other hand, dog- 
matic teaching gives rules and formula in the place of principles 
and investigations. 

Besides these general methods of teaching, there are certain 
modes or artifices which have regard to the peculiar form or 
way in which the knowledge is communicatea. 

The INTERBOOATIVE METHOD tcaches by question and an- 
swer; it may be used simply for reproducing the knowledge 
which has been already commimicated to the pupU, or it may 
be used in connection with Uie principle of suggestion; and 
then it assumes the form of an important instrument of intel- 
lectual culture, which may be called the sueaBSTrvB method 

OF INTBBBOOATIOK. 

The ELLIPTICAL form of instruction requires the pupils to 
fill up certain blanks or ellipses, which the teacher intentionally 
leaves in his discourse. This form of instruction is only a 
slight modification of the suggestive method already mentioned. 
In both methods the teacher and his pupils carry on a sort of 
tite-d-tiie lecture. 

In the SDCULTANEOUB form of instruction, the pupils are 
supi)06ed to give simultaneous responses to the teacher's ques- 
tions or suggestions. This simple artifice has been sometimes 
confounded with the collective system of instruction, with 
which it is necessarily associated. 

The iLLnsTRATivE METHOD couslsts in conveying a knowl- 
edge of abstruse things, or even ordinary things, by means of 
illustrations addressed to the senses or to the imagination of 
the learner. 

The LECTUBmo method consists in giving the lesson in the 
form of a continuous lecture, all questions on the subject of the 
lesson being deferred until it is finished. 

A combination of any of these methods may be called a 
BOXED method of instruction. 

The method generally employed by good elementary teachers, 
as shall be herSifter shown, is generally a combination of the 



24 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

demonstrative and the ff^nthetiCi while that which is usually 
adopted by slugeish and careless masters is a combination of 
the dogmatic ana the analytic. 

There are two leading systems of teaching at present in use 
which have regard to number or organization : the one may be 
called the collectiye system of teaching, which consists in 
the teaching of a considerable number at one time; the other 
the INDIVIDUAL SYSTEM of .teaclung, which consists in the 
teaching of one pupil at a time. 

The PUFiL-TEACHEB system, which has been recentiy intro- 
duced into this country, may be regarded as forming an essen- 
tial part of the coUective system of teaching as it is at present 
practised in our elementary schools. The pupil-teachers arc 
supposed to follow the same plan of teaching as their master, 
and under his supervision. 

The MONiTOKiAL SYSTEM of Lancaster and Bell contains the 
essential features of the system of pupil -teachers; but with this 
important difference, that whilst the monitor is merely a boy 
selected by the master from the pupils in his school, the fupil- 
TEACHEB is a paid ofiScial recognized by her Majesty's In- 
spectors, and who is time after time examined by them, and 
receives regular instruction from the master in all the duties of 
school-keeping, with the view of fitting him for the discharge 
of his immediate duties, and also with the view of preparing 
him for the profession of schoolmaster. 

The SYSTEM OF HOME INSTRUCTION conslsts in assigning to 
the pupils certain lessons or exercises to be studied or completed 
at home. This system may be combined with either of the two 
leading systems just described. 

The TRIPARTITE SYSTEM, first proposcd by Professor Moseley, 
has received its name from the architectural arrans^ements of 
the school. In this svstem the schoolroom is divided into three 
apartments, in one of which the master is supposed to teadi all 
the classes in rotation. The leading object of this plan is to 
bring all the children in the school under the direct instruction 
of the master, and to coimtei-act undue noise. 

A combination of any of these systems may be called a mixed 
SYSTEM of instruction. 

The word method signifies a way of transit, or the way of 
passing from one thing to another. According to the philo- 
sophical acceptation of the term, it comprehends the idea of 
unity, associated with progression, or a succession of uniform 
sequences. To arrive at this idea, we must exercise the f acul 
ties of al^traction, by which we view manj things as one; by 
which we contemplate not facts only, but likewise the relations 



IMPOBTAKCS OF MSTHOD, 25 

of facts: by which we recognize the law which connects these 
relations. 

The comparatiye advantages and defects of the different 
methods and systems of teaching will be hereafter more fully 
considered. 



CHAPTER n. 



DfFOBTAKCB OF MBTHOD — ^HIBTOBY OF MBTHOD— FBBSENT 

coNDinoK Ain> futhbb fbogbess of education— phi- 

LOBOPHT OF METHOD. 

Importance of Method. — ^There is method in Education. 
It is a dangerous error to suppose that any man may teach if 
he has only the requisite amount of attainments. Can it be 
possible that the art of training and developing the various 
faculties, emotions, and principles of an immortal and ac- 
countable soul is the only art which we have by intuition ? Is 
the destiny of the noblest creation of God, the inmiaterial, the 
thinking, the undying principle, fashioned after his own im- 
age, to be intrusted to the care of him who has never studied 
the vast and complex relations of the task which he under- 
takes, and who, in the impious pride of self-sufficiency, de- 
spises the accumulated experience of those who have spent 
their lives in the work of teaching, and have borne unmistak- 
able testimony to the difficulties which have beset them at 
every step in the discharge of their sacred duties ? 

Method in Art, — There is method in Art : the builder and 
the machinist, the manufacturer, the sculptor, the painter, all 
complete their constructions and fabrications on the principles 
and methods which embody the results of vast experience, and 
which have been their constant study for^ithe whole period of 
their lives. 

Method in Science. — ^There is method in Science : there was a 
want of. method when the philosophers of antiquity affirmed 
that air and water were elementary bodies, that the. celestial 



26 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

bodies moTcd in circles, of which the earth occupied the cen- 
tre, and that water rose in the barrel of the common pump 
from Nature's horror of a vacuum ; and even in more recent 
times the same want of method was shown when Descartes 
affirmed that the planetary bodies floated in a whirlpool of 
ether. Who can estimate tne marvellous change that has been 
effected by the philosophy of method first proposed by Bacon ? 
Nature, as if at the touch of the enchanter's wand, yielded up 
her treasures of knowledge ; physical science, after the death- 
like slumber of a^, sprung into vifforous existence ; and 
even in our own time, under the ^ioance of this method, 
mind has achieved the most despotic dominion over matter; 
new sciences have been bom, far surpassing in utility, beauty, 
and grandeur all tliat had been accumulated throughout the 
past history of humanity. 

Me^iod m Poetry, — Poetry also has its method. So remark- 
able is this method, that a grrat poet will by a single word — an 
idear— open to us a whole series of relations and conditions. 
In speaking of the stvle of Shakespeare, Coleridge observes : 
" Wno, like him, could so methodically suit the very flow and 
tone of discourse to characters lying so widely apart, in rank 
and habits and peculiarities, as Holofemes and Queen Eathe- 
rine, Falstaff and Lear. When we compare the pure English 
style of Shakespeare with that of the very best writers of his 
day, we stand astonished at the medhoa by which he was 
directed in the choice of those words and idioms, which are as 
fresh now as in their first bloom ; nay, which are at the pres- 
ent moment at once more energetic, more expressive, more 
natural, and more elegant than those of the happiest and most 
admired living speakers or writers." 

Method in Oratory, — There is method in Oratory. Who has 
not felt the power of Oratory ? Whence does this power proceed ? 
An eloquent public speaker must always possess method ; he 
may be without techmcal learning, and even without those re- 
finements of manner and diction which usually constitute a 
gentlemau ; he may be without the prestige of rank, or wealth, 
or party, and even without those conventional literary or sci- 
entific titles which are too often accepted as the badges of 
8ui)erior intellect, or as the passports to distinction and power ; 
yet there is something in him which rises superior to all these 
disadvantages, — ^theie is method, based upon a knowledge of 
the tastes and ruling passions of his audience, which charms 
and captivates them by its beauty, convinces them by its exact- 
ness and transparency, and overawes them by its depth and 
power. Banning with a simple detail of facts, he general- 



IMPORTANCE Of METHOD. g7 

izes, abstracts, and draws conclusions ; with a constant regard 
to the final impression which he wishes to produce, he sees 
from the first what will be the effect of each successive step ; 
all nature is tasked to supply him with illustrations and analo- 
gies'—youthful Spring with his freshness and his song, or 
golden Autumn with her stores of fruit and her sheaves of 
com ; lovely Summer with her flowers and her sunlight, or stem 
Winter with bis storms and his shadows ; the air, the earth, 
the ocean, the dread magnificence of heaven —all may be in- 
voked to lend power and enchautment to his discourse ; from 
the world about him he rises to the world of thought.— from 
the visible to the invisible, — and there finds new materials for 
argument and persuasion ; having connected argument with 
argument, and added illustration to illustration, he sums up 
the accumulated evidence, in order that it may fall with the 
greatest effect upon the minds of his audience, and that they 
mav be convinced of the truth of the leading conception, the 
end and aim of his discourse. In all this there is unity with 
variety, but it is the variety which arises out of unity, — this 
all-pervading idea constitutes the method. The intdlectual 
faculties which characterize the orator are very nearly allied to 
those which arc requisite for forming the distinguished teacher. 
Method in Nature.— 'EYerythmg in nature has its peculiar 
method of development ; and this development may, in almost 
every case, be aided and improved by ibe judicious applica- 
cation of the principles of this method. A grain of com when 
thrown into the soil will germinate and grow, and bud, and 
ripen into seed, without the special care of man ; but all these 
processes would be very much aided and improved by the ap- 
plication of the methods which agricultural chemistry has dis- 
covered. Just so it is with the germ of intelli^nce— the im- 
material principle. It seeks to develop itself— it germinates, 
grows, and blossoms, and ripens and expands into developed 
mtelligence, without the application of any artificial means ; 
but the intelligence thus developed without the aid of culture 
is that of the savage, not that of the perfect man, capable of 
actinff and thinking in accordance with reason, and in con- 
formity with the law of his Creator. 

It is trae, that many men are bom with a predilection for 
teaching, and seem to qualify themselves for the discharge of 
its duties with comparatively little study or reflection. Such 
teachers are exceptions to the rule ; and there can be little 
doubt, that even they would have been vastly benefited by a 



28 PBILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Study of method as applied to teaching. It is said that Pascal 
was bom a Geometer, but it is very questionable whether we 
should ever have heard his name had his genius not been cul- 
tivated and developed by a systematic course of instruction. 
So it is with education : Uie most distinguished teachers are to 
be found amongst those who have shown a predilection for 
the work, and whose minds have been at the same time con- 
stantly directed to a study of methods of education. 

Before a man can become a distinguished teacher he must 
have method : all that he has seen, or experienced, or read, 
relative to the nature of the being to be educated, must have 
assumed the form of a substantial unity—an idea— an all-per- 
vading law, which connects relations apparently the most dis- 
similar, and gives oneness and harmony to the most heteroge- 
neous mass of facts and conditions ; which constitutes his 
exponent of the past, and the symbol of that calculus which is 
to enable him to solve every problem which may arise in the 
future ; which iiwolves all his past experience, and out of 
which he must evolve his conduct in the future ; which sheds 
a light over the path that lies behind him, and becomes the 
polar star to guide him in his voyage on the dark and shoreless 
ocean that lies before him. No language can adequately trans- 
mit that idea— that method — ^to other minds ; for it is in him 
merely the key-note with which is associated a long train of 
harmonious combinations and sequences : it exists in him 
alone, and for him alone, and before others can stand on the 
same vantage-ground with him, they must give the same 
patient attention to the philosophy of method, and submit 
themselves to the same strict process of self-examination and 
self- development. 

We repeat that no man ever yet became a great teacher until 
method had become to him a living and substantial reality. 
This method may, and no doubt does, assume forms suited to 
the intellectual and moral qualities of each individual, even 
accommodating itself to the idiosyncrasy of each, and the vary- 
ing external conditions and circumstances of each ; but the 



HISTORY OF METHOD. 29 

grand features of this method, like the elements of our physi- 
cal and moral constitution, will be the same in all. 

A Oianee ai the Mstory of Medhod.—^ocnXeR was not a great 
geometer, but he gave a method of philosophy which &ter- 
mined the character of the schools of antiquity ; and the cate- 
chetical form in which hegave his instruction has been distin- 
guished by his name. Euclid prolxftbly never discovered a 
single proposition of geometry ; but he gave us the idea and 
form of a synthetic method which has shed an efi^ilgence of 
light on the path of philosophy, and which will endure as long 
as there is a human soul to thmk, a sdenco to be cultivated, or 
a law of nature to be discovered. Bacon made no discovery in 
mathematics, nor did he add one fact to our stock of physical 
knowledge ; but he effected a greater purpose — he gave us Uie 
method of universal philosophy : what the one did lor a shigle 
department of abstract science, the other achieved for imiversal 
knowledge. Newton was a great discoverer in every depart- 
ment of mathematical and physical science ; but he also gave us, 
in his "Principia," the embodiment of a synthetic method of 
teaching mixed mathematics which will probably co-exist with 
the law of gravitation itself. Archimedes was also a great dis- 
coverer, but, in a certain sense, his genius died wi^ him ; he 
did nothing to perpetuate himself, for he had no recognized 
method, and bequeathed to posterity no creative principle be- 
yond the isolated facts and propositions which he discovered ; 
his mind was essentially individual, and his contempt for con- 
crete science, which his mind was eminently qualified to adorn, 
caused the secret of his power to die with him. 

History of Method in Belation to Primary Educa/tion. — ^The 
ancient classical nations did nothing for primary education ; 
they established splendid schools of philosophy for their young 
men, but left the instruction of their children to slaves, or neg- 
lected it altogether ; and during Uie middle ages — the epoch of 
chivalry — ^the only schoolroom was the cell of the monk or the 
cave of the anchorite. And what was the state of education 
after the Reformation ? From the xmdue reverence with which 
the works of antiquity were regarded, education began with 
the classics, and for the moSt part ended with them. Poetry 
was clothed in the garment of heatiien mythology, and even 
our philosophy was more engaged with the history of what was 
false than with the investigation of what was true. Education 
became a series of tasks — the memory was enthroned over all 
the other powers of ttie mind—reason, invention, and the prin- 
ciple of self -development we^ disregarded ; and under this 



30 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

unnatural and unphiloeophical system, a great rMmory and a 
ffreat mind became almost synonymous terms. This method 
was analytic and dogmatic, for its main element consisted in 
giving a knowledge of rules and words rather than things— of 
names rather tlmn positive ideas. Although the leading prin- 
ciples of primary education are contained m the great work of 
the father of inductive philosophy, yet it wouLa appear that 
their importance was neither felt nor acknowledged oy his im- 
mediate followers. 

The distinguished philosopher Locke was the first who dis- 
covered that the chief business of primary education is to de- 
velop the faculties of the child ; that, as the first ideas of 
children are derived from sensation, so the perceptive faculties 
should be the first cultivated or developed ; and that verbal 
memory is almost the only intellectual power which does not 
admit of being improved by education. Locke's method of 
education was a corollary to his metaphysical philosophy. It 
was synthetic and demonstrative — ^its main element being the 
development of the intellectual powers and moral feelings 
through the instrumentality of thiugs or subjects which might 
be known and understood by the child. The method of Locke 
soon became recognized throughout Europe and America. The 
author of "Emile,"in France, became its most enlightened 
and most eloquent expositor; and Pestalozzi, in Germany, 
carried it into practice, followed it out in all its details, and 
gave the spiritual essence a substantial form — '* a local habita- 
tion and a name." But in the fatherland of the great metaphy- 
sician his method remained for more than a century a dead 
letter, and even till very recently the methods which he ex- 
posed and denounced held an imdisputed dominion in the edu- 
cation of the people in this country. But we have accepted 
from the hands of the pupil what we would not receive from 
the hand of the master ; and we have unwittingly become the 
followers of Pestalozzi, when we might have been the disciples 
of our own immortal Locke. But why speak of the coimtry 
of Locke? Great men have no country ~ they belong to 
humanity. 



HISTORY OF METHOD, 81 

To descend to more matter of -fact, bat not len instructive 
forms of method : Joseph Lancaster and Dr. Bell contributed 
to the development of method as applied to primary education, 
when they established the monitonaj system. No doubt it had 
long beat observed, that the older boys might, under certain 
circumstances, be advantageously employed to teach the 
younger ones ; but the idea of organizing such a plan, so as to 
make it applicable to our common national schools, belongs to 
these men. The errors and defects of this system are apparent : 
its efficiency is subsidiary to, and dependent upon, more com- 
prehensive views of method ; it ignores the eaucation of the 
master as well as that of the monitors ; and necessity rather 
than choice leads to the adoption of these monitors, whose tem- 
porary functions, imposed upon them by their master, are re- 
linquished at a time when their skill is tieginning to be useful. 
Whatever may have been the defects of this system, it contained 
an idea which obviously suggested the adoption of the appren- 
ticeship system, or the syi^^ of pupil-teachers. The moni- 
torial system was a measure of economy, adopted to mitigate 
an existing evU— to give the best education to tiie greatest num- 
ber of children at the least possible cost. At best it could be 
regarded only as preliminary to some more complete system. 
Now, while the apprenticeship system embodies this principle 
of economy, it recognizes at the same time an important prin- 
ciple in the philosophy of method, viz., that the art of teaching, 
like other arts, can only be acquired by practice and an emy 
attention to the most approved forms of communicating our 
ideas to others. In order that a man may become a joiner, or 
any other kind of mechanic, he is apprenticed, at an early 
age, to a man who is master of that particular art ; so, in order 
that a man may become a teacher, he should be apprenticed, 
at an early age, to a schoolmaster who is thoroughly master of 
his work. This apprenticeship system, taken m connection 
with the system of inspection, and the establishment of training 
colleges for schoolmasters, must be regarded as the greatest 
measure which has ever been proposed for the education of a 
people. In these schemes we observe the recognition of the 
miportance of method. Universities may make scholars, 
divines, and philosophers ; but they cannot train schoolmasters. 
It is the peculiar province of the professors of our training col- 
leges to effect this, by expounding the principles of education 
in relation to methods of teaching, by showing the application 
of these methods in the actual management of a sdiool, and 
by communicating that kind of knowledge whidb is best cal- 
culated to render the teacher useful in his profession. When 



82 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

the Committee of Council on Education published their Ti in- 
uteB of 1846, they virtually announced to the world that there 
was METHOD IN EDUCATION, and that no man could become a 
trulv useful teacher without a knowledge of that method. Acts 
of Parliament, or legislative engines, cannot of themselves mi^e 
men virtuous and religious; but it is legitimately within the 
range of their power to decree that Ignorance, which is the 
most fruitful source of vice and irreligion, shall exist no 
longer. 

This government system of education is not in all respects 
what llie practical educator could wish ; but we may hope that 
experience, aided by a careful induction of facts, will in time 
correct what is wrong and improve what is defective. 

Jean Paul Hichter asks, ** What have the political vowels 
of Europe — ^the English— done for education ?" We answer, 
almost everything! Our mat metaphysicians first gave the 
true philosophy of method ; we first adopted the monitorial 
and infant-school systems ; and although we have been slow to 
combine and improve all that we had discovered, we have at 
length organized a system of national education which bids 
fair to become the most efilcient that has ever been proposed. 

Present Condition of Education, — In taking a view of the 
state of education in this country, we have much to congratu- 
late ourselves upon. We have been silently progressing; 
methods of education have been improving step by step ; but, 
at the same time, we must confess that we have not yet arrived 
at the ne plits ultra. Still much lies before us to be effected. 
Many educational prejudices want to be swept awav, and 
many new principles require to be introduced. Notwithstand- 
ing, we ought to feel gratified, and to congratulate ourselves 
upon what has been done, as it gives us the hope that some- 
thing more will yet be done. We live in an age of progress : 
no brandi of human knowledge but is advancing— ay, with 
an accelerated motion. In our own times new sciences have 
been created— new departments of art have been brought to 
bear on all conditions of society. The mighty power of steam 
has been developed in our own tune. Everything around us 
has been advancing ; and education should advance with the 
advancement of society. 

Educators may be aivided into two classes. There is the 
conservative educator, and there is the educational reformer. 
TTie conservative educator, like the conservative politician, 
would wish eveiTthing to remain as it is and as it has been. 
The education of fif ty'years past ought to be the education of 
the present period. Things have gone on well enough in the 



THE BACONIAN PHILOSOPHY, 83 

past, and why should they not do the same hi the faturo ? 
Sach is the view of these educational conservatiyes. They may 
yield a little to the pressure of puhlic opinion ; hut BtiU the 
principle remains unchanged in their hearts. They may ad- 
mit, when they are compelled to express themselves, that the 
education of the people will not tend to the subversion of gov- 
ernment, and in sudi things as that they will ffo along with 
you ; but still in their hearts they are conservative in relation 
to the advancement of education. The other class, the ^uca- 
tional reformers, advocate utility and progress. They would 
not only have us improve our educational methods, but they 
would have more of Uie principle of utility introduced into our 
schools. They would not have the boys in our national schools 
taught things that are merely curious, or things merely 
to gratify the prejudices of particular individuals ; but they 
would have them taught those things that will bear upon the 
future pursuits of life. We have not yet attained to that. We 
still, in many of our schools, go on with the old routine — read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic, with the addition, ad libitum^ of cate- 
chisms and formularies. There is something monotonous and 
deadening to the intellectual faculties in many of the schools 
belonging to the conservative educators. Day after day the 
same dull routine goes on. Oh I how the monotony of the 
dull routine deadens the faculties of the children, and not only 
of the children, but of the educator I It' is a well-known fact, 
from the statistics of insanity, that in those countries where 
the pursuits of men are most monotonous, there we find the 
greatest prevalence of insanity. It appears, therefore, that it 
IS the monotony of the pursuits that produces the insanity ; 
and we cannot wonder that the intellectual faculties of such 
schoolmasters should retrograde, instead of advance, nor can 
we wouder that the children, constituted as they are bv their 
good and great Creator with faculties which would lead them 
to look auer knowledge in many forms in which it could be 
found in the world around them, should be uninterested in the 
dull routine in which they are engaged. 

The Baconian Philosophy considered in relation to Mod- 
em Education. — Bacon was one of the most enlightened educa- 
tors that ever appeared on the earth— for his philosophy was as 
f uUy applicable to the advancement of education as to the de 
velopment of the experimental sciences. The spirit of the 
Baconian philosophy may be characterized by two words— 

UTILITY and PB0GHB8S. 

8 



34 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

The ancient philosophy was stationary, because it disdained 
to be useful. It propounded imposing abstract themies which 
had little or no bearing upon the actual condition of man in 
society : It took its aim at the stars, and therefore hit nothing : 
It speculated about virtue and happiness, but added nothing 
to the comforts or enjo^ents of human existence: it pro- 
fessed to reform and enlighten the world, but left it as aark 
and degraded as it ever had been : It was a sort of intellectual 
gymnasium, in which the intellectual faculties were exercised ; 
but this intellectual action yielded no work — no fruit— as 
regards the progress of society ; the mind revolved in a circle 
of speculative theories ; the starting-point of to-day became 
the goal of to-morrow ; there was motion, but no progress. 
The command given by this philosophy was " Mark time I" 
and thus for two thousand years the human intellect continued 
to mark time. The father of the inductive philosophy gave 
the command *' Advance I" and society, obedient to this com- 
mand, has multiplied a thousandfold its resources of enjoy- 
ment and happiness. This philosophy was practical : it at- 
tempted nothing which could not be accomplished ; it aimed 
at a plain tangible mark, and hit it. It sought to improve the 
sciences by aidvancing the arts. It took the common-sense 
method of induction, which had from time immemorial been 
successfully followed by the artisan, as the great instrument 
for advancing philosophy. Its object was tjtilitt, and its 

end FBOGRBSS. 

It is not generally known or generally acknowledged that 
Bacon's philosophy, as an inductive philosophy, was really 
derived from the workshop. The inductive principle had 
been practised for ages by the workman in his various pro- 
cesses of art. This was thought unworthy of attention by the 
philosopher of the platonic schools ; but Bacon saw that under 
this inductive principle the arts had advanced, while the 
sciences, then so called, had remained stationary ; and his own 
strong common-sense showed him that the principle which ad- 
vance the arts might also advance universal science. 

Let us see how the Baconian philosophy applies to modem 
education ? According to this philosophy, utility and prog- 
ress should characterize all our methods of education. To 
secure progress, we should aim at what is practicable and use- 
ful. Until within the last twenty years, the platonic philos- 
ophy infested all our systems of education. The inductive 
philosophy, which created new sciences, and infused fresh 



THE BACONIAN PHILOSOPHY. 85 

vitality into the old ones, left our educational systema aa it 
found them— all but worthless as regards the education of the 
people of a great commercial, scientiQc, manufacturing, and 
engineering nation. In our middle and higher class schools, 
the languages of the ancients, the logic of the andeots, and 
the geometry of the ancients, formed the great subjects of 
school instruction ; whilst practical science, general knowledge, 
and nearly all those subjects which bear directly upon the in- 
terests of man as an active and a thinking agent, were virtually 
ignored. This system even failed to accomplish the con- 
tracted end which it had in view. It professed to exercise 
and strengthen the intellectual faculties ; but the only faculty 
which it could strengthen, admitting that to be possible, waa 
memory. To remember, rodte, and admire what the ancients 
had done, was the highest end which it proposed. It there- 
fore produced a race of slavish imitators, and not a race of 
original, vigorous, and practical thinkers. Facts, and the in- 
duction of facts, were deemed unworthy of their platonic 
philosophy. 

But Bacon taught, in his philosophy, that the powers of 
memory can do little towards the advancement of science. He 
ranks the achievements of memory with the exhibitions of the 
moimtebank : ''The two performances are of much the same 
sort. The one is an abuse of the powers of the body ; the other 
is an abuse of the powers of the mind. Both may excite our 
wonder ; but neither is entitied to our respect." Locke, the 
great metaphysician, also advocated the same view at a sub- 
sequent period. 

By some educators geometry was considered to suffer a 
degradation whenever its al]»tract demonstrations were com- 
bined with more simple modes of exposition, or whenever it 
vTas applied to the business of life, — its essential and eternal 
truths were vitiated by the association. This opinion obtains 
veiy largely amongst a certain class of educators, even at the 
present day. " TaKe care ; do not simplify your geometry ; do 
not attempt to give your children any common-sense definitions 
of geometrical trums, otherwise you will vitiate the eternal, 
immutal^e truths of geometry. You must begin with Euclid, 



36 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

and you must end with Euclid." Men that speak loudly in 
praise of Bacon as the father of modem philosophy will never 
tell you about this— that he exposed the systems of education 
which they are now employing in the education of the people 
of this country. 

Bacon taught that geometry, as well as all the other branches 
of mathematics, was valuable as a branch of education only so 
far as it contributed to supply the wants of society ; and that 
such practical applications, so far from detracting from the 
discipline which it gave the mind, in reality made that dis- 
cipline more forcible and complete. He viewed mathematics 
as an instrument for the extension of art and science, and con- 
sidered that it should be studied not as an end, but as a means 
to an end, without which the study would be, in a great meas- 
ure, fruitless. 

In short, like the platonic philosophy, the aim of the educa- 
tion of the middle and higher class schools was to raise nuin 
above the influence of vulgar wants. The principle of utility 
and progress would lead us to conclude that the education of 
the boy should fit and prepare him for discharging the duties 
of the man. But what did the collegiate-trained aristocratic 
teacher care for the duties and interests of the carpenter, the 
wheelwright, the engine-builder, or the scientific experimen- 
talist? Their pursuits were altogether foreign to his education 
and association; of their habits of thought he knew nothing, 
and cared as little ; between him and them there was an im- 
passable gulf ; he lived in a quiescent world of abstractions ; 
they lived in a world of action and progress. How could the 
one become the educator of the other? 

Interest quickens man's perceptions, and invigorates his in- 
tellectual powers. The artisan works out his results chiefly by 
inductive processes of reasoning, because he finds the highest 
degree of certainty, and a sufficient degree of exactness in the 
method, and performs his inductions well and carefully, for 
his interest depends upon his deductions. Hence it was, that 
whilst philosophy remained stationary, the arts went on pro- 
gressing. Bacon observed this, and therefore recommended 
the inductive process for the advancement of philosophy. 



THE BACONIAN PHILOSOPHY, 87 

What the artisans had performed successfully on a limited 
scale, he proposed to employ in the advancement of universal 
science. Thus Bacon's philosophy was horrowedfrom the work- 
shop; and what he did for science, we may now do for educa- 
tion : we must harrow from the workshop by adopting in our 
schools, more or less, those processes of reasoning, habits of 
thought, and peculiar modes of self -instruction employed by 
our practical men. 

If the great intellect of Bacon could condescend to borrow 
from the workshop, why should we be ashamed of borrowing 
from the same source? But yet so it is. Talk to some of our 
professional men — it may be our lawyers, or our clergymen — 
about borrowing ideas and taking hints from the working- 
man : they woula smile at you with contempt, and say, *' Can 
men who have had a college education obtain any information 
from persons of the lowly class, whose education has been 
altogetiier neglected?" Ay, neglected, to be sure ; neglected so 
far as the schools in which these men had been placed in their 
childhood are considered ; but those workmen, when they left 
the schools, had to commence a course of self -education ; and 
that self -education has had its results ; that self -education makes 
the Eng:lish workman what he is— the pride of his country, the 
most smlful artisan of the world. 

Notwithstanding all that has been done for primary educa- 
tion within the last twenty years, we are still very far from 
having realized the Baconian condition of utility and progress. 

We are still under the dominion of abstract theories of edu- 
cation consecrated by great names, and sanctioned and patron- 
ized by great societies. That philosophy is false, and not less 
hatefiil than it is false, which arrests the progress of knowledge 
by extinguishing the spirit of inquiry, and destroying freedom 
of thought and action. The platonic philosophy enslaved the 
human mind for two thousand years, and during that long 
period it produced no fruit, because it superseded inductive 
processes of inquiry by laying down theoretic dogmas and sub- 
lime philosophic fictions. Bacon emancipated the human mind 
from this degrading and enfeebling slavery. He showed man- 
kind that the inductive method would lead them to new truths, 
far exceeding in brilliancy and utility anything which the 
ancient gods of philosophy, whom the people had blindly wor- 
shipped, had ever discovered. It is not necessary to say how 



88 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIOK 

wonderfully this prediction has been fulfilled. ThuB our 

Platonic theories of education must one day fall before the 

inductive method of inquiry. 

In moral questions there is perhaps no such thing as abso- 
lute certainly. Moral eyidence has little in common with 
mathematical evidence ; and the inductive method of lesearoh 
is in many respects widely different from the analytic method, 
by which we demonstrate abstract truths. In tne inductive 
sciences, such as education, we seem only to approximate to 
truth. A question in education cannot be solved in the same 
manner as a problem in geometry. We can hardlv ever say 
that we have actually arrived at the absolute truth ; but we ap- 

§ roach nearer and nearer to it, according as we extend our in- 
uctive processes. The truth lies in the asymptote of a curve, 
towards which we are always approaching, but which we may 
never absolutely reach. At the same time our approximations 
have always the stamp of utility, for thev are practically true; 
that is, they are true as far as the actual wants of society are 
concerned. The inductive method never puts a stop to further 
inquiry : it is itself progressive, and recognizes the principle of 
progress. It gives no divine revelation : on the contrary, it 
appeals to reason, and challenges further inquiry. Watt con- 
cluded, from his experiments, that the sum of the latent and 
sensible heat of steam was a constant quantity : this, although 
not found by subsequent experimentalists to be strictly true, 
was nevertheless a grand approximation to truth, which con- 
ducted lum to those magnificent inventions which have changed 
the destinies of the world. The same spirit should be adopted 
in relation to the development of our methods of education. 

The inductive method has already done something for the 
progress of education, but its importance is not yet sufficiently 
acknowledged or understood. We are still the slaves of con- 
ventional forms and prescriptive theories; we are still too much 
overawed and cowed into servility by high-sounding names, 
and by the dogmas of self-serving professions and ambitious 
societies. The progress which we have made should be taken 
as the guarantee of further advancement. The positions we 
have gained must form the base of operations for still greater 
achiev^nents. 

When I was a boy geography was taught by rote; now it Is 
taught much more effldentiy by means of maps. Arithmetic 



A PROVINCIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. 89 

was imperfectly tau^bt by rules ; now it is admirably taugbt 
by an expositioii of prmciples: bat there are still many important 
branches of knowledge very imperfectly taught by ue rule and 
rote system. We must not abandon the hope of future progress. 
With respect to utility, there is much which remains to be ac- 
complished. We want a greater enlargement of the basis of 
intellectual and moral development, suited to the advanced state 
of our arts and sciences. The rich stores of scientific knowl- 
edge, which we now possess, should be more ttioroughly and 
systematically taught in our schools, not only as means of in- 
tellectual and moral culture, but also on account of their imme- 
diate bearing on the business of life. 

Let us enter an elementary school in one of our manufactur- 
ing cities. The master still teaches on the old individual sys- 
tem. There is no black-board, or any kind of experimental 
apparatus. There are maps, it is true, hanging on the walls ; 
but theyseem to have been little used, for they are covered with 
dust. The school is not noisy, but there is the constant chatter 
and titter of idleness and frolic. There is discipline of a certain 
kind, but it is not moral discipline. The boys are sons of me- 
chanics and factory laborers, and, like their parents, they will 
have to enter the workshop or the factory. They are sharp, 
intelligent-looking boys, and seem capable of learning anything 
which the schoolmaster might attempt to teach them, or of 
taking advantage of his occasional fits of listlessness and ab- 
straction ; but they are idle, and feel no interest in Uieir tasks. 
The dull routine of reading, writing, and arithmetic, with 
catechisms and formularies, ^oes on day after day. The school 
is characterized neither by utility nor by progress. The master 
sits at his desk, apparently in a deep " brown study." Let us 
look over his i^oulder and see what he is doing. He is study- 
ing the ancient geometry, and on one side of his desk are some 
b(X)ks of the ancient classical authors. He is a scholar and a 
mathematician. What a misdirection of intellect ! What fruit 
has his knowledge yielded him? or what advantage has it been 
to the pupils of his school? It has been a negation; or rather, 
it has been worse than a negation. These boys want to be 
taught in matters relating to the employments which they will 
soon have to follow. The master is idle, as a teacher, because 
the boys will not attend to his abstract prelections ; and the boys 
are idle because the master will not instruct them in those 
tilings which form the subjects of their every-day associations. 
The school-house is surrounded by engines, by factories, by 
chemical works, and by workshops of all sorts. What a mine 
of intellectual wealth ues at his very door available for school 



40 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

instruction 1 How nsefnl he might become 1 He might fill 
these hives of industry with a far more intelligent and skilful 
class of operatives, and thereby not onl^ advance the interests 
of the operatives themselves, out contribute to the productive 
resources of his countiy. Hark I the steam-whistle I He starts 
as a man aroused from his slumber. Does that sound awaken 
some useful trains of association? The steam-engine, with its 
huge train of cars, passengers, and merchandise, starts on its 
winged course. It goes onward and onward, and woe betide 
the thing that obstructs its .progress. It rolls from hamlet to 
hamlet, and from city to city, carrying with it the products of 
industi^ and intelligence. Type of tiie age of progress I has 
the shnll blast of uy whistle reminded the schoolmaster that 
utility and progress are realities demanding his consideration, 
and claiming the tribute of his powers? Poor dreamer I have 
you really returned to your problems? Are you content to re- 
main stationary, whilst everything around you reminds you that 
utility and progress are the motive-principles of the age; and 
that beings such as you, with all your classical lore, must be 
swept away as the surf of the ocean before the advancing tide 
of civilization ? 



Philosophy of Method. 

Bducation Based on an Induction of Facts. — Having ar- 
rived at an educational epoch in which the importance of teach- 
ing, as well as of the method of teaching, is duly recognized, 
it becomes a matter of inquiry. How are we to distinguish the 
true from the false? Amid such an accumulation of facts, 
methods, and systems, what are the evils arising out of the 
abuse of method, and by what principles of philosophy are our 
systems to be tested and improved? In short, what are the 
laws which govern the philosophy of method? 

Education, like all other sciences, must be based upon a 
careful induction of facts. All true ideas of method must be 
derived from a careful study of the nature of the human facul- 
ties, as regards the mode as well as the order of their develop- 
ment. It is, therefore, the first business of the science of 
method to discover the laws and conditions which regulate the 
development of the mind — to follow Nature wheresoever she 



PJBIL080PHT OF METHOD, 41 

may lead us, and not to lay down preconceived rules for her 
guidance. 

Our attempts to teach hj abstract notions, formed indepen- 
dently of a careful study of facts, are as ridiculous as the con- 
duct of the savage who sowed gunpowder instead of trying to 
make it. It is true that in the progress of all science there 
must be an initiative idea, but then this idea must be tested and 
perfected by an appeal to experience and experiment. 

When the ancient astronomers affirmed that the orbitB of the 
planets were circular, because the circle was the most perfect 
figure, they committed a great error in philosophy, for the 
true proof of their initiative conception should have been sought 
for in nature, and not in any abstract principle. 

All our theories or general principles of teaching should be 
tested by an appeal to facts of observation and experiment. 
The relative ^ciency of different s3nEttems should be deter- 
mined by placing them under the same circumstances and re- 
lations, and then, by a careful induction of facts, we should es- 
tablish some general principles of method. The certainty of 
our conclusions, in such cases, depends upon two circumstances: 
first, on the facilities which we have for tracing effects to 
their causes, and conversely for following causes to their legiti- 
mate effects ; second, on the faith which we have in the con- 
stancy and uniformity with which the same relations and con- 
ditions occur. 

For example, the phenomena of the material world are al- 
ways open to observation and experiment; and, at the same 
time, the perfect uniformity with which they take place leads 
us to speak with confidence of the future from what has taken 
place in the past. A chemist, after having determined the par- 
ticular action of one substance upon another, from his instinc- 
tive belief in the permanence of the laws of nature at once 
decides that the same action will always take place under the 
same circumstances; but experience alone must lead him to find 
out what are the essential circumstances and relations for pro- 
ducing the particular action, and what are merely casual or ac- 
cidental; in short, experience or repeated experiment must leeid 
him to discover the true relation of uniform sequence^the re 
lation of cause and effect. 

Let us penetrate a little further into the recesses of this sub- 



43 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

ject. Facts are the point of departure of all philosophy; these 
become matters of consciousness; observation there lays hold 
of them before committing them to induction, which forces 
them to yield up the principles which they contain. The method 
of observation and induction was first ^ven by Bacon, but it 
has become the spirit of the age — ^the spirit of Uie world of dv- 
ilization and development, it constitutes the unity of an age 
characterized by the most striking diversities and antagonisms. 
Philosophy has its origin in observation and experience only; 
to be so limited is to be limited to human nature; but what else 
could we have, or would we have? The experimental philoso- 
phy of Bacon (characterized by observation, experience, and 
experiment) is sufficient for the attainment of all knowledge, 
and for the completion of everv science. It has passed sen- 
tence on the ancient systems of pnilosophy — it has destroyed all 
that was merely hypothetical, but it has perpetuated all that 
was based on observation. A single fact not unfrequently con- 
secrates a mass of errors, and sometimes gives to the wildest 
theories a certain amount of credit among men. Eveiythine 
true and permanent in the systems of philosophy, scattered 
throughout the course of time, is the fruit of observation; and 
everyming permanently useful in society is the result of the 
experimentid method. To arrive at a permanent system we 
must not only observe, but we must observe everytmng faith- 
fully, truly, and completely, without prejudice and paraality. 
We must use only the method of observation, but we must ap- 
ply it to all facts, wherever they exist ; on its impartiality de- 
pends its accuracy, and to be impartial it must be universal. 

Principles of Method. — ^Method, as applied to education, is 
a mixed inquiry, comprehending questions of physics as well as 
metaphysics ; and a comprehensive method of observation is 
necessary to establish the desiderated alliance between the two 
classes of phenomena — ^not by the sacrifice of the one to the other, 
but by the unity of the method employed in ascertaining the 
law connecting the phenomena, which though different as to 
kind are nevertheless coexistent and inseparable as to results. 
When observation has put us in possession of all the elements 
of our science, we then proceed with the work of clasification, 
generalization, etc. 

In order to fulfil these conditions, t?ie pnnciplea of method as 
applied to edtication must be considered subjectively as well 



PHILOSOPBT OF METHOD. 4$ 

as OBJBOTiYBLT ; that is to aaj, in relation to thb ice as well 
as in relation to the not me. The science of the me is called 
Psychology ; it gives the history of the soul as derived from 
consciousness and reflection ; it is thercfOTe entirely occupied 
with internal facts and phenomena. The ohjccdve is our 
intellectual principles considered in relation to their external 
objects. Here we must observe how the minds of children 
develop themselves ; and also how the mind of man, regarded 
historically or in connection with the progress of society, has 
developed itself. 

All questions relating to methods of instruction are contained 
in the three following : 

1. What are the characteristics of (he actual or the developed 
intelligence? 

8. What are their primmme characteristics ? 

8. What are the intermediate conditions or occasions con- 
necting the actual with the primitive ; or, in other words, how 
is intelligence developed ? 

The first two questions are almost exclusively subjective ; the 
last is objective as well as subjective. 

Here we start with the actual state of the faculties, and arrive 
at their primitive state by following the intermediate links 
connecting the one with the other. To determine the actual 
is the easiest problem, and its solution is the first step towards 
the solution of the others. This is the experimental method : 
we first observe and register all the principles or laws which 
actually govern the action and development of the faculties ; 
we admit only those facts and principles which really exist, 
but of those we reject none ; we ask not why they exist, or 
for what they exist — ^it is enough that they do exist, and what 
is in nature must form an element of science ; nor are we in 
haste to classify the results, in order to bring out some favor- 
ite theory, — ^we are content to wait patiently imtil their regis- 
tration is completed, so that their relations may be rendered 
apparent, and that their theory may gradually unfold itself. 

The philosophy of method as applied to teaching is not 



44 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

less difficult than important. The diversity of views which at 
present obtains in relation to systems of teaching is a sufficient 
evidence of the difficulty of the subject, and a sufficient testi- 
mony to the want of some recognized principles. 

The following are some of the difficulties peculiar to the 
inquiry: 

1. Although the same powers and affections are found in 
every human being, yet these powers and affections exist in dif- 
ferent degrees and states of development in different individuals. 
Hence it follows that a system of instruction which is adapted 
to one class of pupils may not be suitable to another. 

2. Different causes may. and no doubt often do, produce the 
same or similar effects. This arises from the constitution of 
the mind itself, for we know that it admits of various modes of 
development. ^ 

3. Teachers differ much in their capabilities and acquirements; 
and they rarely restrict themselves to the use of any special 
system of instruction. 

However, an earnest study of the principles of method will 
enable us to surmount these obstacles. In conducting our in- 
quiries, the following summary of rules and principles, having 
a special bearing on the subject, should be duly considered. 

importance of DejmUions, — ^No science can make a satisfac- 
torv progress unless its technical terms are clearly and precisely 
denned. This is especially true in relation to the science of 
education. At present we have scarcely any recognized terms 
in education : we dignify by the name of a system or method 
some trifling modification of a general principle, and we make 
use of terms without sufficicDtly limitiD^ their amount of 
meaning. Thus we speak of -' the elliptical method," as if 
it contamed some peculiar priDciple which was not involved 
in **the interrogative system" of Instruction; some persons 
erroneously use the term " simultaneous teaching," to mean the 
same thing as "collective teaching." As a preliminary step, 
therefore, to the attainment of exact knowledge in the science 
of method, we should always define the terms which we employ, 
before proceeding to the aetaiL of facts, or the elucidation of 
principles. 

Oollection of Facts. — The first step in the attainment of a 
knowledge of right methods of teaching is an extensive acquisi- 
tion of facts. In recording these facts all the conditions and 
collateral circumstances should be carefully noted, for even 



PHILOSOPHY OF METHOD, 45 

circumstances which appear trifling at the time may really be 
important links in the chain of sequences. 

Educational facts may be derived from books on mental 
philosophy, from our own indiyidual experience and observa- 
tion, as well as from the experience and observation of others. 
We are not to look to legislators and school-managers for the 
discovery of these facts, nor even should we rely too much 
upon the hasty impressions of the visitors of schools. It is upon 
the labors of the practical teacher that we must chiefly de- 
pend : it is his business to watch the development of his pupils' 
faculties as they expand themselves under the various modes of 
instruction ; it is his buiness to collect facts, to record observa- 
tions, and to institute experiments. 

In forming a collection of facts the following rules must be 
observed : 

1. All the facts should be fully ascertained or authenticated ; 
and whilst no essential facts connected with the subject should 
be wanting, all trivial and incidental circumstances should be 
omitted. 

2. The statement should contain a complete and fair view of 
all the facts involved in the inquiry, and none of the facts 
should be in any way modified to pander to any preconceived 
theory. 

Teachers should aid each other in the collection of facts, and 
Gk)vemment Inspectors should afford them every facility for 
the attainment of this object. Some facts transmitted to us 
may appear to be contrary to our individual cxpeiience ; let us 
beware how we reject them ! Our prejudices may be standing 
in the way of the advancement of the truth. We should test 
the facts by some new experiment, or we may find some hith- 
erto neglected series of facts in our own experience which may 
lead us to a right decision. Hitherto the facts accumulated by 
teachers have been almost ignored. An inspector enters a school 
with a stem determination of observing evervthing for himself, 
without calling in the aid of the teacher ; after spending a few 
hours in that school, he leaves it with the belief that he has 
collected all the facts of its last year's history. Lamentable 
error I That teacher, if worthy of his office, could have given 
him the history of the growth and development of every boy's 



46 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

mind and character, with a true aoooimt of the influences 
which had been brought to bear upon them. We look to the 
hearty co-operation of inspectors and teachers for the accumu- 
lation of facts. But the inspector must not always appear be- 
fore the teacher in the stem character of censor and Juoge : he 
should also appear as a friend and fellow-worker in the great 
common cause. 

In formine a collection of facts, the following sources of 
error should oe carefully guarded against: 

1. Receiving facts from persons wnom we have reason to sus- 
pect of having some interested object to serve in disguising or 
modifving them. 

2. Receiving important facts from persons in whose Judg- 
ment and power of observation we have not the fullest confi- 
dence. 

8. Receiving partial statements of facts given with the view 
of supporting some favorite system of education. 

4. Receiving opinions as facts. In guarding against this 
fruitful source of error, it is above all tmngs necessary that we 
should 

Distinguish between Facts and Opinions. — The confound- 
ing of facts and opinions should be carefully guarded against ; for 
we are all too apt to mix up our own impressions and favorite 
theories with the detail of facts, and hence it is often very diffi- 
cult for us to separate the one from the other. When a teacher 
states that he has found a certain system of instruction produce 
the most satisfactory results, he does not restrict himself to a 
simple statement of facts, for he gives his opinion of the char- 
acter of the results, whereas he should simply describe what 
these results were. 

A teacher ffives us an opinion in place of a fact when he 
states that he has found the elliptical system of instruction pro- 
duce suc^ and sudi results— when a full and simple statement 
of facts would be, Hiat in the course of teaching on the collec- 
tive system he had adopted the form of elliptical response. 
The master of a school teaches, for the most part, after a par- 
ticular system, and his pupils make progress ; this progress is 
ascribed to the particular system. !Now the progress of the pu- 
pils is a fact, and Uiat the master taught by a particular system 
may also be a fact ; but that this sjrstem of instruction was the 
true cause of the progress is an opmion, for it is giving the re- 
lation of cause and effect between two facts ; and it is quite 



PHILOSOPHY OF METHOD. 47 

possible that some hidden or unobserved influence may have 
solely, or at least mainly, contributed to the progress of the 
pupfls. The omission of a fact in the chain of sequences is 
often as injurious to the cause of truth as a misrepresentfl^on 
of Uie case. Our statement of facts, therefore, should not only 
be free from opinions and impressions, but it should at the same 
time be full and faithful, and not distorted in any way with 
the view of supporting some preconceived notions or theories. 

These are some of the rocKS on which our method is often 
wrecked : it is necessary that we should signaliase them. 

Oomparison and Olassification of Facts. Relation of 
Cause and Effect. — In order to arrive at general conclusions, 
our first step is to arrange the facts according to the points in 
which they agree ; our next step is to strip our groups or col- 
lections of facts of all their extraneous circumstances and con- 
tingent conditions ; that is to say, by a comparison of our dif- 
ferent groups of facts we must separate those conditions which 
are essential to the result or desired effect from those which are 
accidental and non-essential. Having arrived at a uniform and 
invariable series of sequences, our next step in the process 
is to trace the relation of cause and effect. When one event is 
invariably followed by another event, we speak of the one 
being the cause, the oUier the effect. Now to the facts which 
are so uniformly associated we have no hesitation in attributing 
the true relation of cause and effect. 

Let us take an illustration from Dr. Wells' theory of dew. 
The facts of this case are these : Moisture or dew is always 
found on the surface of plants in .clear cloudless nights, but 
little or no moisture is found on the plants in cloudy nights ; 
these results take place for all plants, whatever may be their 
color, etc., and whatever may be their absolute temperature. 
Here the incidental or non-essential facts are the color, absolute 
temperature, etc., of the plants ; the essential facts are, that 
dew is formed on clear nights, and that no dew is formed on 
cloudy nights : hence the cloudless sky is an essential condition 
for the formation of dew. 

In education, the tracing of the relation of cause and effect 
among a succession of events is always a matter of difficulty 
and delicacy, and is often attended with considerable liabilities 



48 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

to error. But the difficulty of the task should not deter us 
from the undertaking. The following sources of fallacy deserve 
especial notice : 

1. The cause which we assign may be merely .an incidental 
circumstance, and not essentially connected, as a uniform se- 
quence, with the result. 

This fallacy frequently occurs in matters of education, for 
how often do we find some trifling mode or manner of teach, 
ing — such as the class arrangements, etc. — dignified by the 
name of a system, which is said to work out such and such 
results! 

2. The events, which we regard as cause and effect, may be 
closely connected, but not in the relation of cause and effect 
The true cause may be hidden or overlooked in our haste or 
t)ur fondness for some favorite theory. 

For example, it is a common thing to hear the advocates of 
the individual system of instruction appeal to the fact that 
good scholars were formed under that system ; while the truth 
IS, the so-called good scholars were made, for the most part, 
independently of the characteristic features of that system, viz., 
bv home instruction, by the time of training, and by the exten- 
sive use of class-books. 

It remains yet to be determined what conditions are essential 
and what are only accidental in most of our present systems of 
education. It is to be hoped that some distinguished person 
amongst Her Majesty's Inspectors, who are in possession of a 
vast number of facts, will confer this boon on society. 

Oeneral Principles. — ^Having traced among our groups of 
facts the relation of uniform sequence, the next step in our pro- 
cess is to. bring a number of them together, and to discover in 
them some common fact, or element, or general principle. This 
common element or general principle becomes a disttact sub- 
ject of contemplation, and it is taken as characteristic of a whole 
class. In forming this generalization two things are especially 
to be observed : 1st, the principle should be a real fact ; 2d, 
it should be true for all the cases without exception. 

Let us illustrate the two processes of classification and gen- 
eralization. 



PHILOSOPHY OF METHOD, 49 

We take a number of bodies differing in their external form 
and color : one is an iron ore, another a steel bar, another has 
the shape of a horse-shoe; but they all agree in attracting iron, 
and they also agree in having iron in their composition. We 
damfy these bodies, and call them magnets ; color, form, etc., 
are accidental properties of the class, and composition and the 
fact of attractmg iron are the essential qualities of the class. 
But we now discover that if any one of these straight or ob 
long magnets be freely suspended, one extremity willoe always 
directed towards the north and the oUier extremity towards the 
south ; here we discover a common or general principle belong- 
ing to the whole class— viz., polarity : this is a process of gen- 
erailkaUon, 

The relations of things form the materials of method ; and 
the general principle connecting these relations constitutes the 
leading element of method as applied to those particular things. 

Having brought together a number of different systems of 
instruction, which are always attended with a common result, 
we must endeavor to discover some principle which is common 
to them all : this common principle will give us the idea of a 
general method of instruction, which will be operative amid a 
certain variety of incidental conditions. As a general principle 
is nothing more than a convenient form of expressing a general 
fact, its legitimate application is limited to the particular cases 
from which it has been deduced. Hence the error, into which 
many teachers fall, of pushing certain systems beyond their 
legitimate sphere of application. 

A general principle, according to the strict acceptation in 
which we have hitherto taken it, is simply a general fact, but 
it sometimes assumes the form of a theobt or an htfothbsis. 
In an hjrpothesis, a thing or principle is smypo9ed to exist ; but, 
like a strict ^neral principle, it should adequatelv explain all 
the facts which belong to the subject-matter. General facts 
simply give the relation of law without making anv assump- 
tions : hypotheses express the relation of ascertained facts by 
the supposed operation of a thing or principle, which may or 
may not exist ; hypotheses, in most cases, only serve the purpose 
of conveniently grouping together an extensive series of facts 
and phenomena. Thus, for example, that the planetary bodies 
attract one another with forces which are direcUy as their 
masses and inversely as the squares of their distances, is a 

4 



50 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

ffeneral fact ; for the force really exists, and really acta by the 
law which is aasigned to it. In Franklin's elecmcal theory, 
electricity is supiMsed to be a subtle fluid wbic^ may exist in 
excess or In deficiency in bodies, thus giving rise to tiie two 
kinds of electricity, which, according to this theory, are called 
positive electricity and negative electricity. The hypothesis 
III this case serves the purpose of connecting together a large 
number of facts. Now that there are two kmds of electrid^, 
possessing certain distinctive properties, is a general fact ; but 
that these properties belong to a smgle fluid is a conjecture— an 
hypothesis — ^which is more or less useful to us according as it 
more or less completely explains the observed phenomena. 

Gkneral facts as well as tlieories are sometimes suggestive ; 
that is to say, they sometimes lead us to suspect the existence of 
some new fact or principle : In such cases, however, it is the 
province of observation and experiment to confirm or overthrow 
the truth of the conjecture. 

Educational theories should be looked upon with distrust, aiid 
if acted upon at all, it should be with extreme caution. They 
should be regarded in no other light than as convenient modes 
of connecting a series of facts, or as suggestive of some course 
of experimental inquiry. For example, a teacher would run 
into a mischievous error if he were to act upon the phrenological 
hypothesis that the faculties and affections of our intellectual 
and moral nature respectively act through and by particular 
portions or organs of the brain, and that, other things being the 
same, the development of any particular faculty or function is 
in proportion to the magnitude of that particular organ or 
region of the brain through which the faculty or function is 
supposed to act. To those teachers who seem disposed to put 
faith in this imperfect theory we should say. Why act upon 
any theory when you can ascertain with the greatest predsion 
the true character and capabilities of your pupils by actual 
observation ? 

There are two extreme views, in relation to ^neral methods 
of instruction, which are equally unphilosophical, and which 
should be equally avoided. The one is an implicit confidence 
in method ; me other is an utter scepticism as regards the utility 
of any methpd whatever. 



PHILOSOPBT OF METHOD, 01 

Bvils of ImpUoit Oonfidonoe in MathocL— Ko wynUm of 
teaching can be efficient unless the master posaefls all those quali- 
ties which the system itself presupposes. If a teacher is wanting 
in any of those essential qualities, it would probably be better 
for him to modify the system to suit the circumstances. More* 
over, the state and condition of tlie pupils nuiy not correspond 
to that which the system presupposes. The blind unreasoning 
attachment of teachers to systems has often brought ridicule 
upon themselves and discredit upon the systems which they 
professed to follow. Failures of this kind have, no doubt, often 
led to the unphilosophical opinion "that each individual 
ought to have either his own system or no system at all." The 
teacher should, in the fullest sense, be the master and not the 
slave of the sjrstem by which he teaches. The modes in which 
the faculties of children develop themselves are sufficiently 
various to admit of slight modifications in the systems of in- 
struction, in order to suit the capabilities of the master. We 
can hardly say of any existing system, that it is the only effi- 
cient one : and as more or less imperfection is to be foimd in 
every existing system of education, so it is equally true, that 
more or less truth may be found in all of them. Until masters 
are thoroughly educated for their work, we must hold that the 
system should be made for the man, and not the man for the 
system. 

As children love change and novelty, a good teacher will vary 
his subjects of instruction as well as his methods of instruction 
accordingly : his judgment must be exercised in selecting those 
methods which are most suited to the existing conditions of his 
school. 

No intelligent teacher would ever attempt to carry out to the 
strict letter any of our existing rules and sjrstems. The follow- 
ing may be taken as a well-established rule in teaching children 
some of the simplest elements of knowledge : " Begin from the 
beginning of the subject, and never take a second step till you 
are sure that the first is perfectly acquired." Now this rule, 
though true in its spirit and intention, is very far from being 



52 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

Strictly true as applied to some subjects. In teaching the alphar 
bet, for example, who would ever think of making a (MLdper- 
feeUy learn one letter before it is taken to another ; or, in teach- 
ing arithmetic, of making the child perfeetty learn the rule of 
addition before it is taught anything of subtraction ? * 

It will be instructive to consider more in detail some of the 
evils resultini^ from a slavish attachment to systems. 

I. Evils of attaching undue importance to the non-essential 
features of a system. 

II. Evils arising from not giving due attention to the limits 
of certain modes of instruction. 

III. Evils arising from the neglect of auxilianr aids. 

ly. No system can be ef^cient without intelligence and in- 
dustry on the piu:t of the master, and without he is religiously 
imbued with a high sense of the dignity and importance of his 
work. 

I. One teacher cannot ^ve Bible lessons without a gallery ; 
another cannot teach arithmetic without the Pestalozzian 
boards ; another defers the teaching of drawing until his com- 
mittee can afford to purchase models : and so on. To such 
teachers we would say. Beware of an imdue attachment to the 
mere mechanical forms of individual systems. Imbue your 
minds with the spirit of these systems, and, above all, study the 
philosophy of their method. If you want a plant to grow, you 
water the root — not the leaves and branches ; so in like manner 
the teacher ^ould go to the root — ^the fimdamental principles 
of education. 

II. Some modes of iustruction, very good as regards their 
legitimate sphere of application, may become useless if not ridi- 
culous when pushed beyond their proper limits. It is desira- 
ble Ibat these limits should be duly ascertained and defined by 
a strict induction of facts. On the other hand, a method of in- 
struction should not be despised because it is not of universal 
application. Because the writing system of Mulhauser, for ex- 
ample, should not be found efficient in making finished writ- 
ers, is no reason why it should not be one of the most eligible 
modes for teaching the first elements of form to children. In 



* The arrangement of the study of arithmetic into addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication, and division, is perfectly arbitrary. To teach addi- 
tion perfectly before another process is taught is contrary to good phi- 
losophy. The best teachers teach all four operations together, as all 
four Inyolye and grow out of the same operation.— E. 8. 



PHILOSOPHY OF METHOD. 58 

this case the business of the philosophical inquirer is to deter- 
mine the extent to which the system should be cairied. 

Again, a mode of instruction may be subsidiary to some 
more general method, with which it is necessarily associated, 
and to which it may give a higher efficiency. In this case we 
should determine the relative importance of the subordinate 
method and the most favorable conditions for its application. 
On the other hand, the modes of instruction which are employed 
together should be in harmony with each other, and also in 
keeping with the other recognized principles of method. 

The methods of instruction adapted to the young may not 
always be best calculated for the instruction of adults. In this 
case we should determine the period at which this change of 
method should be made. An able teacher, who had been suc- 
cessful in teaching arithmetic to boys by the Pestalozzian boards, 
attempted to teach adults on the same plan; but he failed, and 
thereby brought himself and his system into unmerited con- 
tempt. 

III. The teacher should watchfully guard against any undue 
confidence, not only in his own teaching powers, but also in the 
system by which be teaches. He should be ever ready to avail 
himself of all the means within his reach for giving increased 
efficiency to his system. Without, for example, in the least 
undervaluing his system of collective teaching, he should not 
overlook the aid which he may occasionally receive from indi- 
vidual instruction; nor should he despise the use of text^books, 
espeeiaUy when asuodated with home instraUion, The apparent 
discrepancies in the results of some of our existing systems are 
doubtless to a great extent due to the want of a proper appre- 
ciation of certain subsidiary aids to class instruction. 

Much remains to be effected by the individual merits of the 
teacher. Methods of teaching are little better than dead letters 
in the hands of stupid and indolent pedagogues, but they be- 
come living efficient principles in the minds of thinking and 
active teachers. Systems should be tested by the teacher and 
modified by him, if found necessary, to suit the various tastes, 
habits, and future pursuits of the children placed under his care. 
He must become a moral philosopher, fdways reflecting and 
experimenting upon matters of education. The schoolroom is 
his laboratory and his studio ; the little boys by whom he is 
surrounded are the subjects of his reflections and experiments, 
and the great end is their intellectual and moral .amelioration. 



54 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

The teacher is a much more elevated being than the mere me- 
chanic. 

The results of machinery are splendid and overpowering; bat 
then all that is truly great in these results is due to the creative 
mind that gave the method — the law, physical or mathematical, 
or perhaps botii physical and mathematical, by which these re- 
sults are produced. The machine-makers, according to our 
systems in the division of labor, are little better than machines 
making machines : one forges a bolt, another files it, and an- 
other puts it in its place ; one casts a wheel, another turns it ou 
the lathe, and another superintends the machine that cuts teeth 
upon its rim : tJius each man toils from morning till night, and 
the labor of one day is the type of the labor of that which suc- 
ceeds. It is not so with the teacher : creative minds cannot so 
cut out and divide the labor of instruction, or so lay out the 
principles and methods of teaching, as to supersede the exercise 
of his reasoning and reflective powers. 

His work is professional — ^it is akin to the medical man's. 
The teacher is no machine— his mind is above all rules and 
superior to all authority in relation to his work. Boards of 
education and visiting committees should not interfere too much 
with the immediate duties and peculiar f imctions of the school- 
master. Elevate his social, intellectual, and moral condition, 
but do not legislate for him with respect to methods of instruc- 
tion. 

In order that a teacher should be thoroughly devoted to his 
work, he should be duly sensible of its importance : he should 
believe that the future character of a country depends upon the 
education of its children ; he should be fully aware that, in the 
soft and virgin soil of their souls, he may plant the shoots of 
poison or sow the seeds of sweet-scented flowers or of life- 
giving fruit ; he should realize the momentous thought that 
the little prattling thoughtless children by whom he is sur- 
rounded are to become the men of the approaching age. As a 
necessary consequence of all this, he should carefully look to 
the predilections of children : that child who is amusing him- 
self with drawing triangles and cireles may, under proper 
training, hereafter become another Pascal ; that little dirty ur- 
chin who is plucking flowers by the wayside may become the 



PHILOSOPHY OF METHOD, 55 

poet or the orator of his age; that thoaghtful, feeble boy who 
is watching the effect of the steam as it blows and puffs from 
the tea-kettle may become another Watt, destined to multiply 
the resources of our national wealth and power ; that ruthless 
little savage, who is leading the mimic battles of the snow- 
storm may become (unless his evil tendencies are counteracted 
by education) another Napoleon, who may seize with a giant's 
grasp the iron thunderbolt of death, and on the wreck of a 
I>eople's hoi)es and happiness build himself up a terrible monu- 
ment of guilt and greatness. 

The work of the soul-devoted teacher should not cease with 
the school hours : the predilections and spontaneous ebullitions 
of feeling in children in their moments of leisure and play 
should be carefully watohed by him, in order that he may en- 
courage and aid the development of what may be good or use- 
ful, and be able to suppress, or direct into a legitimate channel, 
what may be evil or dangerous. 

Under a new and better order of things, an efficient soul-de- 
voted teacher will become one of the great thinkers of his age. 
His leisure hours will be given to the study of the philosophv 
of mind and the principles of method, and his daily labor will 
consist in the practice of that philosophy and those principles. 
Child of hope ! despair not in the discharge of your arduous 
duties, and doubt not but that public opinion wUl award to you 
that social position to which your talents and usefulness entitle 
you. Toil on in all faith and humility ! the hour of your eman- 
cipation is not distant : injustice is always followed by a reac- 
tion ; and the dark, cheerless period of debasement and un- 
otlled-f or self-sacrifice will be followed by light and gladness, 
when under the blessing of GK)d you shall possess the tneans as 
well as the capabilities for adding to our knowledge of the 
science of method as applied to education. 

Bacpezlmenta Required to Test Systems of Education. — 
A system of instruction may be formed with a due regard to 
the abstract nature of the being to be educated, but it may not 
be practicable, under the conditions and circumstances of a 
given school, where perhaps large masses of children have to 
be taught under the supervision of one master, with limited 



66 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

material aids; hence it is necessary that all systems should be 
brought to the test of experiment. 

Whilst sound principles of education gain new force by eyery 
fresh confirmation of their truth, false dieories lose some por- 
tion of their hold on the prejudices of men by every new ex- 
posure of their fallacy. Some thoroughly digested systems of 
experiment are yet desiderated in education. The form and 
object of experiments are directly under our control, and in this 
respect the results of experiment are more valuable than facts 
derived from observation and ordinary experience. 

For this purpose we should like to see some experimental 
school established under our €k)vemment Inspectors, where, 
for example, any two rival systems of instruction might be 

§ laced exactly under the same circumstances with the view of 
etermining Uieir relative efficiency. People generally are slow 
in adopting what are called improved methods ; their preju- 
dices are ahvays in favor of what is old and English, and noth- 
ing but an experimentum crucis will alter their predilections, 
llany old systems are associated with certain extraneous cir- 
cumstances which consecrate their errors and give them an ap- 
parent truth. Thus, for example, the individual system of 
teadiing, which at present obtains in most of our middle-class 
schools, is so interwoven with the system of hame instruction 
that we cannot see all the evils of this system so fully as we 
should do if it were standing on its own merits. It should be 
stripped of this favorable association in order to exhibit it in its 
true aspect And it may be here worthy of observation, that it 
would be well for us to ascertain, witli some degree of exact- 
ness, how far this home instruction should be employed in con- 
nection wi^ the sjrstem of collective teaching, which is at 
present in operation in our schools for the poor. 

The importance of experimental facts may be illustrated by 
the history of physical science. Before the time of Gkilileo it 
was believed that water rose in the common pump from Na- 
ture's horror of a vacuum. An experimental fact was wanting 
to expose the fallacy of this hypothesis ; that fact was supplied 
to G^alileo by the workmen of Tuscany when they found that 
water would not rise in the barrel of a pump higher than 
thirty-four feet. In like manner, we may find that some for- 
tunate experiment or fact of observation, may lead to a rever- 
sion of some of our existing dogmas in education. 

In conducting experiments, it may be useful to observe, the 



PBIL080PHT OF METHOD. 57 

truth of a great general system of education may be confirmed 
in two ways, viz., by altering the conditions under which it is 
made to act, or bj altering me intensity of the element which 
constitutes its distinguishing feature. When the pupil of 
(Galileo substituted mercury for water, to test the presence of 
atmospheric pressure he rightly considered that if there was 
a constantly acting law of pressure the column of the one fluid 
would be to that of the other in the inverse ratio of their densi- 
ties : it is well known that the result of the experiment con- 
iirmed the truth of the theory. Not satisfied with this con- 
firmation, Pascal proposed to try the experimentum cmds by 
varying the intensity of the operating prmciple, and he there- 
fore had the Torricellian experiment performed upon the top 
of a mountain, where the atmospheric column was diminished. 
The result of this experiment, it is scarcely necessary to say, 
fully established the great principle of atmospheric pressure. 
In hke manner, it may not be too presumptuous to suppose, 
the truth of many of our eeneral theories and systems of in- 
struction may be confirmed or overthrown. 

To Estimate the Results of Method. — ^Without undervalu 
ing the communication of positive knowledge in the education 
of children, we should in general attach the greatest import 
ance to that system which tends most to develop and improve 
their intellectual and moral powers. But it is possible that, 
la our regard for this darling idea, we may overlook the fact 
that the study of those subjects which are the most useful is 
generally the most instructive. The school of the poor should 
never become an intellectual gymnasium, where the future 
destinies of the children are disregarded. Children in the 
course of nature become men and women, and their pursuits 
and studies in school should prepare them for playing their 
parts in the great world in which they must move and act. 

In the education of a young gentleman it matters little whether 
his muscles are strengthen^ by digging in the garden, or by 
exercises with the psurallel bars in the playground ; but with 
the child of poverty it is very different— his lot is labor, and 
labor should form a part of his school training. To an Eaton 
scholar it may be of little consequence whether he learns land- 
surveying, or whether his tutors teach him to decipher Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics or any other hieroglyphics, provided his in- 
tellectual powers are exercised and developed : but with the 



58 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

flon of the mechanic it is different ; his period of school train- 
ing heing limited, has no time to spare for learning things 
which have only a remote bearing on his f ature employment ; 
to him the schoolroom should to, in a certain sense, the ves- 
tibule of the worlsBhop. In estimating, therefore, tiie results 
of systems in primair schools a due r^^ard should be paid to 
this twofold aspect oi education. 

In the education of adults the matter is somewhat different, 
for in this case the chief end, if not the sole end, of class in- 
struction should, obviously, be the communication of that 
knowledge which sliall be immediately and directly beneficial 
to them m their respective avocations. 

The object of education should be to develop all the facul- 
ties of our nature— physical, intellectual, and moral ; and that, 
too, in harmony with one another.* A system sometimes tends 
only to develop one set of faculties to the neglecting of all 
the others. When this is the case, the teacher should adopt 
some system which shall be supplemental to the other, so that 
the two systems, acting in conjunction, shall exercise all the 
faculties of the pupils. The same observations apply to the 
subject of study. For example, the study of arithmetic or 
geometry exercises the mind in only one kind of evidence — 
maihemaiicai emdefice; therefore in this case the teacher would 
do well to give, side by side with arithmetic, some easy lessons 
on physical science, where the mind of the pupil is exercised 
in moral widence. 



* Froebel says : The time, end, and aim of all our work ''is the har- 
monious growth of the whole being." 



NATURE OF THE BEINQ TO BE EDUCATED. M 



CHAPTER in. 

TO ABCEBTAIN THE NATUBB OF THB HKLNO TO BE EDfJCATBD— 
GENEBAL FACTS AND FBINCIPLB8 — FRIMITiyB INTELLI- 
GENCE THB BABIB OF DEVELOFMENT — CLASSIFICATION OF 
THB FACULTIES— ESSENTIAL POINTS CONSIDBBED IN BELA- 
TION TO METHOD. , 

To ABCEBTAIN THE NaTXTBB OF THB BeINO TO BE EDUCATED. 

As a knowledge of human nature is the true basis of the 
science of education, it is essential to the discoveiy of general 
principles of method that we should have a complete record 
of general facts relative to the development of the intellectual 
and moral faqulties, and that it should be fully ascertained, by 
actual observations and experiments, what subjects and 
methods of instruction are best calculated to aid the develop- 
ment of these faculties at tlie different stages of their growth : 
in order to complete the science of education, we require some- 
filing more than a mere knowledge of the general principles of 
mental philosophy. Such a course of inquiry would not only 
contribute to advance the science of education, but it would 
also give us a more complete view of the natural history of the 
human mind.* 

It has been said that psychological analysis will lead us to a 
knowledge of the laws regulating the development of our facul- 
ties ; but in the inquiry we may be very much aided by observ- 
ing how humanity, or the mind of society, has developed itself 



* Tate very exoellentlj presents this matter, which has been almost 
entirely- overlooked by later writers. The Herbart School alone has laid 
great stress on this, maintaining that the development of the child runs 
pftraUel to the historical growth of the hmnan race.— E. S. 



eo PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

in the different stages of its advancement ; that is to say, how 
the mind of man has discovered truth after truth, and built up 
science upon science, in attaining our present elevated condition 
of civilization and intelligence. It is obvious that the mind, 
considered hibtobigallt, that is, objectivelt, must give us 
the broad features of the mind considered per m, that is, sub- 
JECTIVELT. Those natural instincts and impulses which evince 
themselves in the individual mind must undoubtedly exhibit 
themselves on a grand scale in the development of the race it- 
self, or the mind of man acting in society. 

We give the following as amongst the most important gen- 
eral facts or laws relating to the development of the faculties : 

General Facts belatino to the Development of the 

Intellectual Facultieb. 

1. The faculties follow a law of progressive development. 

2. They are cultivated by being properly exercised on appro- 
priate subjects. 

8. They are weakened by being overtasked, or by being 
exercised on inappropriate subjects. They admit of a wrong 
development 

4. All our knowledge of the material world is derived through 
the senses. Material objects and the various phenomena of 
the external world are the subjects upon which the faculties 
first exercise themselves. Material aids promote the activity of 
all the faculties. 

5. The natural force of the faculties differs in different in- 
dividuals. 

6. The voluntary faculties, such as attention, are influenced 
by motives. Children like to do things in company with one 
another. With children, the natural and most healthful in- 
centive to attention is the association of pleasure with instruc- 
tion : nature has connected a refined intellectual pleasure with 
the healthful exercise of the faculties ; curiosity or the desire 
of knowledge, and the love of the beautiful and the wonderful, 



INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. 61 

are the great actaating principles of early childhood, and their 
gratification is always accompanied by pleasurable emotions. 
Unnatural modes of instruction give rise to harsh and vitiating 
modes of discipline. 

7. Habits are formed by the repetition of the same acts. 
The habits of attention and concentration are the great main- 
springs of education. The habit of directing the undivided 
or concentrated force of the faculties to a given subject ib 
never fully acquired in early life— children love change and 
novelty. 

8. One class of faculties may repose whilst another class of 
faculties is being exercised. 

9. The faculties are most vigorous when they are exercised 
voluntarily. The principle of self-dependence is one of the 
most powerful agents of culture. Children have a natural 
craving for knowledge as well as for occupation. 

10. The strength of any faculty and the desire for exercising 
it are greater according as it has been more or less called into 
activity. The sooner a faculty is called into healthful action, 
the greater, other things being the same, will be its strength. 
The cultivation of the reasoning faculties should not be too 
long delayed. 

11. The faculties, in the course of their development, act 
md react upon one another. The complete development oi 
my faculty depends, more or less, on the development of some 
other faculty. 

The mind is really one indivisible substance having different 
states and modes of action ; these states and modes of action 
being called faculties. 

Some of the faculties are almost simultaneous in their action 
as well as in their development. 

All the faculties of the mind exist in a greater or less state of 
activity at every stage of development. 

The mind cu a whole admits of cultivation at every stage of 
development. The moral faculties may be cultivated in con- 
nection with the intellectual faculties ; and so on. 

12. For the purpose of culture, the faculties may be divided 
into groups or classes. 



69 PHILO80PHT OF EDUCATION, 

18. Our subjects, as well as our methods of instruction, may 
be yaried or modified to suit the different classes of faculties. 

14. Each class of faculties has its characteristic motives of 
action as well as habits of action. 

16. Each faculty has a primitive state corresponding to its 

spontaneous development. Primitive judgments form the basis 

of all our knowledge. 

Certain faculties have also distinct states of development cor- 
responding to the subjects upon which they are exercised. These 
states have an important b^iring on early education. 

16. All our knowledge is derived from three sources, viz., 
SenMtion, B^fleetion, and the PrimiUw Laws (IntuUunu)* in- 
volved in our mental operations. 



FBmrnvB Istelligengb, as shown m Pbbception and 
Intuition, oonbidebed as the Basis of Dbvblofmient. 

There is a pre-established harmony between external nature 
and the laws regulating the operations of the mind. Through 
sensation, or the impressions derived from the senses, the im- 
material (the mind) comes into contact with the material, and 
springs (through its own inherent energies) into all the various 
forms of developed intelligence. Without sensation the mind 
could not germinate ; and without the reflex power which the 
mind exercises over these sensations intelligence could not 
exist. But this is not all : the awakened intelligence derives 
fresh vitality from the primitive laws involved in its own opera- 
rations. Hence our knowledge, the aliment of intellectual life, 
is derived from the three following sources : Sensation, Reflec- 
tion, and Intuition, or the Primitive Laws involved in our men- 
tal operations. 

The infant soul contains implieiUy all the faculties of the 
developed intelligence : reason is there, with all its essential 

* The term " primitive laws" Is used by Mr. Tate as writers on mental 
science now use the term " intuition;'* in fact, he uses the latter term a 
few lines below. 



PBIMmVE INTELUQBNCm. 68 

durncfarkto ; bat it is there only in its intoitiTe fonn. The 
mind intuidyely comprehends and feels the rdatlons sahsliting 
between itself and the eztenial world, without being able at 
onoe to give its knowledge anything like a formal or abstract 
expression. It spontaneously and onconsciondy forms primi- 
tive judgments or inferences, recognizes the beantif nl and par- 
ticipates in it, and acts under the conviction of certain f onda- 
mental principles of belief. All the materials of perfect intel- 
ligence exist in these primary or primitive intuitions, but they 
have to be reduced to definite forms and consistent combina- 
tions. 

Nature is truly a revelation. To the human soul nature 
speaks in an intelligible language, which the brate cannot un- 
derstand. The brute looks on nature as it looks on a book— 
it sees lights and flfaades, but nothing beyond ; on the contrary, 
the human intelligence at once deciphers the symbolic char- 
acters of that book. The validity of our intuitive perceptions 
must, therefore, be referred to this preconstructed harmony 
between the soul and nature. 

Our primitive intuitions comprehend judgments, sentiments, 
and fundamental principles of belief. 

Perception is the first stage of intelligence ; but perception, 
regarded as a distinct stage of intelligence, involves something 
more than a summation of sensual impressions. By perception 
we become immediately conscious of the qudliHes of material 
objects. Out of our perceptions arise certain necessary and 
intuitive judgments. We perceive the properties of an object 
separately as well as in connection with the object considered 
as a collective unity, and thus recognize and distinguish objects 
by their properties : every such cognition, obviously, involves 
a judgment ; in point of fact, a proposition, which, though not 
expressed, is not the less felt and understood as such. We per- 
ceive the physical qualities of an object, but we apprehend 
something more — we are conscious that the me, the percipient, 
is distinct from, and independent of, the not me, or the thing 
perceived. The sentiment of the beautiful is intuitive: we 



64 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIOS, 

look at a flower ; we perceive that it has a certain shape, size 
and color ; but we apprehend far more than this— the percep 
tion is associated with pleasurable emotions, and an indefinable 
9en>se of the beautiful fiUs the soul. We listen to an exquisite 
piece of music ; we have a perception of tone and time, but 
along with this we have the perception of harmonif. The 
mond and religious sentiments are intuitive: the virgin sim- 
plicity of a child's moral nature is too apparent to require 
illustration ; education too often blights this original simplicity. 
Our intuitive sentiments involve some of the deepest thou^ts 
and principles of our existence. 

Our primitive judgments or intuitive perceptions are, of all 
our forms of intelligence, the most vivid and comprehensive. 
They give us all the elements of our subsequent knowledge, 
not in signs or abstract representations, but immediately, in our 
self-consciousness.* They arc universal and invariable, for 
tbey are found as well in the savage as in the civilized man. 
They are necessary and absolute ; for to be different from what 
they are is impossible. They are formed spontaneously and 
intuitively —that is to say, anterior to and irrespective of any 
reflective processes; they are unreflective because they are spon- 
taneous, and spontaneous because they flow directly from the 
primeval harmony existing between the material and spiritual 
worlds. They embody all our experience ; that is, experience 
in its most comprehensive sense. 

Our experience (according to the usual acceptation of the 
term) comprehends the knowledge derived from sensation and 
reflection ; but does our knowledge stop here ? We must be 
careful that we do not leave out some element of the inquiry, 
and then repair the mutilation by arbitrary inventions. The fact 
is, all knowledge begins with experience, but it does not erid 
with experience. There are certain intuitive principles of be- 



• **The impressions or sensations (received through the sensory 
organs) being incapable of resolution into anything simpler than them- 
seWeSf are the fundamental elements of knowledge. The development 
of the mind begins with the reception of sensations'* (Payne, p. 97). 



INTUITIVE PERCBFTIONS. 65 

li^, as well as oertain primitiye Judgments, such as the relatkni 
of cause and effect, which cannot be derived from ezperienoe. 
Let us propose the question : What Is our primitive impression 
relative to causation ? Do we regard it simply as a relation of 
succession, of antecedent and consequent, or something more ? 
Now the relation of succession, which is really derived from 
experience, is a very different thing from the relation of cause 
and effect. When we say that fire melts wax, we mean some- 
thing more than that the phenomenon of fluidity succeeds the 
phenomenon of the contact of fire ; in fact, we believe that 
there u some active principle in the fire which produces the 
fluidity. Again, our acts are not only sequences to the opera- 
tion of the will— we regard them (from the primitive laws of 
our mental operations) as the direct effects of our volitions. 
Thus every act of attention is voluntary, but every voluntary 
act is characterized by the circumstance that we consider our- 
selves as the responsible cause of it A cause, therefore, is not 
merely an antecedent to a phenomenon, it is something more ; 
it ix)flsesses an active productive power : we cannot escape the 
conclusion, for it is involved in our mental existence. To ad- 
duce any further illustrations of the nature of our fundamental 
principles of belief is unnecessary ; enough has been said to 
render manifest the general truth — that they are based on the 
laws which the Creator has established. 

Every branch of knowledge must pass through the intuitive 
before it can reach the abstract form ; that is, the form of ab- 
stract representation. There is a reality, a depth, an exhaust- 
lessness, in our primitive knowledge, but it is vague and unde- 
fined ; it must become otjecUfied before it can become definite ; 
it must be fixed in the representative form of language before 
it can become an element of exact science.* 



• "The mind, in gaining knowledge for itself, proceeds fkx>m the con- 
crete to the abstract; from particular facts to general facts or principles; 
and from principles to laws, rules, and definitions, and not in the inverse 
order" (Payndi P* 99). 
5 



66 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

Such is the primitive intelligence— the intelligence of per- 
cepti(»i and intuition. We now enter upon a new and broader 
platform of development. Hitherto all our cognitions have 
been immediaU—ihsX is to say, they have flowed directly from 
the sensations derived from concrete things ; now the faculties 
of memory, conception, and representation come into active 
play, and create a new world of cognitions, at once spiritual 
and material-— the world of ideas, of signs and representations. 
The facts of perception are no longer idealized impressions, 
existing as it were only subjectively or in our consciousness ; 
they now assume the representative form of language, which is 
a symbolical representation of thought, whereby we give a sort 
of independent and external existence to the results of mental 
operations. The mind translates all its primitive judgments 
into language, and the judgments so symbolized are called 
propositions. Primitive propositions (like primitive judgments) 
express the relations of concrete things. Language expresses our 
primitive judgments first in the form of primitive propositions ; 
but by the aid of the faculty of abstraction these judgments 
are gradually generalized, and then the corresponding proposi- 
tions become general and abstract. Again, by the faculty of 
abstraction we separate the elements of a proposition in order 
to consider them separately : these elements are abstract ideas. 
Thus, in the development of the understanding we begin with 
judgments ; then follow propositions ; and last of all we have 
abstract ideas : judgments are formed by the faculty of judg- 
ment, one of the original functions of the mind. 

We have observed that primitive judgments expressed in 
language are called propositions, or it may be axioms. Now it 
is important to bear in mind that these abstract representative 
forms involve nothing more than what is contained in the primi- 
tive forms. When you tell a child (with your "subject, 
copula, and predicate") that " a rose is beautiful," you tell him 
nothing but what he previously knew and apprehended in the 
form of a primitive judgment : this is what you reaUy do, — 
you show him hpw to express his primitive judgments in Ian- 



LAW OF 'ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, 67 

guage. and thereby show him how he may give flzednefls and 
precision to his intuitive cognitions ; that is, how he may give 
to his silent thoughts and emotions " a local habitation and a 
name." 

The law regulating the acquidtion of knowledge is this : we 
cognize the concrete before the abstract, the concrete being the 
simple, the abstract the difficult. PrimitiYe judgments formed 
in connection with the sensations derived from concrete things 
precede abstract representations and processes requiring the 
exercise of abstract judgment and reason. A child judges of 
the color of an object before he has formed any abstract idea of 
color ; he judges of the relation of numbers before he has 
formed any idea of number apart from its concrete representa- 
tions ; he judges of form before he has any cognition of the 
abstract definitions of form, and so on. Piimitiye judgments 
form the basis of all our knowledge, whether of abstractions or 
of processes of reasoning. An axiom is an abstract expression 
of a primitive judgment formed in relation to the perception of 
actual objects ; these judgments exist in the mind and form 
the subjects of perfect cognition before they are regarded in 
their axiomatic form. Thus, for example, a child would not 
understand you if you were to tell him that two and tliree 
make five in consequence of the axiom, that the whole is equal 
to the sum of its parts ; but he would think and reason in ac- 
cordance with it if three objects and two objects were placed 
before him in order that he might ascertain their sum. 

Primary education begins with the culture of our intuitive 
perceptions ; this culture chiefly consists in affording occasions 
and stimulants for their development, and in fixing them in the 
mind by means of representative language: this is what we 
mean by the cultivation of the perceptive faculties. Hence ob- 
ject-lessons, picture-lessons, etc., constitute the best foims of 
early culture. 

To enlarge on this subject at present is unnecessary ; enough 
has been said to render manifest the general truth, that the 
young mind, at every stage of its development, is more or 



((8 PHILOSOPHY^ OF EDUCATION, 

less inflaenced by the caltiue of the primitive or peioeptive 
iacultlfls. 

Clabsctication of thb Faculties of the MmD. 

The mind has intellect, feelino, and will.* We think, 
we feel ; we act; that Is to say, we have thoughts and feeUngs, 
and we have also the power of controlling our thou^ts and 
feelings. Hence our internal phenomena comprehend intbl- 
LECT, feelings or emotions, and will. The ideal type of 
the human soul (the image of Qod) consists in the full and har- 
monious development of these three elements ; the intellect, in 
this perfect state of development, is characterized by freedom 
OF THOUGHT ; the emotions by benevolence or love ; and 
the will by unbestbicted foweb. Under proper culture 
(with the blessing of Qod) the soul gradually assimilates itaelf 
to this perfect state of development. It is true that in the 
present world we may never reach this ideal state of develop- 
ment ; nevertheless we may be constantly tending towaisds it 

The strength and activity of a faculty depend on the force 
of the will which animates it : and in like manner, the char- 
acter of our emotions is determined by the active force of the 
wUl. If we want to ascertain the stage of development of Hie 
intellectual and moral faculties we must look to the state of the 
will as regards its freedom : this is the true index to all the 
other operations of the mind. In infancy, when the faculties 
are feeble, there is little or no voluntary power ; the mind is 
chiefly governed by instincts and intuitions. On the other hand, 
as we acquire more and more intellectual and moral power, so 
we gain more and more force of will. Our acts (intellectual aa 
well as moral) are determined by actuating principles ; that is 



* Intelllgenoe, feeling, and Tolition are only ezpresBions of the aame 
mental force. All of these mental conditions depend on the relations 
between ocmoeptions, and hence intelligence, feeling, and volition cannot 
be influenced or educated in any other manner than by shaping the con- 
ceptions and the relations of conceptions in whidi these mental expres- 
sions have their rise.— E. S. 



CLASSIFICATION OF FACULTIBS. 09 

to say, by motiyes, by habits, and by instincts. Our force of 
will and thought is evidenoed by the character of our actuating 
principles. 

Four distinct Stages of Z>OT«lopin«it. — ^There are four 
phrases *in our language which have reference to four charac- 
teristic or distinct stages of mental activity: I perc»ke the 
thing ; I have a conception of the thing ; I know or underatand 
the thing ; and I can prote the thing. The faculties called into 
operation in the first act may be named the FBBCEPnYB facuii- 
TIES ; those in the second, the ooNCSPnyB or BSPBXSKirTATrvB 
FACULTIBS ; in the third, the knowiko faculties at the facul- 
ties of the understanding ; and in the fourth, the BEASomNG 
FACULTiEB.* Thesc four classes of faculties characterize four 
distinct stages of intellectual development Co-ordinate with 
these four intellectual stages we have also four distinct stages 
of development of the emotions and will. The first intellectual 
stage is marked by a maximum of sensibility with a minimum 
force of will ; the second by a diminution of sensibility with an 
increase of the force of will ; the third by a further diminution 
of sensibility with a further increase of the f<N!€e of will ; and 



* The use of the word " facultj ** is apt to coarej a false Impression 
and to confuse rather than explain. The receiving of a sensation 
through one of the organs in consequence of some change within or 
ontside of the body is the simplest mental phenomenon. Recalling 
this sensation at some future time, without a repetition of that excita- 
tion which originally gave rise to the sensation, is termed a conception. 
Recognizing the present conception as identical with, or different from, 
some former conception, indicates the third stage to which Tate refers. 
The association of the various features that may go to make up a con- 
ception leads to the first acts of reasoning. The reproduction of one of 
these features at once recalls the whole conception. The aheence of one 
of these features forces the mind to distinguish between the present and 
the former conception. 

This entire classification of the ftunilties of the mind by Tate is open 
to criticism. Psychical activity, however complicated in its higher 
forms, is developed in a manner inestimably more simple than the pro- 
cess which Tate attempts to outline. Comp. on Fflychology, Payne, 
Herbart, Ziller, Bain, Spencer, etc.— £. 8. 



70 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

the f oarth by a Tnlnimnm of sensibility with a mazimiim force 
of will. These four stages, then, respectiyely oomprebend the 
condition of the intellect, the emotions, and the will ; that is, of 
the whole mind. All the functions of the mind, more or less 
deYeloi>ed, exist in these different stages ; at the same time it 
must be understood that one stage gradually merges into that 
which succeeds it. These stages of development separately ex- 
ist under a condition of transition and assimilation. The com- 
mencement of each is marked by the birth of a new faculty 
which had previously existed only in a latent or embryo form. 
They are distinguished from one another by the peculiar activ- 
ity of the faculty which characterizes each ; and they are mu- 
tually connected by the necessity of a certain amount of simul- 
taneous action and development. 

The following mode of representation may aid the conception 
in realizing the mutual relations of these stages of development : 

Human Intelligence, in its different forms of development, is 
intermediate between the animal organism, the zero of intelli- 
gence, and the infinite. Between the zero of intelligence and 
me infinite there are four ascending stages, respectively con- 
tinuous, but each joined to the one which suoceeas it by an ab- 
rupt line of connection indicating the explicit development of 
a new power. At each step of me ascent we approadi the in- 
finite and recede from the zero. At the base of these four 
ascending stages or platforms of development we place the line 
which marks the level of the animal oreanism. Ascending 
from this base Une, we have the first stage of development whi(£ 
marks the region of Intuition : somewhat abruptly, this stage 
connects itsefi with the second stage of development, whidi 
marks the region of representation, and so on, until we arrive 
at the most elevated stage of human development, the region 
of thought and reflection, which continually approaches the 
line of infinite elevation without ever reaching it. However high 
human intelligence may rise in the region of thought, it must 
always be infinitely removed from the infinite intelligence, the 
image of God ; but the first stage of human intelli^nce in its 
descent approaches nearer and nearer, until it is mdefinitely 
near to the zero of intelligence, the animal organism.* 



* No such distinctly marked stages of mental growth really ex- 
ist.— E. S. 



CLASSIFICATION OF FACULTIES, 



71 



The classification of the intellectual and moral faculties 
here proposed is distinctly exhibited in the following tabular 
forms: 



I. Classification of thb Vxcm/nES of the Mnn> ab a 

WHOLE. 



Staweeof 
Deveiopmeiit. 


Tbe Intoneetma 
FacaltlM. 


TheKonaFfteoltlM. 


The FeeUagB. 


The Will. 


Ist Stage. 


The Perceptive fac- 
ulties. 


Passive emotions 
and sentiments. 


Instinct and pas- 
sions, with little 
voluntary power. 


dd Stage. 


The CoDceptive or 
Representative 
faculties. 


Sentiments, active 
emotions, and af- 
fections. 


Instincts and pas- 
sions, with some 
voluntary power. 


8d Stage. 


The Knowing fac- 
ulties, or the fac- 
ulties of the 
understanding. 


Affections more en. 
hurged and active. 


Considerable force 
of Will. 


4th Stage. 


The Reasoning fac- 
ulties. 


Benevolence or 
Love. 


Freedom of WilL 



U. CLABSIFICATIOn OF THB InTELLBCTUAL FACULTIES. 



Stages of 
Development. 



Ist Stage. 



Gharacteristio Glass 
of Faculties. 



The Perceptive fac- 
ulties. 



General Character 
of each Class. 



Intuitive. 



Individual Faculttee in 
each Glaaa. 



Sensation. Percep- 
tion. Attention. 
Observation. Re- 
tention. Primitive 
judgment or intui- 
tive perception. 



73 



PHIL030PHT OF EDUCATION, 



^StMcresot 


Chantcteriatio ClaM 


a«iiena CliarMter 


IndiTldiial Realties in 


Derelopmeiit. 


of FacttltieB. 


of eMdiClMB. 


MchClaaB. 


9d Stage. 


The Ck>nceptive or 


Representa- 
tive. 


Memory. Imitation. 




Bepresentative 


Conception. Imain- 




faculties. 




nation. Associa- 
tion. Recollection. 
Representation as 
exnibited in lan- 














guage. Priroitive 








Judgment associ- 








ated with concep- 








tion. 


8d stage. 


The Knowing: fac- 


Cognlative. 


Abstraction, dassifl- 




ulties, or the fac- 




cation. Generaliza- 




ulties of the 




tion. Explicit com- 




understanding. 




parison, coraposi- 
Judgment, etc. 


4th Stage. 


The Reasoning fac- 


Cogitative. 


Reason as exercised 




ulties. 




in: Demonstration; 
Induction ; Explicit 
Observation, Re- 
flection: Specula- 
tive thinking, etc. 



[This table is reprinted to make the volume complete, but the reader 
will remember that it does not represent the mental science of to-day. 
-E. S.] 

First Staob: The Pbrceptivb Faculties.— iSz^no/^ 
Remarks, — Here the characteristic faculty is perception ; but 
all the faculties of intelligence must exist rudimentally or im- 
plicitly in this stage of mental phenomena. The chief motive 
principles are instinct and intuition ; yet at the same time it 
must be observed that there cannot be the slightest conscious- 
ness of a sensation without an act of attention, that is, without 
some activity of will. On the whole, our mental phenomena, 
at this stage, are characterized by sensibility and sentiment, 
rath» than by thought and reflection.* 



*Tate does not present this matter clearly. Joseph Payne says 
(Principles of Science of Ed.), page 97: "The development of the 



BETENTIOK. 7S 

ObBervBtion is a compound faculty, oomprehending (more or 
less according to dicomstances) Discernment, Comparison, 
Composition, and Implicit Abstraction. Observation may be 
either implicit or explicit ; that is, it may be to a great extent 
an unconscious act of the mind, or it may be in the highest 
sense a voluntary act, performed from a preconcerted plan and 
for the attainment of a spedflc and defined object. In the 
latter sense, observation is decidedly a faculty of reason ; in 
the former sense it belongs to the perceptive claJos of faculties. 

Primitive judgment is the facul^ of judgment in its first or 
primitive form, by the exercise of which the child at once cog- 
nizes simple truths or intuitiye propositions. Observation and 
Primitive Judgment may be regarded as the rudimental or em- 
bryo forms of Reason. 

Retention is the primitive or rudimentary form of memoiy. 
With a slight effort of vdll the prominent features of an im- 
pression are retained in the mind ; this power we have called 
retention : but after the impression has entirely faded from the 
mind it is revived or recalled by the power of memory. By 
attention the mind lays hold of sensational impressions, ideal- 
izes them, and fixes them in the soul in the form of primitive 
knowledge. Strictly speaking, we do not retain the sensational 
impression, but only those prominent portions of it to which 
the attention has been most powerfully directed, and which the 
mind has idealized, or made as it were part of itself. We look 
intently at a striking object ; we close our eyes : the image of 
the object is retained in the mind not by a conscious effort of 
will, or by an ordinary act of memory, but by a power some- 
mind begins vrith the reception of sensations. The grrouping of sensa- 
tions forms perceptions, wliich are registered in the mind as concep- 
tions. The deyelopment of the mind, which begins with the reception 
of sensations, is carried onward by the formation of ideas.'* To admit 
tliat activity of the will was necessary before there could be conscious- 
ness of a sensation would force us to some very curious conclusions. 
The opposite is really true. There can be no activity of the will without 
the previous consciousness of some object (sensation, conception), which 
becomes the cause and the purpose of the volition. — E. S. 



74 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

what resembling it. The products of sensations, oonstitating 
the results of experience, soon find a lodgment in our mental 
treasury, and of their existence the mind becomea conscious 
whenever similar sensations are presented. The recurrence of 
the same sensation graduallj gives rise to the power of con- 
sciously recalling it* 

In this stage, external phenomena and their relations are 
viewed, less as subjects of thought than as objects of sentiment 
and feeHng : the mind, standing as it were face to face with 
the objects of perception, is necessarily more engaged with the 
contemplation of the objects themselves than with its own self - 
consciousness ; hence the mind is more sensual than reflective. 
Now a new class of faculties, memory and conception, are 
about to play their part in the mental history, and to draw the 
mind more away from the dominion of mere sensational im- 
pressions : we now pass from the sphere of perception and in- 
tuition to that of conception and representation. 

Sbcond Stage: The Reprbsentativb FACT7LTiB8.~Here 
the first faculty to be considered is memobt. We exercise this 
faculty when we recall ideas or intuitions with iheJkiU and dis- 
tinct consciousness of the connection between the type and the 
antitype. Attention, as a decidedly voluntary pow^, now ex- 
ercises the most powerful influences in the development of the 
other faculties. We look intently at an object of beauty ; a 
sensation is produced, the attention is aroused : we look again 
at the object and examine all its prominent features, as well in 
their relations to one another as in their relations to the object 
as a whole ; we Idealize the sensation, that is, we throw it into 
a form suited to our apprehension : here the mental operations 



* The reproduction of a former conception is in the first instance en- 
tirely involuntary. The recalling to mind of a former conception lends 
it additional force, so that the more frequently it is recalled to con- 
sciousness, the more easily will it maintain itself there. In other words, 
its frequent reproduction lends this particular conception greater force, 
and it springs into consciousness, if not displaced or obscured by some 
-■tronger conception.— E. S. 



MBMORT-^ONCXPTION, 75 

involyed in the act of perceptioii enable ua readOy to recall the 
image we have oonsdoualy constracted. Strictly speaking, 
memory is a repetition of a mental operation accompanied with 
the consciousness of its prior existence ; what we recall is simply 
the product of the mind's operations. When we remember a 
thing we reproduce the mental operations connected with the 
immediate perception of it. 

The next faculty to be considered is conception. In every 
act of memory the image which is recalled is always connected, 
in our consciousness, with the actual impression which had 
been previously produced by the object ; but this image may 
become so idealized that we at length lose sight of its connec- 
tion with the original impression ; in fact, the idea, apart from 
the object itself, may become a distinct object of consciousness 
and contemplation: this mental process is called conception. 
The peculiar function of conception is to store the mind with 
ideas formed out of our immediate perceptions, by aid of atten- 
tion and memory. This accumulation of ideas tends to elevate 
the mind more and more above the influence of external im- 
pressions ; to give the mind a more independent existence ; to 
engage it more in the contemplation of the world of its own 
creation— the world of conceptions and inward representations. 
biAOiNATiON is a higher kind of conception ; the latter is repro. 
duetive, the other produetice or erecUice, Imagination combines 
and modifies our conceptions of existing things in such a way 
as to produce a purely ideal or fictitious representation. Con- 
ception is something more than memory on the one hand, and 
something less than imagination on the other.* 



* The use of the word " Conception" in a sense different from that in 
which it is usually employed, and connecting it with the unfortunate 
expression "faculty,** tends to leave a false impression on the mind of 
the student. What Tate refers to in this instance is the development 
of general p^chical and logical ideas— general conceptions, from which 
all accidental attributes have been removed, and only the general fea- 
tures characterizing a species or a class have been retained— or in the 
further development not even these, but merely such quiUiflcations as 
the logical construction of the idea make necessary.— E. S. 



76 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

The faculty of associatiok sow gives us a new power over 
our mental operations : it gives order and arrangement to our 
ideas and conceptions, and enables us to represent them by 
signs and symbols.* By the faculty of associatioa certain 
sounds and written signs become suggestive of, or associated 
with, certain ideas : the name of a thing, for example, whether 
spoken or written, becomes associated with the conception or 
idea of the thing, so that the presence of the one suggests that 
of the other. But we arrive at this result progressively. 
The origin of language gives us the origin and natural histoiy 
of the faculty of representation. Our first outward signs of 
ideas are gestures : a nod is the representative of an affirma- 
tion, a shake of the head of a negation, and so on. Our natu- 
ral wants are also indicated by characteristic gestures. Sounds 
imitative of the peculiar cries of animals are taken as the signs 
of the idea of those animals. Our natural expressions of pleas- 
ure, pain, surprise, etc., also readily become the symbols of 
the mental states which they indicate. Spoken language na- 
turally comes before written language : a child perceives a par- 
ticular object ; we point to it and express its name : the process 
is repeated until at length the idea of the object and the name 
of it are inseparably associated in the child's mind. A child 
interprets a life-like picture as we do a book ; he reads in that 
picture the history of the acts, passions, and habits of the crea- 
tures represented. Picture-writing is the next obvious stage in 
the representative process, and it is not difficult to conceive how 
the pictorial process of representation would gradually merge 
into a purely symbolic representation. A written language, 
then, composed of arbitrary symbolic characters, is the highest 
evidence of the free exercise of the representative faculty. It 

* ABsociatioii is not a faculty: it Is simply one of the conditions, one of 
the relations to one another, into which conceptions of which we become 
conscious at the same time may enter. The similar features of two dis- 
tinct conceptions become at once associated, identical, so that the 
one conception readily recalls the other. Memory, Imag^ation, Com- 
parison, Intelligence, and all higher mental activity have their founda- 
tion in these relations of conceptions.— E. 8. 



RECOLLECTION. 77 

completely ol(fectifU$ our ideas, and gives, as it were, a twofold 
existence to the products of thought. Words and ideas ezerdae 
a reciprocal influence on each other : the visible representation 
suggests its corresponding idea, and the idea suggests its cor- 
responding representation. 

By the faculty of bboollbction we retain words, and, through 
them, reproduce the ideas which they sTmbolize. 

Thibd Staob : Thb CoGNrnvB FA0ULTiV8.~Language not 
only enables us to express our ideas by signs or words, but it 
further enables us to express the yarious relations which these 
ideas bear to one another ; that is to say, it enables us to express 
our judgments in the form of propositions. This is a step in 
advance of the foregoing stage of development. Now we have 
to express our primitive judgments, embodying all the results 
of our experience, in the form of propositions ; but besides 
this, we have to classify, extend, and generalize these judg- 
ments, and to express them in the form of general or abstract 
propositions. The faculties of abstraction, classification, and 
generalization, which have been hitherto only incidentally and 
implicitly exercised, must now be methodically and explicitly 
brou^t to bear upon the materials of knowledge. 

There are two kinds of abstraction, viz., mediate and imme- 
diate. In mediate abstraction we compare the^ualities of dif- 
ferent objects, reject their differences in order to fix upon their 
resemblances, and from these resemblances we derive a general 
or abstract idea. In immediate abstraction we compare the 
parts or qualities of a single object ; eliminating and neglecting 
the individual and variable parts, we disengage the general and 
invariable part, and give it the form of an abstract or general 
idea.t In both cases the end proposed is the derivation of a 

* Is this really anything else but memory? A special faculty recall a 
certain class of conceptions would be a contradiction to the principles 
of economy, which nature obserres in all its workings.— E. S. 

t This distinction between " mediate" and '' immediate" abstraction 
is arbitrary. In each instance, whether there are one or more objects 
to be considered, the process of abstraction is the same. Compare with 
what was said above under the head of *' Conception."— B. S. 



78 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

general idea : this general idea, being fixed and ezpresBed by a 
term, will be henceforth used as a common sign of a complete 
class of phenomena. The mind, by fixing its attention on ab- 
stract words, or general terms, as the signs of ideas, disengages 
itself from the minor details involved in the contemplation of 
the concrete world. 

Having gained a new store of abstract and general terms, 
we express our judgments in those terms, and thus derive ab- 
stract propositions. We comiKtrtf abstract terms with each other, 
so as to determine their agreement or disagreement ; we anafyee 
propositions expressing our judgments, and put the elements 
together in another form better suited to our apprehension. 
These mental operations indicate that we have passed into a 
higher region of thought, and that we have arrived at an alti- 
tude of development which gives us a wider, a more exact, and 
a less obstructed range of view than we had at the anterior peri- 
od of development. 

FouBTH Stage : The Cogitativb Facttltibs.— Being pro- 
vided with the great instrument of thought— language— reason 
now freely expands itself : it wings its ways into eveiy r^on 
of inquiiy in search of truth ; it methodizes all its materials of 
thought, and proceeds to investigate truth according to certain 
definite and explicit modes ; it lays down certain self-deter- 
mined principles of action, and suborns to itself all the other 
operations of the mind ; with a penetrating and comprehensive 
glance it looks back upon all the processes of thought through 
which it has passed, and links the past with the present and the 
present with the future. Reason in this condition of freedom 
is not merely cognitive, it is also cogitative ; it not merely seeks 
knowledge, but it also seeks to discover the sources of knowl- 
edge ; it endeavors to penetrate truth to its very centre— to trace 
truth in its origin, history, and consequences. 

Inductive reasoning leads us to a knowledge of the general 
laws of nature ; deductive reasoning enables us to tell the an- 
tecedents of any given phenomenon, and to foretell its conse- 
quents. By abstract or speculative reason we attain a knowl- 



NATURE OF THE FACULTUBa. 79 



edge of unkenal truths, embracing alike the laws whidi gov- 
em the opeiations of naiuie and the operatloiis of tboo^t Oar 
inteUigenoe is now much higher in the scale of derelopment 
than that which we characterized by oonoeption and under- 
standing ; it contains the ideality of the one combined with the 
exactness of the other ; it embodies all the anterior develop' 
ments in one harmonious definite unity ; in short, it is com- 
plete freedom of thought under the condition of law and re- 
sponsildli^. 

EsBENTiAL Points to be oonsidebsd nr bblatiqv to 
Method as apflebed to Bducatioh. 

I. The natm^ of the faculties. 

n. The subjects best adapted for the cultivation of each 
class of faculties. 

m. The nature of the motives acting on each class of facul- 
ties. 

rV. The habits of action to be established in relation to each 
class of faculties. 

y. The methods of instruction adapted to each class of fac- 
ulties. 

VI. Application of results to the different periods of educa- 
tion. 

I. Natube of the Faculties. 

The nature of the faculties may be viewed under the follow- 
ing aspects: 

1. The i)eculiar function of each faculty. 

2. Mutual relation of the faculties. 

8. Classification of the faculties with respect to their simul- 
taneous cultivation. 

(1.) The peculiar Function of each Faculty. — ^What we 
have further to adduce relative to the nature of each faculty 
has a special bearing on method as applied to education. 

It has been observed that reason and other faculties of 



80 PHILOSOPHT OF EDUCATION, 

thought exist in a nidimentaiy form at the very earliest stages 
of deyelopment ; but there is a period in our intellectual growth 
when these faculties attain certain definite or explicit states of 
deyelopment. 80 far as regards the purpose of elementary edu- 
cation, it may be assumed that each faculty may exist in two 
distinct states of development ; viz., in its first or simple form 
of development,* or in its latest or complex form. What, then, 
are the characteristics of these two states? 

Certain faculties may esBiit tn distinct and deterndnaie states 
of development, depending for the most pari on the nature of the 
svJbjeU of instruction; <Aa< m to wy, lehether the subject ie con- 
crete or abstract. 

In general, a f acul^ will exist either in a simple or in a com- 
plex state, according as the subject to which it is directed is 
concrete or abstract.! Thus, we may have either simple con- 
ception or abstract conception ; simple abstraction or complex 
abstraction ; simple memory or recollection, ideality or imagi- 
nation ; intuitive reasoning or abstract reasoning ; and so on. 
These faculties at the first stage of their development have sim- 
ple and definite functions, whereas at the latest stage they as- 
sume new and more complex functions as we rise higher into 
the region of intellection. It is true that these two states of 
development graduaUy merge into each other, according as we 
blend the two classes of subjects together. 



* The simplest psychical phenomena are the sensations and the con- 
ceptions which they call forth. Herbartf Froebel, Pestalozzi, the entire 
modem school which makes education an art based upon science and 
philosophy, require that education should begin with the training of the 
organs of sense, a classification of sensation, and the formation of a habit 
of close observation. This has led or is leading to the presentation of ail 
elementary studies in the form of object-lessons. — E. S. 

t That a fiiculty— supposing such apoweror quality to exist in theaeue 
in which Tate takes it— may be supposed as existing at one time in a 
simple and at another in a compound form, and in what way it is to 
change its nature from a simple to a compound form, so as to aooommo 
date itself to a concrete or an abstract conception, shows the difficulties 
that arise when we leave the truth.— E. SL 



FUNCTIONS OF THE FACULTIES, ^ 

GoNGKFTioN. — OwT tkupUct amctpHom are fonned fegr tte 
aid of models and pictorial representatloDs ; abitrofei caneepiitm 
is the conception of a thing fonned from a verbal description 
of it* 

IicAomATioH. — ^ThlB faculty, in its latest state of derelop- 
ment, creates fictitious scenes and events, and invests mere ab- 
stractions with all the qualities of vital existence. But the 
iDEAiiiTT peculiar to young children is very little removed from 
shnple conception : with the aid of visible representations they 
form the idea of absent objects or distant scenes ; a stick with 
a rag tied round it is invested with all the qualities of a living 
baby ; a small picture enables them to realize the idea of an un- 
seen reality : in this case the ideal conception is formed in con- 
nection with the concrete representation. 

Abstbactiok.—A child's first abstractions are derived from 
a comparative examination of the properties of concrete things : 
he forms an abstract idea of number by counting various famil- 
iar objects ; he forms the abstract conception of a quadrui)ed by 
observing the fact that cats, dogs, horses, etc., have a certain 
quality in common, viz., four legs or four feet Whereas in 
some of our higher abstractions the subject undergoes a i»ooess 
of intellection or intellectual elaboration, before the abstractions 
are completed. Thus, in order to realize the idea of a noun, the 
child must frequentiy form a double or complex abstraction ; 
for the name of a thing (e.g., bird) is a noun, not the thing itself ; 
on the other hand, a horse is really a quadruped. 

Some eminent writers on education assert " that the faculty 
of abstraction is the latest in the development of the human 
mind." Now this is only true as regards the facul^ of eom- 
ptex abgtraetwn, for even young children readily exercise the 
faculty of nmple adstraction, 

Idesis of number, form, magnitude, weight, color, etc., be- 



* From which it might be inferred that without models aod pictorial 
representations (usually very complicated affairs) there would be no 
very simple conceptions, and that without verbal descriptions there could 
be no abstract conceptions l—B. S. 
6 



83 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

long to our simple abstractions; ideas connected with our men- 
tal operations, the analysis of language, pure science, etc., be- 
long to our complex abstractions. 

Rbabok (Reasokino).*— a child's reasoning chiefly conrists 
in making simple deductions or inferences from palpable facts 
or from the relations of concrete things ; whereas reason, in its 
highest form of development, investigates the relations of ab- 
stract things. Mental arithmetic, taught by objects, calls into 
activity this early or first form of reason (reasoning) ; physical 
laws, geometry, etc., taught in the same manner, also exercise 
this first form of reason. 

The peculiar function of reason (reasoning) is the investiga- 
tion and recognition of truth; but in every process of reasoning 
there is always something taken for granted or assumed to be 
true. The truths assumed may be self-evident axioms, facts 
derived from observation and experiment, principles derived 
from induction, or abstract propositions which have been pre- 
viously established. YHien a child reasons about familiar 
things, or familiar phenomena, the axioms forming the basis of 
his inferences are not expressed in an abstract form of lan- 
guage — they are rather understood from their actual and spe- 
cial relation to the subjects or objects ; in fact, his belief in 
these axioms is of that silent, unconscious, instinctive kind of 
belief. 

The simplicity or complexity of a process of reasoning de- 
pends upon, 1. The nature of the subject ; 2. The method ; 3. 
The nature or form of the axiomatic truths or propositions, as 
the case may be. 

1. The nature of the subject. The subject may be either 
concrete or abstract. In the former case, other things being 
the same, our reasoning will be simple or intuitive ; in the latter 
case abstract. 

2. The method may be experimental, inductive, tentative, or 
some other method which appeals to the perceptive faculties ; 



* Note as to reason and reasoning.—E. S. 



MUTUAL RELATION OF THE FACULTIES, 88 

or it may be abstract, that is, the method may appeal to the re^ 
flectiye faculties, and not to the perceptive feculties. In the 
former case, other things being in keeping, our reasoning will 
be simple or intuitive ; in the latter case abstract. 

8. The nature or form of the axiomatic truths or proposi- 
tions. These may be explained in connection with the particu- 
lar subject, or they may be expressed in the form of abstract 
truths. In the former case, other things being in keeping, our 
reasoning will be simple or intuitive ; in the latter case abstract 

Hence we come to the general conclusion, that our reasoning 
will be more or less abstract or difficult, according as the 
faculty of abstraction is more or less exercised in the process. 

That our intellectual faculties may exist in two distinct states 
of development seems to have been overlooked by teachers as 
well as by educational writers : these states, as we have en- 
deavored to show, depend on the nature of the subject to which 
the &culty is directed ; the concrete exercising the simple form 
of the faculty, and the abstract the complex form of the faculty. 
The result of this misconception has been that the cultivation 
of the higher faculties has been too much neglected in our ele- 
mentary schools. We have no hesitation in saying that the 
high^ faculties, in their first or simple forms, may be health- 
fully exercised at any early age. A child of seven years readily 
i'orms simple abstractions, and reasons dearly about concrete 
things. 

(2) Mutual Relation of the Faculties. — The following 
points of relation are worthy of consideration : 

1. Relation of succession. 2. Relation of assimilation. 8. 
Relation of aggregation. 

1. Relation of succession. In our various mental processes 
there is a natural order of succession as regards the action of 
the faculties. Thus, sensation is followed by perception ; per- 
ception and attention are followed by memory and conception ; 
conception, observation, etc., by abstraction ; and so on. This 
order of succession seems to correspond with the order of devel- 
opment as ^ven at p. 71, 



84 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

2. Relation of aarimilatioii. All the facultieB are at fin* 
feeble and dicumscribed as to their modes of action, bat imde. 
proper cultore they gradually gain strength and assume new 
modes of action. This growth and development is in many 
cases equivalent to the assimilation of one facul^ to another. 
Thus: attention ijUen^fied becomes eoncmiraUon, or that 
faculty whereby we direct the undivided force of the faculties 
to a given subject Obtervation irUen^fied and metiiodked be- 
comes an important element of inductive reasoning. The 0(m- 
ception of a thing, from a verbal description, is an ideal opera- 
tion nearly allied to imagination. The conoeptive faculties 
verge upon the abstractive facullies : to form a true and com- 
plete eoncepUon of a complex object we must examine its parts, 
compare them with each other, and form a conception of them 
separately as well as in their relations to the whole. And so on 
to other faculties.* 

8. Bdation of aggregation. A complex mental operatixm 
may be regarded as an aggregation of certain simple operations. 
Each class of faculties has a leading faculty characterizing the 
group. Perception is the leading or characteristic faculty of 
the perceptive faculties ; conception and representation, of the 
conceptive and representative faculties ; the judgment^ of the 
knowing faculties; and reason, of the reasoning faculties. 
Each successive group may be regarded as an aggregation of 
all the faculties in the groups preceding it, connected with the 
faculties peculiar to each group. 



* The entire mental growth and the forms which are erentoallj evolved 
are simply the results of relations into which the different conceptions 
enter. Memory, concentration , imagination, comparison, etc., etc., are 
only different names for different aspects of the same mental activity— 
not, however, so many facolties each of which has its own peculiar work 
to perform. Throughout this part of the work Tate makes the serious 
mistake of regarding the mind as a machine, in which there are a great 
many levers and cog-wheels (faculties), and each of these has its particu- 
lar office to perform— nothing more, nothing less. Such an assumption 
mu^ force the fvuthor from ox^e mistake to anotih^, 



SmULTANSOUS ACTJpN OF THE FACULTOa, 85 

The different states of a faculty depend on the mode of the 
aggregation. 

RbcoiiLbctiok, or philosophical memory, is bdcflb hxmobt 
acting in conjunction with the faculty of assodaticni, and some- 
times with that of reason (reasoning). 

Idbalitt is the ideal faculty acting in conjunction with the 
perceptive faculties. iMAOiHATioir is a more ideal kind of 
conception. 

BiMPLB ABSTBAcnoK Is the abstractiye faculty acting in con- 
junction with the perceptive faculties. Complbz AnsTBAcnoir 
is the abstractive faculty acting in conjunction with the con- 
oeptive faculties or the representative f^lties, or with an ab- 
straction previously formed. 

iMTUiTivE KBABOH (reasoning) is the rational faculty acting 
in conjunction with the perceptive faculties, and it may be 
with simple abstraction. Abstract bbasok (reasoning) iiB the 
rational faculty acting in conjunction with complex abstraction. 

In order to cultivate any faculty, or class of faculties, we 
should make ourselves acquainted with the mode of aggr^;a- 
tion. 

(8.) The Faculties oonsidexvd with respeot to their simul- 
taneous Action and OultiTation^ — ^The connection between 
some of our faculties is so close that we cannot exercise one with- 
out exercising another. Thus, i)erception, as well as concep- 
tion, is almost always associated with primitive judgment, etc.; 
the faculty of conception cannot be exercised without memoiy; 
the faculties of ccmception and language are invariably exer- 
cised together— the conception of a thing and the name of the 
thing are almost inseparable ; the faculties of abstraction and 
classification depend upon those of conception and comparison ; 
reason and judgment presuppose the development of observa- 
tion, conception, comparison, abstraction, and language ; and 
soon. 

As many of our faculties are almost contemporaneous in 
their action, the cultivation of one class of faculties necessarily 
involves the cultivation of some other. To cultivate any fac- 



86 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

ulty by itself is scarcely practicable, and indeed if it were prac- 
ticable it is not desirable. In giving a lesson, the skilful 
teacher suits his instruction to the cultivation of a series of fac- 
ulty having a mutual affinity. 

Each class of faculties may be cultivated by itself or in com- 
bination with some other : special attention should be given to 
the leading or characteristic faculty in each class. But certain 
combinations are more eligible for simultaneous cultivation 
than others. The conceptive and representative faculties should 
be cultivated along with the perceptive faculties. Memory de- 
pends solely upon the activity of attention. Language, espe- 
cially technical and abstract terms, should be first taught in 
connection with the exercise of the perceptive faculties. Ab- 
straction, judgment, and reason (reasoning), in the early states 
of their development, should be cultivated in connection with 
the observing or perceptive faculties. The recoUective faculty, 
or simple memory combined with the faculty of association, 
should be cultivated in connection with the reasoning faculties. 
And so on to other cases. As a general rule applicable to 
early training, we should say that the perceptive faculties should 
form the basis of cultivation for all the other faculties of the 
mind. 

II. The Subjects best adapted fob the Cxtltivation of 

THE DIFFERENT FACULTIES. 

Classification of Subjects.— The leading topics of school 
instruction may be reduced to five : 

1. The knowledge and application of facts and principles of 
direct observation, under which may be included Object Les- 
sons, Lessons on familiar natural phenomena and natural his- 
tory, Mental Arithmetic, Drawing, Writing, Speaking, Mean- 
ing of terms and phrases, etc. 

These subjects si)ecially cultivate the perceptive faculties, 
and the conceptive and representative faculties, together with 
simple abstraction and intuitive reason. 



NATURE OF M0TIVJC3, 87 

2. The knowledge and application of signs and symbols, to 
which we may refer Reading, Orthography, Symbolical Arith- 
metic, etc. 

These subjects chiefly cultivate the representative facultieB. 

3. The knowledge of facts generally, which includes descrip- 
tive Geography, Natural History, Narratives, History (especi- 
ally of our own country), etc. 

These subjects specially cultivate the knowing faculties. 

4. The knowledge of general laws and abstract relations, to 
which we may refer Natural and Experimental Philosophy, 
PhyEdcal Geography, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Gram- 
mar, etc. These subjects specially cultivate the reasoning 
faculties. 

5. The knowledge which inculcates sentiment and excites re- 
flection, comprehending General Beading, Poetry, Music, Re- 
ligion, etc. ' 

These subjects specially cultivate the imagination and all the 
higher or reflective faculties, together with the moral and re- 
ligious sentiments. 

m. Natxtbb of thb Motives AcnNQ on each Class of 

Fagulties. 

The most important motives of action, so far as relates to in- 
tellectual culture, are as follows : 

1. Curiosity, or the desire for knowledge. 2. Love of the 
beautiful and the wonderful. 3. The pleasure connected with 
the healthful exercise of the faculties. 4. The pleasure of suc- 
cess. 5. Sympathy and emulation. 6. Desire of approbation. 
7. Hope of reward. 8. Fear of punishment. 9. Love of dis- 
tinction. 10. Love of truth. 11. Sense of duty. 12. The 
pleasure derived from the possession of knowledge and the con- 
sciousness of power. 

The first four motives are specially applicable to the cultiva- 
tion of all the faculties at their early stages of development ; as 
far as regards the cultivation of the perceptive, conceptive, and 



88 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

representative faculties, scarcely any other motives of action 
are necessary. But the range of motives must be enlarged with 
the growth and development of the faculties. The cultivation 
of the knowing and reasoning faculties frequently requires the 
aid of almost every legitimate motive. Motives of action should 
he varied according to the diversities of intellect, character, and 
subjects of instruction. When one motive loses its power an- 
other may be effective. 

IV. The Habits OF AcnoN TO BBBOTABusHBDiirBELATioifr 

TO EACH Class of Facultibs. 

The most important habits of action, so far as relates to in- 
tellectual culture, are as follows : 

1. Continuous attention. 2. Careful observation. 8. Yivac- 
i^— Earnestness — Mental Activity— Promptitude. 4. Docil- 
ity—Veneration—Obedience—Order — Exactness. 6. Self-re- 
liance — Thoughtf ulness — Self -culture — Self - examination — 
Self-control. 6. Concentration— Abstractive attention-^System- 
atic study — Analytic examination — ^Distributive classification of 
knowledge— Realization and self -appropriation of knowledge 
— ^Decision of character — Strenuous and laborious application. 
7. Reflection — Candoiv-Devotedness in the pursuit of truth 
— Self -dedication— The philosophic spirit — Correct thinking, 
speaking, writing, and feeling. 

The first five habits should be specially cultivated in relation 
to all the faculties at their early stages of development : These 
habits, however, have a special relation to the perceptive, imita- 
tive, and conceptive faculties ; but the range of habits must be 
enlarged with the growth and development of the faculties. The 
habits included in the 6th group should be established in rela- 
tion to the exercise of the knowing or understanding faculties ; 
and those included in the 7th group should be established in 
connection with the cultivation of the reasoning faculties. 



XDUCATIONAL PERIODS, 89 



V. Thb Methods of InerrBucnoH adaftsd to bach Clabb 

OF Facuutdes. 

The general principles of method contained in Chap. IV. 
are more or leas applicable to the cultivation of all the faculties; 
and Part n. of this work contains specific methods for the cul- 
tivation of the different classes of faculties. 

YL Affligatiok of Rbbui/ts to the Different Pkbiods 

OF EovGATioir. 

Our early life may be divided into five i)eriod8. 

1. Infimoy (from Birth to Fourth Tear). — The infant has 
first to acquire the right use of its senses. During the later 
part of this period the peroeptiye faculties attain a considerable 
degree of vigor and acuteness ; and the conceptive and repre- 
sentatiye faculties, constituting the first evidences of mental ex- 
istence, also characterize the later part of this period. Ab the 
brain, the organ of thought, is in an imperfect state, our in- 
struction should be entirely of a desultory character ; we should 
wait for the spontaneous development of the faculties. Speak- 
ing, singing, and the names of familiar objects constitute the 
chief subject-matters of instruction. 

2. Barly Ohildhood (from Fourth to Seventh Tear).— This 
period is marked by a greater activity and precision of the con- 
ceptiye and representative faculties, associated to some extent 
with the knowing faculties, and the first glimmerings of reason. 
The sensibilities of the child are also quickened, and the im- 
pressions produced by external objects are deeper and more 
lasting. Attention, at first spontaneous, now becomes a volun- 
tary faculty. At the early part of this period instruction should 
be identified with amusement, and all technical learning should 
be carefully excluded. We should invest our subjects of in- 
struction with some charm calculated to engage the feelings. 
During this period the mind should be pr^Nued for commenc- 



00 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

ing the exertions required at the subsequent period. Without 
being technical or strictly systematic, our subjects of instructioa 
should be comprehensiye, the exclusive object of all our instruc- 
tion being the development of the faculties. Speaking, singing, 
object-lessons, lessons on striking natural phenomena, picture- 
lessons, mental arithmetic, and the facts of Scripture (life of 
Christ, etc.), should form the chief subjects of instruction 
throughout the whole of this period. At the latter part of this 
period, writing, drawing, reading, common arithmetic, and 
geography should be taught in such a way as to form the basis 
of future instruction. Intuitive truths or simple propositions 
may also be taught as inferences from familiar facts. 

3. Ohildhood (from Seventh to Tenth Tear).~This period is 
chiefly marked by the dawn of reason and imagination, and the 
fuller development of the faculties of the understanding. Dur- 
ing this period the studies of the preceding period should be ex- 
tended and associated with easy processes of reasoning and ab- 
straction. The abstract terms and phrases of language, arith- 
metic, geometry, natural science, and grammar, should be 
taught in connection with their concrete forms. Lessons on 
general knowledge should also be given, comprehending simple 
stories, narratives, historical sketches, and descriptions of 
natural scenery, in prose as well as in verse. 

4. Early Touth (from Tenth to Fourteenth Tear).^ — Al- 
though the perceptive and conceptive faculties still maintain 
their ascendancy, yet during this period the understanding and 
reason attain a certain degree of strength. Reason (reasoning) 
now gives strength and vivacity to ail the other faculties, and 
especially to the recollective faculty. As the mind is now cap- 
able of more sustained exertion, tiie habit of intensified atten- 
tion, or the habit of directing the imdivided force of the faculties 
to a given subject, should form an important object of culture. 
The subjects of instruction belonging to the foregoing period 
should be enlarged, and studied more systematically, yet not 
without a due regard to the imperfect state of the reflective 
faculties. Language, mathematics, and the physical sciences 



QENSBAL PRINCIPLES OF TKACBUm. 91 

and uflefol arts dioold be specially studied, not only as means 
of intellectual culture, but also as subjects having a direct bear- 
ing on the business of life. 

6. Tonth (from Fourteenth Tear to Manhood^— -During this 
period all the faculties of our nature attain their foil develop- 
ment. Every subject must now be studied in its most technical 
and systematic form ; that is, supposing the preceding periods 
have been duly improved. Every study must now be pur- 
sued with earnestness, vigor, and detennination ; and duties 
requiring strenuous and continued labor should be performed 
with cheerfulness and exactness for the sake of the end to be 
attained. Competitive examinations and rewards now become 
appropriate as well as powerful stimulants to exertion. During 
this period the subjects of study should have a special bearing 
on the profession or business for which the youth is being 
educated. 



CHAPTER IV. 



OBNEBAL FBIKGIFLBB OF TBAOHIHG, OB ELBHBKTB OV 

METHOD. 

Have we arrived at any well-recognized general principles 
of method as applied to education? If so, what are they ? Un- 
fortunately, the philosophy of method has never yet been sys- 
tematically studied by practical teachers, nor have its principles 
been fairly applied by them with the view of determining what 
are the true general principles or axioms of education. How- 
ever, a careful induction of recognized psychological facts has 
led us to regard the following as deserving a place amongst 
those axioms or general principles. The unsettled state of our 
knowledge on this subject will form the best ax)ology for the 
imperfection, or it may be the errors, of the following summary 
of general principles. 



02 PBILOaOPHT OF EDUCATION. 

It will be dbserred that many of these priDc^kB give differ- 
ent fiioes or aspects of the same general principle ; such aspects 
are essential to the fall deyelopment of the subject-matter, and 
give a precision and a distinctiveness to the different modes in 
which an important general principle may be applied. 

I. Ofir me^odi qfedueaUon 9hauld aet in eo-cperaUon with^ and 
should form atffuncts to, the natural ardor and mode tf develop- 
ment of the ph$fsical, inteUectual, and m/oral faeiUUeo of ^ 
children; in short, we must teach Mldren afUfr the waiy hy 
uhieh naitu/re intended that they should he taught. 

This must comprehend all other general principles of educa- 
tion. 

The faculties of chfldien develop themselves slowly ; one 
faculty shows itself before another ; some are as active and 
almost as vigorous in the child as they are in the full-grown 
man— such as perception, simple memory, curiosity, etc. : on 
the contrary, certain faculties never attain their full develop- 
ment until the child has arrived at the period of maturity—- 
such as recollection, or philosophical memory, imagination, 
abstraction, reason, etc. 

All the faculties are invigorated by being properly exercised , 
whereas, on the other hand, tb^ may be enfeebled by being 
overtasked, or by being exercised on subjects which do not 
come within their proper sphere. The subjects of instruction 
as well as the methods of instruction should'be adapted to Hie 
strength of the faculties. 

Our business is not to destroy any faculty, but to follow out 
the intentions of nature in relation to its development ; our 
business is not to create any faculty, but to cultivate all the 
faculties which Qod has bestowed upon the chfld, according to 
the plan or method which He has ordained. 

The cultivation of any faculty should have a relation to the 
period at which it develops itself. Thus, for example, the faculty 
of observation is strong in young children, tliat of abstract 



NATURAL DKVMLOPMENT OF FACULTJESL iM 

reaflon (reasoning) is weak; hence we should commmiicate 
knowledge to young children through their peiceptiYe faculties, 
and we should at the same time be careful Uiat we do not over- 
task the faculty of reason (reasoning). Certain faculties attain 
distinct states of development corresponding to the growth of 
the mind as a whole : ideality, simple abstraction, and intuitive 
reason (reasoning) are developed at an early period ; whereas 
complex abstraction and abstract reason (reasoning) aie the 
latest in the development of the human mind. 

As a first condition of success in teadilng, the nuister should 
be thoroughly acquainted with the laws regulating the develop- 
ment of the faculties of the being to be educated : his work 
becomes comparatively easy and pleasant when his methods of 
instruction are framed in accordance with these laws. 

The various faculties require distinct modes of cultivation ; 
so that what may be requisite for the development of one, may 
not be best adapted for the development of another : one course 
of study may cultivate the faculty of recollection, another 
course that of imagination ; and so on. In order, therefore, to 
give a full elucidation of this subject, it is necessary that we 
should consider the various faculties of our nature in detail, 
with the view of determining the best modes for their respective 
cultivation. This we purpose to do in another part of thin 
work. But there are certain general principles which have re- 
spect to the development of the mind as a whole, and these we 
purpose to consider before giving an account of the cultivation 
of particular faculties or particular classes of faculties.* 



* ** We must not hope wholly to change their original tempers, nor 
make the gay pensive and grave, nor the melancholy sportive without 
spoiling them. God has stamped certain characters upon men*s minds, 
which, like their shapes, may perhaps be a little mended, but can hardly 
be totally altered and transformed into the contrary. He therefore that 
is about children should well study their natures and aptitudes, and see 
by often trials what turn they easily take, and what becomes them; 
observe what their native stock is, how it may be improved, and what it 
is fit for: he should consider what they want, whether they be capable 
of having it wroug^ht into them by industry, and incorporated there by 



94 FHJLOSOFHY OF EDUCATION, 

U. The ehirf ol^feci af primary edueatian » to develop aU the 
famUOee cfwr nature, phyeioal, nUeUeetual, and moral. At 
ihe earns time the deedopment of the facutUee cfehiXdren abace 
a certain age ehonid have a due regard to their future emptay- 
ment in the present world, as well as to their future dettiniy in 
the world to come. Instruction should be characterised by the 
prineipte of utility and deeelopment. 

The first ten yean of a child's life is peculiarly the period of 
development During this period the acquisition of knowledge 
is in itself a yery secondary object—it is a means for securing 
a great end, and that end is the development of the faculties. 
No knowledge, however valuable in itself, can compensate for 
the deadening influence which its acquisition may have had 
upon the faculties of the child ; on the other hand, no knowl- 
edge, however trifling in itself, should he despised which en- 
livens and invigorates these faculties.* 

The mind, from its veiy constitution, seeks to develop itself. 
A boy is not a mere recipient of knowledge : his faculties are 
continually developing themselves by exercise. Eveiything in 
the world around him tends to stimulate this development. His 
Creator has placed him in this beautiful world, where all its 
laws and phenomena tend to quicken, develop, and elevate his 
physical, intellectual, and moral faculties. The creature should 
surely follow out the intentions of the Creator I 

But educators, in the place of fostering this development, have 



practice; and whether it be worthwhile to endeavor it. For in many 
cases all that we can do or should aim at is, to make the best of what 
nature has given, to prevent the vices and faults to which such a consti- 
tution is most inclined, and give it all the advantages it is capable of. 
Every one^s natural genius should be carried as far as it could: but to at- 
tempt the putting another upon him, will be but labor in vain ; and what 
is so plastered on will at best sit but untowardly, and have always hang- 
ing to it the ungracef ulness of constraint and affectation/*— Lookk. 

* Pestaloczl says : " Observe the nature and propensities of youf 
children, in order to be able to educate them according to their individ- 
ual wants and talents.'* 



KNOWLEDGE A MEANS TO AN END. 05 

too frequently directed their energies to counteract it— instead 
of regarding knowledge as a meanB, they have looked upon it 
sasji end* 

These systems taken separately are obviously imperfect The 
faculties, as we have already shown, can always he developed 
in harmony with the useful nature of the subjects of instruc- 
tion, for what is most instructive to the mind cf the bay will gen- 
erally be found to be the most ueefui to the man; so that, in 
reality, there is not necessarily any antagonism between the 
principle of utility and that of development. Without losing 
sight of the importance of practical knowledge, especially at 
the later stages of elementary instruction, the truly enlightened 
educator will ever regard the development of the faculties as 
the great end of all his teaching ; but from the various useful 
matters of instruction he will always select that which is best 
calculated to secure this end, and his mode or cfystem of teach- 
ing will always have a reference to the same great end. The 
question with him will not be, Have I conveyed the greatest 
amount of technical knowledge in the least possible time ? have 
I engrafted the ideas of the man upon the mind of the boy ? 
but it will rather be. Have I awakened any element of intel- 
lectual or moral vitality which had hitherto lain dormant? 
have I invigorated or purified any faculty which had hitherto 
existed in a feeble or in an imperfect state of development ? 
and has all this been attained with a due regard to the future 
pursuits and destiny of the pupil ? 

" England expects every man to do his duty/' The school- 
master has a sacred duty to dischaige in relation to his country 
— ^he has to educate his pupils in sudi a way that they may be 



* '* Some propose, as the object of all their efforts, to communicate as 
much positiye knowledge as possible: they often produce living ency- 
clopsBdias, unfit for useful activity. Others perceive how little this ac- 
cumulation of abstract knowledge avails in preparation for active life, 
and direct their attention almost exclusively to matters of a practical 
nature. On this plan there is no small danger of producing mere in- 
gtrumenU for others— men almost incapable of original thought or in- 
dependent action.^'— WOODBRIDGB. 



96 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

fully prepared for carrying out the work which she expects 
them to perform. Englaod has a mat destiny to fulfil! On her 
empire the sun never sets ; she holds under her sway the fairest 
and richest portions of the glohe, and to all of them she has 
to extend the blessings of her civilization. What our people 
have done for North America, we have yet to do for South 
Africa and Asia : the jungle, the lair of the lion and tiie tiger, 
has to be converted into corn-fields and gardens ; our mining 
appliances have to be transported to the gold-fields of Austra- 
lia ; railways, facilitating the transport of material and produce, 
have to be constructed in all our great colonies ; and our various 
forms of machinery, economizing time and labor, have to be 
established wherever nature affords facilities and scope for 
their application. Now which is the class of men best quali- 
fied for carrying out this mighty work ? Is it our classical 
scholars and abstract mathematicians ? Surely not : we want 
men of heads and hands ; men of skilled labor, thoroughly 
conversant with all our practical sciences and arts. Teachers ! 
such is the class of men at present wanted by your countnr, and 
the training of such men should form one great object of your 
school instruction. 

III. But the end of education is not merety to develop the f acui- 
ties of the child : it is also to develop them aU in harmony teith 
one another, and toith a due rega/rd to their proper ordsr and 
relative importance. 

Nature, or rather the God of nature, int^ided that the devel- 
opment of the intellectual and moral faculties should be complete 
and harmonious, that no faculty should be cultivated at the ex- 
pense of another, and that every vicious and morbid tendency 
should be restrained and corrected. The work of education 
should be corrective as well as directive. The basis of our in- 
struction, as well as the methods of instruction, should be com- 
mensurate with the complete development of the faculties. 

Every faculty should be cultivated the moment it is capable 
of healthy action, for the ultimate force of any faculty is de- 
pendent VLpon its early exercise not less than upon the frequency 
with which it is exercised.* In early youth all the faculties are 



* Comenius says: *' We learn to do by doing." 



DEVELOPMENl SHOULD BE HABMOmOUS. 97 

under our control, and may be readily moulded by education ; 
but at a later period they acquire such a rigidity and set as to 
resist further change or improvement. 

Whilst all the faculties have each an independent mode of 
action, and admit of distinct modes of culture, the complete 
development of one faculty often depends on the exercise of 
another ; for example, the faculty of recollection, which is the 
most perfect form of memory, depends upon the exercise of the 
reasoning powers. We should not, therefore, unnecessarily 
defer the cultivation of the higher faculties. 

In many of our schools no means are employed for the culti- 
vation of the i)erceptive and observing faculties, and the rea 
soning powers are either entirely neglected or cultivated upon 
too narrow a basis. 

That system of instruction is especially defective which cul- 
tivates the intellectual powers and neglects the training of the 
affections and moral feelings. 

The system, practised in too many of our schools, of cram- 
ming boys with a knowledge of particular subjects, is not only 
erroneous in method, but highly reprehensible on the ground of 
moral principle. One boy is almost exclusively taught draw- 
ing, another mental arithmetic, and so on, with the view of 
exhibiting at some public examination the little intellectual 
prodigies to an admiring crowd of visitors. This one-sided 
system cannot be too strongly denounced : it is a lie of the most 
mischievous character ; it is deceptive in its aim as well as in 
its results ; it heartiessly sacrifices the future happiness of the 
child to pander to a morbid taste en the part of the public for 
witnessing cases of imhealthful precocity of intellect. The 
schoolroom should never become a hot-bed for stimulating the 
growth and development of early genius. As all the boys in 
each class of a national school breathe the same air, engage in 
the same physical exercises, and subsist upon the same kind of 
diet, so, as a general rule, the same intellectual and moral ali- 
ment will be found suitable to the appetites of all, and the same 
instruments of development will be found adapted to the pow- 
7 



98 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

ers of all.* If it be requisite to adopt any exoeptional rule to 
the general form of class instruction, we should say. Let the 
master specially help those that cannot help themselves ; let 
him check the wayward, and at the same time let him gently 
lead the feeble nurslings of his flock ; let him specially care for 
the dunces, and leave the geniuses under certain restrictions to 
care for themselves. That school is not in a healthful condi- 
tion where there is a great disparity in the attainments of the 
pupils, and where there is a want of an harmonious develop- 
ment of all the faculties and susceptibilities of the pupils. At 
the same time it must be conceded that the management of pe- 
culiar tempers, dispositions, and tastes must depend upon the 
individual skill and judgment of the master. While he adheres 
to his general plan of class instruction, he will not ''permit 
himself to misapprehend, or to pervert according to his own 
contracted views, that which the Creator has ordered in infinite 
wisdom ;" he will not confound the amiable and good with the 
mischievous and wicked ; he will not discourage the intelligent 
and industrious by connecting them with the ignorant and lazy; 
and when mere class arrangements fail in giving a proper scope 
for the exercise of the minds of superior boys, he will assign 
them some special duties for their self-improvement and devel- 
opment. 

* It would seem that in one direction or another every mortal is a 
bom Konius. There is some one thing which his natural talent will ena- 
ble him to do better than all the world besides. This is his grreat force, 
and should be cultivated. The mathematical ignoramus may be a na- 
tural orator. The study and constant consideration of the individuality 
of the child is one of the most serious responsibilities of an intelligent 
teacher.—E. S. 



INSTRUCTION SHOpLD BE PB0GBS8SJVE. 09 



IV. In order to promote the harmonmu detelopmeni nf ike 
famUiee, inetruetion should be proffremve—the range of euXh 
jeete, as teeU as the methods employed in teaching them, should 
be extended and completed as the faculties cf the pttpU are ex- 
panded and developed. 

According to this method, the instraction first given to little 
children should he as simple as possible. But as their minds 
become more and more developed the subject-matter of our in- 
struction should be extended and systematized accordingly, and 
the range of instruction, as well as the manner in which that 
instruction is carried out, should be duly proportioned to and 
commensurate with the growth of the faculties. It is a false 
idea to suppose that we can teach children from a perfect or 
complete text-book on any given subject.* It is a law of our 
intellectual and moral nature tliat we never arrive at a perfect 
knowledge of any subject at once ; that can only be attained 
by mastering the different parts of it little by little and time 
after time. The leading or prominent points of the various 



* The plan of employing complete text-books has, in my opinion, oon 
tributed to the formation of more dunces than Nature herself has ever 
produced. Our so-called perfect text books rank amongst the greatest 
eTils to be found in our present system of instruction. The very com- 
pleteness and so-called strictly logical arrangement of these books are 
the great causes which render them unsuitable for the development of 
the juvenile mind. The system which these books pursues is not the 
system which nature lays down for the development of the human facul- 
ties; the juvenile mind is, at the very threshold, repulsed by the stately 
order of their definitions, their axioms, their postulates, and their ab- 
stractions. No wonder that such a system, followed out rigidly, has 
caused pedagogues and task-masters to place the stamp of dunce upon 
the brow of some of the highest orders of intellect, and to drive such in- 
tellects from the close hot-beds of school instruction to seek for that 
healUif ul development which is to be found in a free and unrestrained 
communion with the objects of nature. All unnatural and constrained 
systems of education invariably disgust boys of superior minds, and 
cause them to seek the development of their faculties in the way b^jf 
which nature intended they should be developed. 



100 • PHILOSOPHY OF. EDUCATION. 

departments of human knowledge must be fully understood by 
the young mind before it is capable of entering into the details 
and systematic combinations forming any complete science. 
Hence our instruction should notonly be progressive as regards 
the development of particular departments of knowledge, but 
should also be progressive as regards the development of the 
ensemble, or the collection of subjects which constitute the mat- 
ters of instruction. Let us take a few examples. 

In the teaching of grammar we should not teach from any 
perfect text-book, such as Murray's or Moreirs, but we should 
first go through a very simple yet comprehensive system of 
grammar, explaining the simplest and most prominent defini- 
tions and principles, without following them into their minute 
details. 

In the teaching of practical geometry we should first give the 
pupils a simple preliminary course of instruction, selecting the 
most simple, striking, and useful problems, and arranging 
them according to the most simple and natural order. 

In the teaching of arithmetic we should first carry the pupils 
through a simple and comprehensive course of calculation, em- 
bodying aU, or nearly all, the fundamental operations of num- 
bers, before we attempted to carry them through the so-called 
systematic course of arithmetic, involving long and irksome 
calculations, intended to give expertness and skill in the ma- 
nipulation of numbers, rather than to awaken and invigorate 
the intellectual faculties. 

In the teaching of familiar sciences we should first teach just 
so much of all the useful sciences, without a slavish regard to 
their technical arrangement, as could be comprehended by the 
pupils at their particular stage of intellectual development, con- 
stantly observing at the same time that the subjects of instruc- 
tion are arranged according to their order of simplicity and 
natural affinity, rather than according to their order of conven- 
tional classification. For example, if we wanted a child to un- 
derstand two laws or principles which had some analogy with 
each other, or depended upon some common principle, we 



SELF DEVELOPMENT, 101 

Bhoiild not trouble ourselyes with inquiring whether the one law 
belonged to statics or the other to hydrostatics ; it would be 
enough for our purpose to know that the one would enable us 
to illustrate the other. And so on to the treatment of other 
subjects. 

y . Our ayst&m cf teaehing shauid faster the principU qf 9etf- 

devetopmefU and 9eff4n9trueUon, 

Children like to discover things, and to do things, for them- 
selves, and they always attach the highest value to the knowl- 
edge which is thus acquired.* The suggestive method of 
instruction is admirably calculated to foster this principle of 
self-development A Imowledge of the properties of objects, 
of the elements of number, and of some of the most obvious 
laws of nature may be readily taught in this way. In the 
course of our instruction we should regard the little pupil, not 
as a mere recipient of knowledge, not as a passive machine to 
be moved at our will, but as a thinking and voluntary agent, 
capable of collecting ideas, and even of originating them, 
when the proper materials or subjects of thought are placed 
before him. But the teacher must not allow his pupils to wan- 
der in a wrong direction in search of truth. He must be con- 
stantly by their side, to shield them from danger, and to guide 
them to truth— to correct their errors and to confirm their dis- 
coveries. In order that this spirit of self -development may be 
maintained in a condition of vigorous activity, the teacher 
should never require his pupils to do anything which they are 
not able to do ; and he should never tell them anything which 
they are capable of finding out for themselves. His teaching 



* Tate states admirably what Longfellow says poetically : " The joy 
is in the doing." Children feel the same joy and enthusiasm in all they 
accomplish which the Inrentor displays when successful. This feeling 
of success is positively necessary for the development of an independent 
and courageous character. A.s a rule, the poorest teachers talk most. 
The best teachers only du*ect the line of thought of their scholars.— E. S. 



103 PHILOSOPHY or EDUCATIOy, 

should be saggestiYe. As one of the heal means of self -de- 
velopment. 

We shmUd faster whtntary efari». — ^The teacher should con- 
stantly endeavor to hidte children to voluntary efforts ; this is 
especially applicable to subjects of home instruction. With 
the generality of children this may be readily effected : instead 
of saying to a boy, " Gomel you mtui learn your lesson ; if you 
do not, I shall whip you very severely. " — ^it would be much better 
to say to him, "Tou have an interesting lesson to learn to- 
night ; when you have done with your play, you will, I am 
sure, find pleasure in learning it." We should catch children 
in the proper frame of mind for learning ; and if they are not in 
that frame of mind when we want to give them instructions, 
we should endeavor to create it The usual seasons of amuse- 
ment should never be selected for graver kinds of instruction ; 
for in order that children may give an earnest attention to any 
subject, their minds should not be preoccupied with any mat- 
ter of particular interest. 

We should catch the clew of thought in a child's mind, 
and then, by foUowing it out, give it the direction which we 
wish it to take. In short, we must observe, follow, and then 
lead. By this means we may acquire an unlimited control 
over the child's intellectual and moral habits, without exercis- 
ing any positive constraint on his liberty of action. 

By this method, we may not only cultivate the reflective and 
inventive powers of the child, but we foster the principle of 
self-dependence, which is so essential to his future success in 

life. 

Independence of thought is nearly allied to invention ; and 
children are capable of both. Children are more inventive at 
six years of age than they are at ten; and independence of 
thought, like the first untainted odor of the fresh flower, loses 
its power as the child advances in years. Our present systems 
of education seem to check the growth of the inventive facul- 
ties, by filling the mind with knowledge, rather than attending 
to the development of original power. We teach too much by 



INSTRUCTION APPEALING TO THE SENSES. 103 

authority, and pay too litUe regard to the independence and un- 
biassed exercise of the reasoning powers. When wo put a 
question to children, we generally let them know, one way or 
another, what sort of answer we expect from them, and they, 
as a matter of course, in the place of thinking and judging for 
themselves on the matter of inquiry, endeavor to find out what 
our view of it is, and frame their answer accordingly. Boys 
thus ape the habits of thought and manners of men so much, 
that they lose the beautiful bloom of early childhood long before 
the reflective period of manhood has conunenced. In this way 
they may acquire knowledge, but it is gained at a fearful cost. 
Why do we not encourage children to make and invent things? 
why do we not give them the means of constructing toys and 
simple machines, and of making simple experiments for them- 
selves? The answer is apparent — we are too desirous of mould- 
ing the infant soul after our preconceived ideas. Newton's 
first invention was a little water-mill ; and Watt's first steam- 
engine, at least as far as principle is concerned, was his mother's 
kettle. Why have we so few thinkers amongst us, and so 
many great scholars, whose heads are so filled with the ideas 
of others, that they have no room for any thoughts of their 
own? Because we keep constantly filling the minds of our 
children with ideas, but rarely seek to develop that power which 
gives a command over those ideas.* 

yi. In early ^Hdhood our subjecta of instruction should a/ppeal 

to the senses. 

The first object of instniction should be the development of 
the perceptive and conceptive faculties ; this is best done by a 
series of graduated lessons on the properties and uses of exter- 
nal objects. These lessons, if properly conducted, open up to 



* ** Skill is the expression of power, and drawing is the second best way 
of expressing thought. Moulding in sand is one of the best possible 
ways to teach geography, and should precede map-drawing.^*— F. W. 
Pabkkr. 



104 PHILOSOPHY OF^ EDUCATION. 

the mind of the child the first great sources of knowledge, 
awaken curiosity, encourage a laudable spirit of inquiry, and 
cultivate habits of observation and attention. Beginning with 
the most familiar things, such as the properties and uses of the 
articles about the house, the teacher advances with slow steps, 
making sure that his pupils comprehend, as far as it is desira- 
ble that they should do so, every successive lesson ; and as their 
faculties expand the teacher takes care that the subject-mat- 
ters of instruction are enlarged accordingly. 

Before a child can think, he must be supplied with the 
first elements of thought ; the names and properties of external 
objects constitute these first elements. Objects arc distinguished 
from one another by their properties, and a knowledge of these 
properties can only be acquired by sensation and perception ; in 
fact, the child must see these properties before he can have any 
idea or conception of the objects to which they belong. One 
body is round or square, black or white, hard or soft, transpar- 
ent or opaque, solid or fluid, etc., according to the impression 
which the body itself produces upon the senses of the child ; 
hence it follows that the educator should convey a knowledge 
of the properties of objects, and the names by which they are 
called, in connection with the actual perception of the objects 
themselves. The name of a thing, or the name given to the 
properties of a thing, should never be given apart from the per- 
ception of the thing itself. After the thing is withdrawn the 
name of it, as well as the conception of it, remains fixed in the 
mind ; the vividness and truthfulness of the conception formed 
of a thing being always in proportion to the intensity of the in- 
terest which the thing itself excited in the mind. Thus words 
are always associated with ideas. A child's mental existence 
almost entirely depends on the exercise of the faculty of con- 
eeptmi. 

At this early stage of development the proper intellectual ali- 
ment is a knowledge of facta; these facts become the first sub- 
jects of reflection, and thus prepare the way for a higher de- 
velopment. As the first step in philosophy is to make a 



COMPARISON AND CONl'RAST. 105 

collectioii of facts, so the first stages of instruction should be 
the communication of a knowledge of facts, without a jy at- 
tempts to convey a knowledge of causes, for this should belong 
to a higher and subsequent period of instruction. Nothing can 
be more out of place or more absurd than the attempts of 
authors as well as of teachers to explain the causes of familiar 
phenomena to very young children, or to bring down to the 
level of their capacity subjects which presuppose the intelli- 
gence of riper years. Such instructors fill the head of the pupil 
with learned words and phrases, which convey no positive idea 
to him ; torture his memory and understanding with a catalogue 
of frightful names ; and render the work of education a pain- 
ful infliction in the place of a delightful duty. 

A knowledge of the properties of external ot^ects should he taught 
by comparison and conirast, and things that are unknown by 
^lose UuU are known. Thus, for instance, in explaining the 
property of transparency, we should show that glass is trans- 
parent, that there are other bodies which are also transparent, 
that there are some bodies which are only half -transparent or 
semi-transparent, and that there is a great number of bodies 
which are opaque. Here the property is made a subject of 
comparison and contrast. Again : The picture of a tiger, aided 
by the resemblance which he has to a cat, will enable us to con- 
vey a sufficiently correct conception of this gigantic specimen 
of the feline race. Thus we should say to the child : A tiger is 
a great wild savage cat, which can tear an ox in pieces with its 
large claws and teeth with as much ease as our house cat can 
tear a little mouse. In this way we should convey a knowl- 
edge of the unknown thing by means of the qualities of a 
thing that is known. Commencing with what the child 
knows, we conduct him by easy gradations to a knowledge of 
what he does not know. In like manner, the conception 
which the child forms of his earthly father enables him to 
form an idea of his heavenly Father : thus he readily imder- 
stands what is meant by the language, ** Our Father, which 
art in heaven." 



106 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Pictorial representatioiis aid us in giving vivacity and vigor 
to the faculty of conception. 

We should lead the child to draw simple inferences from the 
properties of the objects presented to his senses. Glass scratches 
copper— glass is harder than copper. Iron sinks in water — 
iron is heavier than water; wood floats on water— wood is 
lighter than water : and so on. 

The great end to be attained by object-lessons is to familiarize 
the young mind with the meaning of scientific terms and facts, 
so as to facilitate the systematic study of science at a later 
period. Water fiowt from one vessel to another— water is 
called 2k fluid. Lead is a solid, but the heat of the fire causes it 
to mdt—XesA is fusihU, Water boils hi the kettle ; the heat 
makes the water boil ; the Heam that you see coming out of the 
mouth of the kettle is water in the form of tapor—whsi you 
see going on is called wiporieatian, A little water is spread 
over a plate ; the water gradually disappears — ^what you see 
going on is called emportUion: and so on. These lessons 
should, of course, always be methodical and suited to the ages 
and capabilities of the children. Some of the most important 
properties and definitions of numbers and geometrical figures 
may be readily taught by means of tangible objects.* 

Object-lessons, to be instructive and interesting, should always 
contdn something fresh and sparkling. Unfortunately teachers 
are too much in the habit of reiterating again and again the 
same sort of lessons containing similar enumerations of proper- 
ties, etc. Such teachers seem to have no idea that progress 
should characterize all our instruction. In our object-lessons 
we should always leave something for the conceptive faculty to 
work out ; by this means we give an intellectuality and ideality 



* "Observation (or object-lesson), the indispensable, safest, and broad- 
est bridge between man and nature, deserves to be, so long as culture is 
to be obtmned through art, one of the most prominent vehicles of Edu- 
cation. "—Hbrbart. 

All elementary instruction should b^^ with, include, and be based 
upon object-lessons.— £. S. 



CULTIVATION OF THE BIOHSR FACULTISS, 107 

to oar lessons : graphic pictores and striking oontrasta or analo- 
gies interest the feedings, and thereby give depth and vigor to 
the conceptions ; things that are visible are associated with 
things that are invisible ; objects that are near with those that 
are distant : events that are present with those that are past ; and 
the present and the past taken together constitute the dew by 
which we penetrate the mazes of the future. 

A child must take many things as facts of observation which 
he may have afterwards to establish by a process of abstract rea- 
soning, or by a process of induction; and it necessarily follows 
that many of our first lessons, m certain departments of knowl- 
edge, must be imperfect : we must often rest satisfied with giv; 
ing tangible demonstrations when logical processes would fail 
to be understood ; and where demonstrations cannot be given, 
iUustrations must supply their place ; we must teach particular 
forms of propositions when the general form lies beyond the in- 
tellectual grasp of the child ; and many truths, plain and almost 
tangible in themselves, will be accepted as axioms or as facts 
which would not be classed under that category by the learned 
logician. Simple expositions of familiar and important truths 
not only exercise and develop the mind, but they are the most 
efficient means of imparting real positive knowledge. 

YIL The reattming and higher faculties should be euUivaied on 

an enla/rged basis of instrucHon. 

The subject-matters of instruction should be commensurate 
with the expansive nature of the faculties. Our rich stores of 
scientific and useful knowledge furnish us with the means of 
giving a superior kind of culture to the reasoning powers. The 
present basis of school instruction is not broad enough to afford 
scope for the full development of the reflective faculties. In 
addition to the subjects of language and mathematics, some of 
the most useful and interesting branches of physical science 
should be more thoroughly and systematically taught in our 
upper schools, not only as a means of intellectual culture, but 



108 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

also on account of their immediate bearing on the biuinefls of 
life. 

Whilst a sufficiently large basis of instruction gives breadth 
and expansiveness to the reflective powers, a narrow basis tends 
to give them a set or leamng, which stands in the way of their 
future development. Now we maintain that these faculties are 
cultivated only imperfectly by means of classics and mathemat- 
ics : they do not properly exercise all the reflective faculties ; 
they are too limited in range and too abstract and scholastic in 
form ; they do not sufficiently bear upon the great purposes of 
life, or prepare the boy for fulfilling the duties of the man. 
As all kinds of philosophical apparatus can now be purchased 
at a comparatively cheap price, it is to be hoped that teachers 
will suit their instruction to the advanced state of our science 
and civilization, and that they will no longer restrict their sub- 
jects of instruction to that narrow range of knowledge which 
characterized an age that is past 

Yin. InstrueUon aihovM proceed from the mmpU to Uts 

complex* 

Although this principle of education is generally known and 
acknowledged, yet comparatively few teachers understand it 
rightiy or practise it completely. It is by no means uncom- 
mon to find teachers practising a dogmatic and technical sys- 
tem of instruction, while at the same time they believe that 
they are teaching from the simple to the complex : our dog- 
matic modes of instruction are simple enough as regards the 
work of the master, whilst they are anything but simple when 
considered in relation to the mental efforts required of the pupil. 



* " The entire process of the earliest instruction of children should 
consist in training the faculties for their subsequent work; and for this 
instruction GKkI's book of the Universe is better suited than any books . 
of man. The facts and phenomena of nature are the sentences, words, 
and letters which before all others the chUd should be taught to read.** 
—Jos. Paynx. 



FROM THE SIMPLE TO THE COMPLEX. 109 

As this species of self-delusion is so fatal in its consequences, it 
is important that we should exactly understand what is meant 
by teaching from the simple to the complex. Wc teach from 
the simple to tlie complex when we explain the various particu- 
lar forms of a general or abstract principle before we attempt 
to explain the general principle itself ; or when we explain the 
simpler elements or parts of a subject before we attempt to teach 
the subject as a whole. In order to keep within the sphere of 
the child's capabilities, we must advance by slow and sure gra- 
dations from the things that are known to the things that are 
unknown. What the chUd does know should form a stepping- 
stone to what he does not knmo. In short, we should teach a sub- 
ject little by little, now a little and (hen a little, until we have 
taught the whole of it. Let us take a few examples : 

In learning to write, the child should learn to make straight 
lines before hooks, and letters before words. 

To prove any general principle of calculation, we should 
first show the principle as applied to a variety of particular ex- 
amples. 

If we wanted to show the nature of an abstract proposition 
in geometry, we should first show the principle as applied to 
some of the most simple and familiar cases. 

To make our pupils acquainted with a technical or abstract 
term, we should express the idea intended to be conveyed by 
that term in familiar language, giving at the same time a 
variety of illustrations of its application. 

And so on to other subjects. 

If a teacher wishes to be really successful with children, he 
must become like a litjble child in thought, feeling, and action ; 
he must, for the time being, cease to be what he is, and become 
what he was once. Undoubtedly some teachers possess this 
remarkable power. This power, which seems to be character- 
istic of superior teachers, is no doubt more a natural than an 
acquired gift ; yet, notwithstanding, it admits of being strength- 
ened and developed by habit and reflection. The learned 
tutors of colleges and the proud men of science laugh to 



110 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

scorn the humble attempts of the true teacher to simplify a 
process of reasoning, break down the difficulties of a problem, 
or illustrate the truth of a general law of nature : too con- 
scious of their own mental power, they seem to have forgotten 
that they were once children, and that their own abstract con- 
ceptions have been the result of long and repeated efforts ; 
they must have the whole of a subject taught, or none of it ; 
they cannot permit the gigantic proportions of a favorite sub- 
ject to be reduced, or in any way stripped of their abstract 
formalities; their recognized books, like holy writ, must 
neither have anything added to them, nor anything taken away 
from them; they would rather that the doom of stationary 
ignorance should rest upon the child of the poor, than that he 
should acquire knowledge in any other way than they have 
prescribed. How long will authority and conventional ob- 
servances continue to fetter our school literature, and to cast a 
disastrous shadow over the progress of education? A man 
may know Greek, without being able to teach granunar ; and 
he may be master of the higher calculus, without being able to 
give simple expositions of the principles of arithmetic. In 
fact, a person may be too learned for a teacher of children ; for 
men of profound knowledge usually expect too much of their 
pupils. It is said that Emmerson, one of the best mathema- 
ticians of his age, always complained that his pupils were all 
incorrigible dunces : the fact is not at all surprising when the- 
dogmatic character of the man's system of teaching is taken 
into consideration. 

Besides great skill, the teacher must possess many moral, 
qualities, in order to develop and train the faculties of children; 
he must especially possess great patience, gentleness, forbear- 
ance, and faith.* 



* **The example of our Saviour Himself ia the education of His dis- 
ciples teaches us the importance of applying these principles both to in- 
tellectual and moral subjects. How grossly erroneous were their ideas in 
reference to his character and destination; how childish and unworthy 
their plans and their contests; and yet with what slowness did He un- 



FACT3 AND EZPERIMENTS. Hi 



IX. FaeU 9hoM, he UmgM htfcre eau»e$; and iooptfimmUa, 
iUustraUng general law cr prindfiee of nature, thould he 
gwen hrfare the general lawi arprinciplei are eoBpounded, 

In many cases a young person can readily understand the 
nature of a law if it is presented to his senses in an actual 
matter-of-fact form, when he would be utterly unable to com- 
prehend the technical form in which that law is usually ex- 
pressed. The particular facts upon which any general law 
depends give to that law a local habitation and a familiarized 
form, which enable the young mind to become, as it were, its 
own interpreter. General forms of expression are often little 
better than high-sounding terms and empty names, which, if 
studied apart from the facts which they comprehend, rather 
mystify and darken the principles involved in them, than con- 
vey any instructive knowledge to the mind. The true edu- 
cator will never be hasty in drawing generalizations or in ex- 
pounding causes : in some cases he will content himself with 
giving an exposition of general facts, well knowing that 
these facts, if thoroughly understood, will remain in the minds 
of his pupils like seeds, which time and reflection will after- 
wards cause to vegetate, and to grow into the full and de- 
veloped forms of general principles. At the same time he will 
constantly bear in mind, that his facts should be taught in such 
a way as to conduct his pupils to a knowledge of causes and 
principles ; and his experiments should be made so as to lead 
to a knowledge of physical laws. Let us take a few examples. 

If I wanted to teach a child the meaning of the term elastic- 



fold the great truths He came to reveal! How mudi did He leave to be 
learned after his death I With what gentleness did He tell them, * I have 
mai^ things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now * I With what 
patience did He bear with their errors, their follies, and their sins I 
With what mildness did He generally reprove them! Let the educator 
beware that he does not attempt to be wiser than his Master, and teach 
things which demand efforts for which the infant mind is too feeble.**— 

WPOPBBIDQB, 



112 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

ity, I should show by experiment the fonn which the prox)er1y 
assumes in different familiar substances. 

If I wanted to explain the distinctive properties of different 
geometrical figures, I should actually draw these figures in a 
way corresponding to the conditions of the abstract definitions 
which I should have afterwards to give. 

If I wanted to teach the laws of magnetism, I should first 
make the experiments illustrating these laws, and then after- 
wards lead the pupils to express in their own language the law 
or laws which might be derived from the facts or experiments. 

If I wanted to show the principle of the lever, I should di- 
vide a thin lath into a certain number of equal parts, and after 
balancing it on the edge of a book I should place different 
weights at the marks made on the lath, so as to balance each 
other, and then call the pupils' attention to the law upon which 
the equilibrium depends. 

If I wanted to explain the leading principles of electricity, I 
should first give a series of experiments, conducted wfth an 
apparatus formed with the most familiar articles of household 
use, such as wine-glasses, sealing-wax, tea-trays, brown paper, 
gutta-percha, etc., taking care that the leading facts established 
by the experiments were fully admitted and understood before 
I gave my expositions of the laws or it might be of the theories 
proposed to explain the operation. 

And so on to other subjects of instruction, 

X. We ahotUd teach the concrete before the abstract. 

In this method of instruction we employ the qualities and 
uses of familiar things and objects to elucidate or explain they 
terms, facts, and principles of science and art. In this way 
we lead the mind of the pupils from the perception of the 
things which are visible and tangible to the conception of ab- 
stract and general principles. According to this principle, also, 
the knowledge of language ought to precede the knowledge 
of grammatical rules ; and the meaning of abstract proposi- 



CONSTRUCTIVE TEACHING. H8 

tions ought to be explained in oonnection with their ooncrBte 
forms. 

Teachers often decefve themselYes when they think a child 
has followed them in the explanation of an abstract proposi- 
tion. If they would make the inquiry, they would generally 
find that the child had seized upon some concrete form of the 
abstraction, or that he had attached some whimsical sense to 
the terms employed. At the day-school I was taught that " a 
verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer." I 
thought that the poor verbs were miserable little things, for all 
their being and doing ended in suffering. At the Sunday- 
school I had to answer the following question, from the As- 
sembly's Shorter Catechism : " Ques. Wherein is the moral 
law summarily comprehended ? Ans. The moral law is sum- 
marily comprehended in the Ten Commandments. " Now 
when I answered this question I invariably thought of a small 
village called Moralaws which had ten remarkable trees grow- 
ing near it, which I thought were something like the Ten 
Commandments. 

This method of teaching involves the principle of what is 
now known by the name of the science of familiar things. 
Let us take a few examples. 

If I wanted to explain some general property of numbers, I 
should do it by means of counters, or balls, or marks. If I 
wanted to show the nature of inflammable substances, and the 
properties of the atmosphere considered in relation to combus- 
tion, I should direct the attention of the pupils to the flame of 
a candle, and show by various simple experiments how the 
vital air maintains the ignition of the tallow, etc. Thus the 
facts exhibited in a burning candle become, as it were, the 
hooks upon which we hang our science of combustion. 

No teacher need be at a loss for examples. He may find 
sermons in stones, valuable lessons in the toys of his pupils, and 
even a soap-bubble may be made to discourse most excellent 
philosophy. 
8 



114 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

XI. When pracUecMe, our teaching should be etmeirueike. 

By means of this method, as I have before explained, we, as 
it were, build up part by part or piece by piece of the subject- 
matter of instruction, until we arrive at tiie completion of the 
whole. 

For example, in explaining the construction of a machine I 
should not draw the whole machine and then proceed to ex- 
plain the mode of its action : on the contrary, I should explain 
the action and construction of the different parts as I sketched 
them upon the black-board, and when I had completed the 
whole, I should explain the combined action of all the parts. 
In like manner, in teaching drawing or practical geometry ac- 
cording to the constructive method, I should not draw the 
whole picture or figure, as the case may be, and then proceed 
to explain its construction ; but I should explain the construc- 
tion of the parts as I sketched them— giving line upon line 
and precept upon precept. In this way the instruction ad- 
vances, step by step with the progress of the pictorial repre- 
sentation. We suit the action to the word and the word to the 
action ; the one illustrates the other ; the language of the expo- 
sition responds to the action of the teacher and the movements 
of the pencil : thus the work of instruction advances by easy 
gradations until the whole subject is brought before the eye 
and the mind of the pupil, with all the relations and combina- 
tions of its parts. The same thing is observed in the teaching 
of arithmetic. I write down step after step or process after 
process, taking care that each successive step or process is 
thoroughly understood before the succeeding step or process is 
written down. In teaching the science of familiar things, also, 
I should explain the properties of, and the physical or mechan- 
ical laws involved in, the different parts or portions of the ob- 
ject or thing f oiming the subject of the lesson. 



RULES AND PRJNCIBLE8. 115 

Xn. Expa9iU(mB qf principlei applied 1o par^^ 

he given h^ore ndee. 

Mere rules never reach the depths of the soul, and are there- 
fore forgotten as soon as they are out of use ; and what is 
learned by rote is little better than so much useless lumber in 
the mind. Rules, in many cases, are not mere negations— 
they become positive evils : they rarely, if ever, aid the devel- 
opment of the mind ; in many cases they positively retard it. 
By rules we attain results wiUiout the labor of investigation. 
There is something soporific in rules— something which throiivs 
an enfeebling languor over the intellectual powers, — something 
which inflates our vanity without adding to our self-respect — 
something which gives us the pretensions of the empiric and 
the knavery of the juggler. We hold that the Bale and Bote 
system, as it is usually followed, is intellectually and morally 
erroneous. 

To the earnest instructors of children we would say : Never 
teach by rules when you can teach by principles ; never get a 
child to learn anything by rote until he understands the sub- 
ject-matter. When he understands it, then he will readily 
learn it by hea/rt and not by rote : the subject will have pene- 
traticd his soul ; he will love it, because it has become a part 
of himself ; it will be engraven on his mind, as with a pen of 
iron, and there it will remain, unchanged and unchangeable, 
forever. 

Some teachers, in order to gain a reputation with the won- 
der-loving public, put the language of the philosopher into the 
mouths of children ; make them redte Euclid with the volu- 
bility of parrots, and chatter about climatology, entomology, 
and a host of other ologies ; give them rules and technical 
forms by which they solve problems that demand the powers 
of a mathematician to investigate. Now there is deception in 
all this, for the pupils are made to appear what they really are 
not ; children in years and powers, they are made to mimic all 
the gravity and wisdom of the sage ; and what makes the de- 



116 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

ception more deeply culpable, the childien themselyes are made 
parties to the falsehood. 

This method of teachlDg from principles is eminently calca- 
lated to foster the development of the reflective faculties— it 
stands in perfect contrast to rule-and-rote teaching. The latter 
is dogmatic, the other is persuasive ; the one supposes the pupil 
to be a passive recipient of knowledge — a mere automaton 
which acts as it is acted upon ; the other regards the pupil as a 
reasoning, reflective, and voluntary being, capable of working 
out results by his own independent effort : the one is limited in 
its application to the particular subject on which it is given ; 
the other seeks to develop those faculties in the pupil which 
may enable him to grapple with any subject that may arise, or, 
in fact, to create for himself the rules and principles which 
govern the science to which the subject belongs. 

XIII. InstrtLcHon ihotUd be given to chUd/ren oraUy and eol- 

lecUvdy, 

There is nothing like the living voice, looks, and action of 
the master, for intensifying the attention and concentrating the 
faculties of children. He suits his language and illustrations 
to the faculties which he wishes to call into activity, and he 
advances with his subject, step by step, according as his pupils 
make progress. Teadiing of this kind is a living reality, not a 
dead letter, like a mere reading lesson. 

Children like to do things in company with one another — 
they like to learn together as well as to play together. This 
sympathy of association gives a cheerful tone to the mind of 
the instructor as well as to the minds of the instructed, and 
also calls into play a healthful spirit of emulation. Besides, the 
answers of the most intelligent children form one of the best 
means of instructing the most backward pupils in the class.* 

The efficiency of collective teaching greatly depends upon the 

* Ziller says : " The teacher who is master of his profession will in- 
struct his class through the medium of the individual scholars. He will 
himself speak comparatively little." 



CLASSIFICATION OF CHILDREN. 117 

completeness of our classification of the pupils. It is of the 
highest importance, therefore, that the teadier should fully de- 
termine the true principles on which his pupils should be ar- 
ranged in classes. 

The Frinoiple on which Children should be Olaasifiedd — 
While the standard of instruction should not be above the 
capabilities of the pupil, neither should it be below them. 
We may kill by starving as well as by over-feeding. In like 
manner, our intellectual and moral aliment may be too weak 
and simple to supply all the elements of growth and develop- 
ment, or it may be too strong and stimulating for the functions 
of digestion and assimilation. This nourishment should be 
apportioned both as to kind and quantity, so as to maintain all 
the faculties of the child in a healthful and vigorous condition 
of activity and growth. The classification of the children in a 
school should have a special regard to this principle: they 
should be classified, not according to size, age, or attainments ; 
not according to their mechanical dexterity or their progress in 
the technical forms of particular departments of knowledge ; 
but according to their mental power and their capabilities of 
improvement and development. A boy, for example, may be 
an ex];)ert calculator, or he may have a good verbal memory ; 
yet, notwithstanding, his general mental power or capacity of 
development may be defective : such a boy should be placed 
in a class corresponding to him in general mental power. 
Whenever a boy shows a decided advance beyond the other 
members of his class, he should be transferred to a higher class ; 
or, if that is not expedient, he should have some special work 
assigned him : on the contrary, when a boy lags behind his 
fellows, he should either be placed in a lower class, or have 
some individual attention given to him, in order to bring him 
up to the average standard of capabilities. There is no sub- 
ject of school-management which requires more attention and 
judgment on the part of the teacher than that of classification. 
We have here endeavored to point out the true principles upon 
which it should be based. 



118 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

XrV. Instruction should give pleasure to children, and tohere this 
is not ths case there is something torong as regards either the 
mode of instruction or the su/fject^matter selected for instruction, 
A teacher shotUd govern his pupils by the priTieiple qf late rather 
than that of fear. 

The proper exercise of our facilities, whether physical, intel- 
lectual, or moral, affords us pleasure. Light is not more pleas- 
ant to the eye or melody to the ear than truth is to the mind 
or healthful exercise to the body. Instruction must afford 
children pleasure, if it be given in accordance with the general 
principles which we have endeavored to explain — ^not that lux- 
urious pleasure which enfeebles their duu^cter and renders 
them unfit for streiluous exertion, but that nobler pleasure 
which is concomitant with the healthful exercise of the 
faculties. 

One of the first points to be gained in giving instruction is 

To Secure the Attention of the Children. — If a teacher 
once acquires this power his work becomes easy and agreeable 
to himself and instructive and pleasant to his pupils. The 
great secret in fixing the attention of children is to interest 
them— to mingle delightful associations with learning— never 
to overstrain their faculties, or to fatigue them by keeping 
them too long directed to one particular subject It seems to 
be a law of our nature, that when one faculty is exhausted by 
exercise another faculty may be exercised without a sense of 
weariness. Thus, for example, if a boy is tired with reading 
history, in the course of which a particcdar class of faculties is 
exercised, such as memory and reflection, he may, without any 
sense of weariness, have his attention directed to some facts of 
experimental philosophy where another class of faculties is 
called into activity, such as perception and observation. And 
when the mental powers generally are fatigued, then the child 
will feel the highest enjoyment in exercising his physical 
powers. 

A good collective lesson should not only engage the attention 



PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL ROUTINB. 119 

by the interest whicli it awakens, but it should further intensify 
the attention by stimulating the principles of emulation and 
sympathy. The most healthful motives to application are sup- 
plied by the peculiar nature and form of our instruction. 

When a boy gets fatigued, or overtasked with any subject, he 
instinctively seeks for enjoyment in talking or in play : this 
want of attention the grave preceptor calls idleness and mis- 
chief ; but the boy is right and the master wrong : the boy is 
only acting in accordance with the intentions of his Creator ; 
while the master is stupidly — ^ay, and impiously if it were not 
stupidly— acting contrary to these intentions. If the master 
would teach in accordance with the general principles which 
we have endeavored to expound, the boy would never play 
when he should be at work, or allow his mind to wander in 
search of enjoyment when a full measure of rational pleasure 
is afforded him by instruction. 

With children the pleasure derived from instruction should 
be regarded as the chief actuating motive to attention. The too 
frequent use of such incitements as praise, emulation, rewards, 
etc., demoralizes the character by bringing the selfish feelings 
too often into exercise. These motives tend to foster vanity, 
pride, envy, and other selfish emotions. 

Care should be taken that the attention of the children is not 
withdrawn from ihe lessons by any extraneous noise, by the 
presence of too many visitors, or by any other cause. To se- 
cure these conditions the schoolroom should be in a quiet spot, 
and its fittings should be such as to place the teacher in the most 
favorable position with respect to his pupils. Sometimes schools 
are built beneath railways, over livery stables and workshox)s, 
and even underneath burial-grounds : how can the founders of 
such schools expect their master to teach efficiently? 

These remarkable laws of our physical and moral nature 
give us 

The Principles upon which School Routines are Based* — 
1. The subjects of the routine should be specially adapted to 
the capacities of the children in each class. 



130 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

d. The whole, or absolute time, devoted to any particular 
subject should be in proportion to its relative importance and 
its adaptation to the minds of the children in the particular 
class. 

8. The period given continuously to any subject should be 
longer or shorter, accordingly as the subject is less or more 
fatiguing to the minds of the pupils. 

4. The order of succession of the subjects of the routine 
should have a special regard to the faculties that are brought 
into activity by those subjects. 

No two lessons should come in succession which exercise the 
same faculties : thus, for example, it would be erroneous to 
have a lesson on arithmetic immediately after a lesson on 
algebra, or a lesson on history after a lesson on the Scriptures. 
The subjects which follow each other in the order of succes- 
sion should not only exercise different faculties, but there should 
be a variety in the form and kind of the exercises themselves : 
thus, for example, arithmetic may be taught after grammar or 
after history ; and writing, or reading, or music, may be taught 
after arithmetic. 

6. In a well-organized school the routines of the respective 
classes will be framed to suit one another, so that the work 
going on in one class may not interfere or jar with the work 
going on in the adjacent classes. Thus, while a lesson which 
is necessarily associated with a certain amount of noise is being 
given to one class the adjacent classes should have lessons given 
to them which are accompanied with comparative silence ; for 
example, while a reading-lesson is being given to one class a 
writing or a drawing-lesson may at the same time be given to 
the adjacent classes. 

With a due attention to these principles in the construction 
of routines a large school may be maintained in an harmonious 
condition of activity and progress, without any mmecessary 
noise or confusion. 

It is desirable that we should here make a few additional ob- 
servations relative to the subject of 



PRELDONABY LEaSONS. 121 

Fimt or Preliminary Leuou^— First lessoiiB should em- 
brace the prominent features of the subject without entering 
into its details— they should be comprehensiye without being 
profound. Children like to disport themselves in the stream of 
knowledge without wishing to be plunged into its depths. The 
knowledge conveyed to children must at first be only super- 
ficial ; like little butterflies in the sunshine, they like to taste 
the sweets of every flower. We assert, in spite of the frown 
which we imagine to be gathering on the brow of the so-called 
methodical teacher, that with little children tbue teachino 

MUST BE SUFEBFIGIAL TEACHING. But it doCS not f OUOW from 

this that a true teacher is a superficial teacher : he must have 
great skill and judgment, united with a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of the subject-matter of instruction, in order that he may 
be able to select from the whole mass of knowledge the parts 
which are best calculated to interest his pupils, and at the same 
time to lay the foundation of a higher and subsequent course 
of instruction. 

It is important that we should make a distinction between 
the method by which the master actually teaches, and the men- 
tal process by which he arrives at the principles which should 
be followed in that method. While he gives a lesson to his 
pupils by the method of synthesis, the arrangements of the 
parts, etc., of that lesson must be the result of analysis. 

But in our first lessons to litUe children there must be a 
great deal of desultory teaching. Their appetite for new facts 
or novelties is so great that they cannot dwell long upon each.* 
The world to them is full of wonders, and nothing gives them 
more pleasure than to witness these wonders. Their instincts 
lead them to expect that there is much that is wonderful in the 
works of nature as well as of art. Their Creator, as we before 



* It should be remembered that at this early stage the child's mind is 
more strongly impressed by the sensations which come to it than at any 
later period. These impressions, too, are stronger than later on. The 
subject deserves more careful consideration than is usually awarded it. 
-E.S. 



128 phujosopht of education. 

observed, has placed them in a world where eveiyUdog tends to 
develop and elevate their facultieB. There is not a greater har- 
mony sabsiBting between the mind of the musician and the 
tones of his instrument than there exists between the soul of the 
diild and the constitution of external nature— the one has been 
made for the other. The intelligent instructor will not fail to 
turn to account this loyk of thb wosderful. A child looks 
tluough a telescope : how wonderful to him is the sig^t I— he 
sees the far-distant towers and trees as plainly as if they were 
close before him 1 Do not mar the impressions thus produced 
upon his mind by attempting to explain the causes— let these 
impressions remain as facts of science, which he will afterwards 
understand ; he knows enough if he is told that a telescope is 
made of certain round shaped pieces of glass put into a tube. 
No disparagement to his intellect if he does not know anything 
further about the cause of the effects. A child expects, from 
the very constitution of his nature, to see many things which 
he cannot comprehend ; but effects and facts he can appreciate, 
and that is enough for him at the first stage of his instraction. 
Such facts are seeds which time will cause to germinate and 
ripen. Show a child the appearance of a drop of stagnant 
water through a microscope I How wonderful to him is the 
sight 1 That little drop is teeming with animal life 1 In like 
manner many other wonderful facts in connection with natural 
and experimental philosophy may be taught to the chUd. 

Our instructions should often assume the form of narratives ; 
for children feel a peculiar pleasure in hearing stories about 
animals, or about the lives of little children like themselves, or 
about the adventures of remarkable men. A well-told story 
may not only convey much valuable knowledge to a child, but 
may also inculcate many practical principles of action. 

Religion should be taught, to a great extent, in the same 
way : Newton, who uncovered his head when the name of God 
was uttered, would have taught religion to children without 
giving expression to a word. Vital religion, says Rlchter, 
grows not by the doctrines of the Bible so much as by its nar- 



INFANT-SCHOOL aYSTEM. 1S8 

ratives; the best Chiistian doctrine is the life of Christ, and 
after that the sufferings and deaths of His followers. 

Instruction should, as far asposs&de, be associated with amuse- 
4nent : in the hands of good teachers toys, games, and pictures 
will become important instruments of intellectual culture. 
This subject naturally leads us to say a few words respecting 

The Infant-School System^ — ^In the Infant school instruc- 
tion should never be separated from amusement and enjoy- 
ment. The acquisition of knowledge must be pursued as an 
amusement, and even the learning to read should have its 
pleasant associations. The great object of the infant-school 
teacher should be to cultivate the faculties of the children by 
gratifying their virtuous instincts. It is, however, much to be 
regretted that many infan^school teachers have attempted to 
introduce graver subjects of instruction ; better let a child of 
four or five years of age romp and play in the fields than allow 
him to be cooped up for the purpose of committing some duU 
task to memory. 

Children at their ffames are learning: they are insensibly be- 
coming acquainted with themselves, with the diaracters of their 
playfellows, and with the properties and uses of external things. 
Children teach one another, not only formaUy and directly, 
but also unconsciously and indirectly. One boy shows another 
boy how to make duck and drake upon the water ; how to fly a 
kite ; how to construct a sling, or a pop-gun, or a whistle, or 
a variety of other Infantine pieces of apparatus. And we con- 
sider that one of the most essential— probably one of the most 
indispensable — forms of juvenile instruction is the bot tbagh- 
iNG THE BOT ; the gravity of manhood often breaks the en- 
diantment with which infantine knowledge is invested.* 

Our instructions should have a constant regard to health, 
physical development, and enjoyment. Children are happy 



* " The little child will learn far more rapidly from one of his own age 
than be wHl from the most skilful or gifted teacher. * We send our 
children,' sajrs Emerson, ' to school to the teacher, but it is the pupils 
who educate them.* "— L. E. Pixridok in " Quin<7 Methods." 



124 . PHILOSOPHT OF EDUCATION. 

little things ; they have no regret for the past, no care for the 
present, and no fear for the future ; they are in the spring- 
time of their existence ; the present is all enjoyment, and hope 
sheds an enchanting halo over the days that are to come. Who 
does not feel sad when he reflects that these Joyous days are 
gone forever ? Look nt the early spring birds as they skip and 
fly from twig to twig— up higher and higher still among the 
green branches. In the fulness of their joy they chatter to 
each other and flU the woods with song. Beautiful little crea- 
tures I you remind me of happy playful childhood — ^your joys 
are as brilliant as they are fleeting. Ruthless man ! cast no 
shadow over this sunny period of the chOdren's existence ; let 
them enjoy the bliss of this transient period as their Qod has 
ordained ; let them frisk and play : they are doing more for 
themselves than you can do for them ; for while they seek their 
enjoyment as an end, the Creator has ordained that this desire 
for enjoyment shall be the means of developing their physical, 
intellectual, and moral faculties : they are thus unconsciously 
working out the en-1 of their creation with far more certainty 
than if they were fettered by the leading-strings of a nurseiy- 
maid, or placed under the stem supervision of a rigid peda- 
gogue. 
This leads us further to observe that we should endeavor to 
Avoid, as for as possible^ the Imposition of Tasks. — 
Nothing should be rendered a task which can be as well or 
better taught by actual teaching, on the part of the master ; or 
which may be acquired by a repetition of voluntary efforts on 
the part of the pupil. Thb task system invests learning with 
unpleasant associations, and renders the acquisition of knowl- 
edge a painful and soul-debasing infliction, instead of a health- 
ful and invigorating exercise for the faculties. These inflic- 
tions are remembered by us to the latest hour of our existence.* 



* ** None of the things they are to learn should ever be made a burden 
to them, or imposed on them as a task. Whatever is so proposed pres- 
ently becomes irksome: the mind takes an aversion to it, though before 
it were a thing of delight or indifference. Let a child be but ordered to. 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE, ' 125 

School Discipline.— We have stated, as a oorollary to oar 
general axiom, that a teacher should govern his pupils by the 
principle of love rather than that of fear. 

The greoil ruling principle in a tclml Should be love. As a 
first great step to the establishment of discipline the master 
should really love his pupils. Love them I Can the genteel, 
Tvell-dressed teacher love those little ragged vagabond-looking 
boys, gathered from all the filthy streets and alleys of this 
crowded city ? Love them 1 Why not ? The most dirty of 
them all has an immortal and accountable soul, capable of 
comprehending the works of his Creator. Love them I The 
Christian teacher must love them : Jesus died for them, not 
less than for the offspring of the rich ; and it was respecting 
such children that He said, " Suffer little children to come 
unto Me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of 
heaven." Now as love always begets love, if the master really 
loves his pupils they in return will love him. But if they 
love their master they will also endeavor to please him, and 
to avoid doing anything which is calculated to give him pain. 
In this way the master's will becomes the bulb of the 
school ; and as children necessarily imitate those whom they 
love and respect, the mabtbb'b ghahagter becomes the law 
of the school. Even some of our domesticated animals are 
best governed by kindness. In the government of a school 
the greatest of all ends is to lead the children to love what is 
good and hate what is evil — to follow virtue and shun vice. 

The principle of love should pervade the whole school, and 



whip his top at a certain time of the day, whether he has or has not a 
mind to it; let this be but required of him as a task, wherein he must 
spend so many hours morning and afternoon, and see whether he will not 
soon be weary of any play at this rate. Is it not so with grown men ? 
What they do cheerfully of themselves do they not presently grow sick 
of, and can no more endure, as soon as they find it is expected of them as 
a task f Children have as much a mind to show that they are free, that 
their own good actions come from themselves, that they are absolute 
and indei)endent, as any of the proudest of you grown men, think of 
them as you please."— Lock;. 



126 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

the teacher ahonld embrace every opportimity for cultivmtiiig 
the benevolent affections of the children by acts of kindness 
and practical lessons of love. Love, like the light of heaven. 
Irradiates and beautifies whatever it touches ; fear, like dark- 
ness, invests everything with gloom. Love one another is the 
precept of the Great Teacher. Love is the most powerful 
principle in our nature ; it rdgns in heaven, for Qod is love ; 
it would change hell into heaven and earth into a primeval 
paradise. If this principle were fully developed in a school, 
the child would perform his duty for the love of it, and not 
from the fear of punishment or the hope of reward. 

Fbot tifiould never be a ruUng princ^fie in a school. No school 
can be in a healthy condition where the children are governed 
mainly by the fear of punishment. Fear is an enfeebling pas- 
sion ; it paralyzes the intellect ; it makes boys deceitful, slav- 
ish, and hypocritical ; it is the last and lowest motive which 
can actuate a human being for good. The prison and the gal- 
lows are made to frighten wretches, sunk to the lowest depths 
of moral degradation, from the commission of crime. Pun- 
ishments may check the progress of vice, but they cannot fos- 
ter the principle of virtue. Capital punishments, especially 
when they are numerous and immerited, betoken a disastrous 
condition of a state ; they are frequently the hideous fore- 
runners of anarchy, or the fearful epilogues of some national 
tragedy. So, in like manner, the prevalence of punishments 
or a gJavish dread of the master in a school is a sure indica- 
tion of mismanagement and instability. That unnatural still- 
ness in a school which proceeds from fear is like the deceitful 
calm which presages the outbreak of the tempest : without the 
warning of a moment, the pent-up passions may burst away 
the barriers by which they are restrained. 

Many teachers, especially of the old school, have an unfortu- 
nate love of despotic authority; their birch is their sceptre, 
and their antiquated stool is tiieir throne. This mischievous 
propensity no doubt in a great measure proceeds from the 
circumstance that it is easier to comvmnd than to perstiade, an4 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE. 127 

that it is less troublesome to maintain order in a school l^^ the 
terror of the rod than by the force of reason and moral auasian. 
But if teachers would give only half the attention to the pre- 
wjUion of faults that they at present give to the punuhmmt of 
them, the labor of teaching would not only be rendered more 
pleasant, but also in the long-run more easy. As prevention 
is always better than cure, so we should especially look to the 
causes of disorder and the best means of avoiding them. The 
course of a stream is best changed by cutting off the fountain : 
in like manner the current of disorder is most effectually stayed 
by drying up its sources. Harsh modes of discipline are nec- 
essarily associated with unnatural modea of instruction. 

If kindness, moral suasion, and the inculcation of religious 
principle fail in reclaiming a boy, then as a last hope the mas- 
ter must of necessity have recourse to punishment ; but even 
in the act of punishment the master should show that he is 
actuated by an earnest love for the transgressor. As crimes in 
most cases bring their own punishment, so youthful offenders 
may be often left to correct themselves after having suffered 
the consequences of their faults. The public ofihion of a 
school when properly developed is also a great check to the 
commission of crime, as well as an important aid in the culti- 
vation of habits of virtue. 

The formal rules of a school should be few and well chosen, 
and their observance should always be promptly enforced. A 
teacher should never magnify a fault into a crime, or allow 
the punishment to exceed the offence. As the possession of nat- 
ural gifts does not merit reward, so the want of them cannot 
deserve punishment. Talents should not alwajrs be the sub- 
ject of commendation, or dulness the object of censure ; for a 
boy may be dull in spite of his application, while another may 
posseas talents without industry. 



128 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



XV. Ewry nt^fect should be taught thoroughly, at leatt at far 
08 the nature of the miyect and the eapabUitiee qfthe pupile 
wiU aUaw, They should learn nothing whieh th^ may hare 
afteruoarde to unlearn. 

Strictly speaking, this general principle ahonld have formed 
a ooroll^7 to our twelfth axiom ; but with the view of guard- 
ing against misapprehension we here give it as a distinct sub- 
ject of discussion. No principle of education has been more 
abused than this ; its specious name gives currency to a false 
coinage. 

Perfect knowledge is only a relative term, for, absolutely 
considered, we can never know anything perfectly ; however, 
wc may aim at perfection, although we may not hope to reach 
it. By teaching a subject thoroughly, therefore, we simply 
mean that the information which we communicate to our 
pupils should be complete and exact as far as it extends, and 
that we should not rest satisfied until it is fixed in their nunds ; 
at the same time we should not attempt to push our instruc- 
tion beyond their capabilities, nor deceive ourselves with the 
idea that we have taught anything thoroughly which has been 
merely learned by rote. The most imperfect and fruitless kind 
of teaching is that where the master attempts to convey a per- 
fect knowledge of all the parts of a subject before the facul- 
ties of his pupils are prepared for grasping such an amount of 
knowledge. A little knowledge, fully understood and thor- 
oughly digested, creates intellectual power. The amount of 
knowledge fixed in the mind is not of so much account as the 
ideas which are evolved by the intellectual process of elabora- 
tion. 

To teach a sutject thoroughly , we eJumld teach it from facts 
and principles, and not from formulae and rules ; the subject 
should be learned gradtuxlly, and its varied aspects should be al- 
lowed to unfold themselves as the intellect of the learner be- 



RBPRODUCTION OF LESSONS. 120 

comes more and more ripened and developed.* If we wish to 
rear a lofty structure, we should look well to the foundations, 
and the sui)erstructure should be built up gradually, and all 
its parts be allowed to become duly consolidated by time. We 
should not aim too much at immediate results, or attempt to 
crowd the labor of years into a single day. If we demand too 
much at once of our pupils, we are almost sure to reodye from 
them much less than we might reasonably claim. Whatever a 
teacher may require his pupils to do, he should see that the 
thing is done with a suitable degree of finish and exactness ; at 
the same time he should bear in mind that the power to do a 
thing perfectly can only be acquired by repeated efforts. As 
no man ever yet became learned in any subject by reading one 
book upon it, so the teacher should not expect his pupils to leam 
any department of a subject thoroughly until he has directed 
their minds to it again and again, giving them at each recurrence 
more and more enlaiged views of it Owing to the insepar- 
able connection subsisting between the different branches of a 
subject, our knowledge of it must be comprehensive before it 
can become exact in all its details ; the outline of the subject 
must be first rough-hewn before the delicate touches of finish 
can be applied to it. Faraday, it is said, began the study of 
chemistry by reading Blair's catechism ; and Newton's first 
book of matiiematics was Barrow's easy course of geometry. 

One of the best means of teaching a subject thoroughly is 
the 

Reproduction of Lessons.— The ideas which we convey to 
a child are of little importance, compared with the benefits 
arising from the vigorous exercise of his powers in reproducing. 



* ** Laws and rules and prlndples were not originally presented to 
men. It required ages before by a natural process the mind deduced 
these laws, rules, and principles from the facts presented to the senses. 
In a similar manner, but more rapidly, children shall themselves dis- 
cover the laws, rules, and principles — not simply accept them as so 
many incomprehensible dc^^as."— Zillbr. 

" Bules are results."— PisTALOzaa. 
9 



180 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

arranging, or combining these ideas. The knowledge which 
we convey to our pupils is the ore thrown into the crucible ; 
but the knowledge which we draw from them is the gold after 
it has been elaborated and refined. 

Beading, says Bacon, makes a full man, conversation a ready 
man, and writing an exact man. In order to give children a 
readiness of expression, they should be accustomed to relate, 
in their own language, whatever they may have seen, read, or 
heard ; this will also induce habits of attention and reflection, 
and will show them how the ideas of others may really become 
their own. This may be made one of our first lessons in lan- 
guage. But one of the highest forms of instruction, in an ele- 
mentary school, is to require the pupils to reproduce, in writing, 
the lessons which may have been read by themselves in a class- 
book, or which may have been given to them orally by the 
master. This exercise not only thoroughly fixes the subject in 
the mind of the pupil, but, if properly carried out, forms at 
the same time one of the best lessons in spelling, penmanship, 
and composition. With the view of sustaining a proper tone 
of mental activity)* dispatch, not less than accuracy, should be 
looked to in these exercises. 

To Teach Oeneral Principles thoroughly, we should 
give Examples and Applications. — Children, even at an 
early age, instinctively ask us. What use is that thing ? let us 
see it in nature. Their minds cannot suflSciently grasp a gen- 
eral proposition, apart from the things to which it applies. 
This is especially true in relation to all subjects of calculation 
and science : here the child readily understands the example or 
the fact, when he has not the slightest comprehension of the 
rule or the law. In morals, too, the child will readily under- 
stand the nature of stealing from the narrative of some juvenile 
culprit, while he would be perfectly mystified by some grave 
and dogmatic disquisition on the principle of honesty. Gener- 
ally speaking, the most talented boys in a school will not give 
an earnest attention to a subject until they have been shown its 
utility— that is, until they hav^ been shown some of its applica* 



ADVAN1AGE3 OF SIMPLICITY IN TEACHING. 181 

tiooB : such boys will not take eyeiything on the mere anthoiity 
of their master, especially if the thing is within the range of 
their comprehension— -they must see and understand the matter 
for themselves. 

WUhaui underraiUfng or ecading the difficulUe» of the iuXfject, 
owr estpiaruUions ihould he dear and tmple. We thauJd a/wid a 
eUmeh use af text-books. 

The teacher should constantly bear in mind, that what is 
perfectly easy to him may he really very difficult to his pupils ; 
so that, after all he may have done to render a subject clear and 
simple, his pupils may find it difficult enough for their compre- 
hension. It is a mistake, therefore, for a teacher to teU his 
pupils that he has made a subject perfectly easy, thereby inti- 
mating that he neither appreciates their efforts, nor expects 
them to apply themsdves yigorously to the subject. If a teacher 
cannot give a clear exposition of a subject, he had better leave 
the matter in the hands of his pupils ; a complex or learned 
exposition is often productive of irremediable evils. The 
system of Jacotot, which requires the pupH to learn every 
subject, as well as every branch of a subject, thoroughly 
before he leaves it, has been carried to a ridiculous extreme 
by many educators. According to them, the easiest way of 
learning a subject is not the best wa/y ; for the main business 
of education is not so much to infuse Imowledge as to develop 
power. The fallacy of this system is at once shown by the 
fact that it does not answer the end which it professes to 
accomplish ; for we hold it to be a weU-cstabliahed law of our 
intellectual nature, that the faculties are best cultivated by those 
exercises which are apportioned to their strength, and not by 
straining them to their utmost tension. If a subject, or any 
particular department of a subject, is taught thoroughly, — that 
is, from facts and principles, and not by rote, — it is impossible 
to simplify it too much, or to impair its efficiency as an instru- 
ment of intellectual culture. The good teacher will constantly 



133 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

endearor to lead his pupils in the boyal boad to lbabkiko : 
that is to say, he will try to make the road easy and pleasant ; 
he will cut off its tortuous windings, macadamize it, and 
remove all unnecessary obstacles ; he will not create difficulties 
for the mere sake of trying the strength of his pupils, nor tax 
their endurance for the purpose of inculcating x>atienoe and 
humility. The little, pedantic mind delights itself in trifling 
with difficulties and in making difficulties of trifles ; the supe- 
rior mind invests every subject with its own comprehensiveness 
and logical simplicity. A good teacher never darkens counsel 
by words, or obtrudes the intricacies of a subject for the pur- 
pose of exhibiting his own power. 

Why has mathematics hitherto been considered too difficult 
for ordinary boys to understand ? Simply because some Pirns 
Aainorum is thrown in their way at an early stage of their prog- 
ress ; because abstract propositions are taught apart from their 
application ; and because in place of having to learn the simple 
fundamental laws of quantity, the boy is required to deal with 
symbols involved with roots upon roots and operations within 
operations. You may as well teach boys history from Lingard, 
grammar from Home Tooke, or drawing from the cartoons of 
Raphael, as attempt to teach them geometry from Euclid, or 
arithmetic and algebra from some learned work, which pro- 
fesses to be at once a class-book of the university and a manual 
of the schoolroom. 

No man will teach a subject thoroughly if he restricts him- 
self to the use of a particular class-book, more especially if it 
be a so-called perfect class-book, for a complete work upon any 
subject is certainly not the best book to begin with. Alas for 
education if ever the examinations of our schools and train- 
ing colleges should be based upon an invariable order of text- 
books I Under such an arrangement education would become 
a recognized system of cramming : a prescribed amount of 
knowledge would be got up, no matter by what means, pro- 
vided the end should be attained. We hold that examinations 
should test the development of power, rather than the acquisi- 



SLAVISH USE OF TEXTBOOKS TO BE AVOIDED. 183 

tion of knowledge; but such a plau of examination would 
ignore this development. The mind filled with knowledge in 
thia way has been compared to a well-filled granary, but bears 
no resemblance to the fruitful field which multiplies a hundred- 
fold that which is thrown upon it. 

This overweening attachment to text-books, and to a so called 
thorough education, leads lo the neglect of general knowledge as 
well as of the development of power.* Its tendency is to con- 
fine general education within very narrow limits, and to restrict 
elementary instruction to the mere rudiments of knowledge. 
It gives us the dry bones of the body of education, without the 
flesh, and the warm blood, and the vital principle — ^the princi- 
ple of intellectual and moral life, of growth and development. 
Instead of cramming his pupils with all the minute details of a 
subject, the truly methodical teacher will rather seek to develop 
in tiiem a power of working out the details of a subject for 
themselves ; he has a far sublimer object in view than the slav- 
ish adhesion to the cut-and-dried forms of a text-book ; he may 
not teach any particular science thoroughly in all its technical 
details, but he seeks to efifect a far higher end—to develop in 
them that power which may at some future period not merely 
enable them to know a science, but to create a science. The 
drudgery connected with the details of some departments of 
knowledge often exercises an unhealthy influence upon the 
mind ; for example, the committing to memory long catalogues 
of words, the exact dates of historical events, the lengths and 
breadths of countries, etc., tends to stultify the intellect of the 
pupil, and to withdraw him from the cofitemplation of more 
interesting facts and principle6.f 



* " I hold that sort of teaching to be in the highest degree Immoral 
which crams the heads of our children with the unusable pages of text- 
books, and leads them to suppose they are gaining real knowledge/*— 
F. W. Parker in " Talks on Teaching." 

t " It is of the highest importance to conduct the pupil in such a man- 
ner that he will not afterwards be contented without a thorough knowl- 
edge of everything within his reach. It is in this view important not to 



184 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

It must, however, be admitted that if a boy is to remain only 
a short period at school, he had better leam a little well, than 
a great deal badly : the first rudiments of knowledge, compris- 
ing reading, writing, and arithmetic, should above all things 
be fairly learned by him before he leaves school ; for a knowledge 
of these first rudiments becomes to him the great instrument of 
future development and acquisition/ 

One of the most obvious, and probably one of the most 
idmple, means of teaching a subject thoroughly is by repeti- 
tion. 

Repetition or Reiteration of Lessons. — Repetition is said to 
be the mainspring of instruction ; but we have reason to believe 
that the principle has seldom been applied, in elementary 
schools, in its most legitimate and most advantageous form.* 

On this subject Miss Edgeworth observes : 



allow him to devote too much of his time to mere reading. It is eai^ to 
read and to amuse ourselves in this manner without understanding thor- 
oughly what we read. There is a constant inducement to seek that 
occupation and interest in running over a number of books which should 
be found in examining deeply every subject which is presented. Such 
reading is the most certain means of forming superficial students and 
superficial thinkers. It produces a disgust for study, and renders the 
pupil incapable of that continued and fixed attention which is necessary 
to success in more than one branch of knowledge: often in the course of 
reading the pupil learns superficially those facts which form the most 
interesting parts of his lessons, his interest in them is destroyed, and 
he no longer pays the attention necessary to learn the facts he has an- 
ticipated in connection with the principles they illustrate. If the books 
are not written in the spirit of the method adopted by the teacher, as is 
frequently the case, they wfll produce confusion in his mind, and im- 
pair his confidence in his guide : Fellenberg therefore believes that this 
taste should not be too much encouraged, and that, in a perfect system 
of education, there should in fact be little time allowed for reading. 
There should be such ample provision both for instruction and amuse- 
ment, adapted to the capacity and taste of the pupil, that it shall be (to 
a great extent) unnecessary either for the one or the other."— Wood- 

BRIDGB. 

* <* The mind should be freed by proper repetitions and drill so that 
pet^ details may be left behind in order that power may be concen- 
trated on the higher step."— F. W. Pabkbs in * Talks on Teaching." 



REPETITION OF LESSONS, 185 

** Kepetition makes all operations easy ; even the fatigae of 
thinking diminishes by habit. That we may not increase the 
labor of the mind unseasonably, we should watch for the mo- 
ment when habit has made one lesson easy, and then we may 
go forward a new step. In teaching the children at the House 
of Industry at Munich to spin. Count Rumford wisely ordered 
that they should be made perfect in one motion before any 
other was shown to them : at first they were allowed only to 
move the wheel by the treadle with their feet; when, alter 
sufficient practice, the foot became perfect in its lesson^^the 
hands were set to work, and the children were allowed to be- 
gin to spin with coarse materials. It is said these children made 
remarkably good spinners. Madame de Gknlis applied the same 
principle in teaching Adela to play upon the hiurp. 

'* In the first attempts to learn any new bodily exercise, as 
fencing or dancing, persons are not certain what muscles they 
must use, and what may be left at rest : they generally employ 
those of which they have the most ready command, but these 
may not already be the muscles which are really wanted in the new 
operation. The simplest thing appears difficult till by practice 
we have associated tiie various slight motions which ought to 
be combined ; we feel that from want of use our motions are 
not obedient to our will, and to supply this defect we exert 
more strength and activity than is requisite. ' It does not re- 
quire strength ; you need not use so much force ; you need not 
teke so much pains ; ' we frequently say to those who are mak- 
ing the first painful, awkward attempts at some simple opera- 
tion. Can anything appear more easy than knitting, when we 
look at the dexterous rapid motions of an experienced practi- 
tioner? but let a gentleman take up a lady's knitting-needles, 
and knitting appears to him, and to slU the spectators, one of the 
most laborious and difficult operations imagmable. A lady who 
is learning to work with a tambour needle puts her head down 
close to the tambour frame, the color comes into her face, she 
strains her eyes, all her faculties are exerted, and perhaps she 
works at the rate of three links a minute. A week afterwards, 
probably, practice has made the work perfectly easy; the same 
lady goes rapidly on with her work ; she can talk and lau^h, 
and perhaps even think, whilst she works ; she has now dis- 
covered titiat a number of the motions, and a great portion of 
that action which she thought necessary to this mighty opera- 
tion, may be advantageously spared. 

'' In a similar manner, in the exercise of our minds upon sub- 
jects that are new to us, we generally exert more effort than is 
necessary or serviceable, and we consequently soon fatigue our- 



Id6 PmuOSOPBY OF EDUCATION, 

selyes without any adyantage. Chfldren, to whom many sab- 
jects are new, are often fatigued by these oyerstrained and 
misplaced efforts. In these drcomstances a tator should relieve 
the attention by introducing indifferent subjects of oouTersation ; 
he can, by showing no anuety himself, either in his manner or 
countenance, relieve his pupil from any apprehension of his dis- 
pleasure or of his contempt ; he can represent that the object 
before them is not a matter of life and death ; that if the child 
does not succeed in the first trials he will not be disgraced in 
the opinion of any of his friends ; that bv perseverance he will 
certamly conquer the difficulty ; that it is of little consequence 
whether he understand the tmng in question today or to-mor- 
row : these considerations will calm the over-anxious pupil's 
agitation, and whether he succeed or not, he wiU not suffer such 
a degree of pain as to disgust him in his first attempts." 

When a lesson is repeated, it should be done with the view 
of making the child thoroughly acquainted with the subject- 
matter ; but repetitions are given chiefly to load the memory with 
words, without any regard to the enlightenment of the reason. 
If the pupils do not thoroughly comprehend a lesson which 
has been given to them, the teacher, in going over it for the 
second time, should adopt some fresh modes of illustrating or 
demonstrating, as the case may require, the leading ideas con- 
tained in it. By this means the monotony of repetition will be 
avoided, and a new aspect will be given to the subject, which 
will be highly instructive to their minds. 

Miss Edgeworth then goes on to observe : 

** We have said that a preceptor, in his first lessons on anv 
new subject, must submit to the drudgery of repeating his 
terms and his reasoning, until these are sufficiently famihar to 
his pupils. He must, however, proportion the number of his 
repetitions to the temper and habits of hispupils, else he will 
weary instead of strengthen the attention. When a thin^ is dear, 
let him never try to make it clearer ; when a thing is under- 
stood, not a word more of exemplification should be added. 
To mark precisely the moment when the pupil understands 
what is said — ^^e moment when he is master of the necessary 
ideas, and, consequently, the moment when repetition diould 
cease, is, perhaps, the most difficult thing in the art of teaching. 
The countenance, the eye, the voice and manner of the pupu, 
mark this instant to an observant preceptor ; but a preceptor 



THE CULTIVATION OF HABITS, 137 



who is absorbed in his own ideas will never think of looking 
in his pupil's face ; he wiU go on with his routine of explana- 
tion, whilst his once lively, attentive pupil exhibits opposite to 
him the picture of stupefied f ati^e. Quick, intelligent children, 
who have frequently found that lessons are reiterat^ by a patient 
but injudicious tutor, will learn a careless mode of listening at in- 
tervals ; they will say to themselves, * Oh, I shall hear this again I ' 
And if any stray thought comes across their minds, they will 
not scruple to amuse themselves, and will afterwards ask for a 
repetition of the words or ideas which they missed during the 
excursion of fancy. When they hear the warning advertise- 
ment of ' certainly for the last time this season,' they will deem 
it time enough to attend to the performance. To cure them of 
this presumption in favor of our patience, and of their own 
superlative quickness, we should press that quickness to its ut- 
most speed. Whenever we call for their attention, let it be on 
subjects highly interesting or amusing, and let us give them but 
just sufficient time with their fullest exertion to catch our words 
and ideas. As these quick gentlemen are proud of their rapid- 
ity of apprehension, this method will probably succeed ; thej 
will dread the di^race of not understanding what is said, and 
they will feel that they cannot understand unless they exert 
prompt, vigorous, and unremitted attention." 



XVI. In aU our ingtruction we should cUtend io the euUieatian 

of habits* 

Habits, according to the old adage, become a second nature : 
they render labor easy, and the performance of duty a pleas- 
ure ; they fortify us against the contagion of bad example, and 
shield us from the force of sudden temptation. Intellectual 
habits are not less essential to the man than those habits which 
have a relation to conduct: thus, for instance, the habit of 
working out results from first principles and not by rules, ex- 
ercises a most salutary influence in the development of the 
faculties of children. 

Habits of thought, as well as habits of conduct, can be estab- 



* " Kxercise involves repetition, which, as regards bodily-actions, ends 
in habits of action, and as regards impressions received by the mind, 
ends in clearness of perception."— Joseph Patnb. 



188 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

lisbed only by time, repetitioii, and practice. Useful habits are 
formed gradually— a little thing done well leads the way to the 
performance of a greater ; and what appears hard to-day may 
by repeated trials become perfectly easy to-morrow. As right 
habits can only be formed gradually, we should never exact too 
much from a child. Habits of attention, reflection, application, 
industry, virtue, and piety are better inculcated by example 
than by precept ; for children are peculiarly imitative beings : 
if the parents of a child, for instance, arc always employed, the 
child cannot long remain idle — ^he will soon acquire the habit 
of industry ; and so on to other cases. Well-timed practice 
examples or illustrations will have far more influence in devel- 
oping the character of children than abstract rules or precepts. 
And as no proposition should be given without a proof, so no 
duty should be exacted without a reason.* 

" Virtues and vices (says Locke) can by no words be so 
plainly set before their imderstandings as the actions of other 
men will show them, when you direct their observation and 
bid them view this or that good or bad quality in their practice. 
And the beauty and uncomcliness of many things, in good or ill 
breeding, will be better learned, and make deeper impressions on 
them, in the examples of others, than from any rule or instruc- 
tions that can be given about them. And what ill they either 
overlook, or indulge in themselves, they cannot but dislike and 
be ashamed of when it is set before them in another. 

** And here give me leave to take notice of one thing I think 
a fault in the ordinary method of education ; and that is, the 
charging of children's memories, upon all occasions^ with rules 
and precepts, which they often do not imderstand, and are con- 
stantly as soon forgotten as given. If it be some action you 
would have done, or done otherwise, whenever they forget or 
do it awkwardly, make them do it over and over agam, till 
they are perfect ; whereby you will get these two advantages : 
Firot, to see whether it be an action they can do, or is fit to be 



* " No duty must be exacted without a reason, If a child is capable of 
comprehending the reason, and has the will to be guided by it. The 
formation of habits of order, attention, punctuality, cleanliness, etc., 
must begin long before the child comprehends the object of these 
mediate virtues."— Zillkr. 



LOCKE OK METHOD. 139 

expected of tbem. For sometimes children are bid to do things 
which upon trial they are foimd not able to do ; and had 
need be taught and exercised in before they are required to do 
them. Secondly, another thin^ got by it will be this, that by 
repeating the same action till it oe grown habitual in them, the 
performance will not depend on memory or reflection, tbe con- 
comitant of prudence and age, and not of childhood, but will 
be natural in them. Thus, bowing to a gentleman when he 
salutes him, and looking in hU face when he speaks to him, is 
by constant use as natimd to a well-bred man as breathing : it 
requires no tiiought, no reflection. Having this way cured in 
your child any fault, it is cured forever ; and thus, one by one, 
you may weea them out all, and plant what habits you please. 

" I have sesn parents so heap rules on their children, that it 
was impossible for the poor little ones to remember a tenth part 
of them, much less to observe them. However, they were 
either by words or blows corrected for the breach of those mul- 
tiplied and often veir impertinent precepts. Whence it natu- 
rally followed that the children minded not what was said to 
them, when it was evident to them that no attention they were 
capable of was sufficient to preserve them from transgression 
and the rebukes which followed it. 

** Let, therefore, your rules to your son be as few as possible, 
and rallier fewer tihan more than seem absolutely necessary. 
For if you burden him with many rules, one of these two 
things must necessarily follow — that either he must be very 
often punished, which will be of ill consequence, by making 
punishment too frequent and familiar ; or else you must let the 
transgressions of some of your rules go unpunished, whereby 
they will of course grow contemptible, and your auUiority be- 
come cheap to him. Make but few laws, but see thev be well 
observed when once made. Few years require but few laws, 
and as his age increases, when one rule is by practice well es- 
tablished, you may add another. 

" But pray remember children are not to be taught by rules, 
which will be always slipping out of their memories. What 
you think necessary for them to do settle in them by an indis- 
pensable practice, as often as the occasion returns; and, if 
it be possible, make occasions. This will beget habits in them, 
which being once established operate of themselves easily and 
naturally, without the assistance of the memory. But here let 
me give two cautions : 

*' 1. The one is, that you keep them to the practice of what 
you would have grow into a habit in them, by kind words and 
gentle admonitions, rather as minding them of what they for- 



140 PHWOSOPHT OF EDUCATION. 

get, than by hanh rebukes and cbiding as if th^ were wilfoDy 

** 2. Another thing jaa are to take care of is not to endeairor 
to settle too many habits at <Hice, lest by a variety you confound 
them, and so perfect none. When constant custom has made 
any one thing easy and natural to them, and they practise it 
without reflection, you may then go on to another. 

" This method of teachmg children by a repeated practice, 
and the same action done over and over again, under the eye 
and direction of the tutor, till they have got tide habit of doing it 
well, and not by relyins on rules trusted to their memories, baa 
so many advantages, iimich way soever we consider it, that I 
cannot out wonder (if ill customs could be wondered at in any- 
thing) how it could possibly be so much neglected. I shall 
name one more that comes now in my way. By this method we 
shall see whether what is required of him be adapted to his 
capacity, and any way suited to the child's natural gcmius and 
constitution ; for that too must be considered in a right educa- 
tion." 

The Habits of Attention and Concentration are the Great 
Mainsprings of Education^ — As we have already observed, 
the great secret in securing the attention of children is to inter- 
est them ; and the habit of attention is cultivated by keeping 
the faculty in a state of vigorous activity during the whole 
course of our instruction.* The habits of listlessness and inat- 
tention are engendered by injudicious or inappropriate plans of 
teaching. The habit of directing the undivided force of the 
faculties to a given subject is the great mainspring of self- 
education. But this habit, in its fullest vigor, is rarely acqmred 
in early life ; notwithstanding, the teacher ehould be prefMured 
to avaU himself of all the occasions most favorable for its culti- 
vation. The principle of emulation and a judicious system of 
rewards are two of our most powerful supplemental aids in the 
cultivation of this habit. 

The Habit of Observation should be specially cultivated. 



* " The exerdBe of the chfld's own powers, stimulated but not super- 
seded by the educator's Interference, ends both in the acquisition of 
knowledge and in the invigoration of the power for further acquisition." 
— Joseph Pathi. 



HABira OF ATTENTION, 141 

— Object-lessons are highly calculated to foster the habit of ob- 
servation. Children should be accustomed to examine, analyze, 
and inspect every object of interest around them : the flowers 
and minerals by the wayside, the animals of the fields, the 
warblers of the forest, the various household utensils, etc., all 
present us with excellent subjects for exercising the observing 
faculties. The habit of observing the structure, uses, and prop- 
erties of familiar things prepares the mind for entering upon a 
higher course of scientific inquiry. 



142 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



pabt n. 

ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE INTEL- 
LECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES. 



CHAPTER L 

FBELDONABY NOTIONS. 

No class of men require a knowledge of intellectual and 
moral philosophy more than teachers : self knowledge is valu- 
able to all, but it is especially valuable to them. Self-knowl- 
edge, in ite fullest acceptation, requires that we should know 
ourselves in relation to the three states of our existence— the 
past, the present, and the future : consciousness tells us what 
we are, remembrance informs us what we have been, and reason, 
by combining the facts of our past and present existence, en- 
ables us to anticipate what we shaU he. But self knowledge, in 
this comprehensive sense, is rarely found amongst teachers : 
we seem to regard our minds as little as we do our watches — 
we look at the dial-plate, but heed not the internal machinery 
— the springs, the regulators, or the beautiful combinations of 
wheels within wheels by which the results are produced. A 
man who is intrusted with the direction of a machine should 
surely be acquainted with the principles of its construction. 
Now the teacher has to regulate and develop the faculties of a 
human soul — ^his mind has to act upon another mind so as to 
give a right tone and direction to its development. Here mind 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTIES, 143 

is the agent which acts, and mind is the object acted upon. 
The teacher should, therefore, stadj the philosophy of our in- 
tellectual and moral nature. 

The most wonderful work of Gkxl is the himian soul, for it 
has been created after His own image; and the laws which 
govern it8 action and development demand the most patient 
study. The highest of all intellectual efforts is that of the mind 
engaged in the study of itself— the principle of thought engaged 
in the investigation of the laws and processes of thought — the 
intellectual vision turned inwardly upon itself. Here we must 
arrest the current of thought in order to determine the modes 
and conditions of its action and development. 

The child is the man in embryo: the child has the same 
faculties as the man, but they are in a different state of de- 
velopment. In order that a man may teach children he should 
thoroughly sympathize with them; he should realize their 
habits of thought and action, peculiar tastes and modes of self- 
development; he should frequently, in imagination, conceive 
himself to be a little child, and recall to himself all that he 
thought and felt when he was a little child ; so that he may be 
able to tell what effect any particular form of instruction or 
mode of training will have upon them. A teacher, therefore, 
should not only know himself as he is, but he should also look 
back to the early history of his own mind and analyze the facts 
of this past existence with the view of determining the causes 
which had been most operative in stimulating the growth and 
development of his faculties. 

Let us for a moment glance at the panorama of our early 
years with the view of realizing our thoughts and feelings 
relative to the educational influences which were brought to 
bear upon our own intellectual and moral development. This 
psychological inquiry will bring home to us the momentous 
fact, that there is not a single act, not a single thought, of our 
past life, that has not had an influence in fixing our present in- 
tellectual and moral condition. What ws abe is but the last 
link in a long chain of sequences, extending from childhood to 



144 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

youth, from youth to manhood, from manhood to age ; and 
what WE SHALL BE wUl ouly be an extension of the links of 
this chain of sequences. 

A Qlance at our Childhood and Early Tonth. — ^Let us in 
imagination live our lives over again, with the view of realiz- 
ing the different stages of our intellectual and moral develop- 
ment, and of exposing the errors of certain systems of educa- 
tion. This will not he difficult if we confine ourselves to a 
simple statement of facts, without refining too much upon the 
use of phrases, or mixing up our apprehensions with recondite 
theories relative to mental phenomena. 

We aU remember how in our early childhood we loved what- 
ever afforded us pleasure and hated whatever gave us pain ; 
how we loved the beautiful and the good, and dreaded what 
was ugly and bad ; what horror a butcher or a butcher's shop 
excited, and how visions of blood and cruelty haunted us in 
our dreams; what pleasure we derived from every strange 
scene and every new toy ; how we dreaded our hard task- 
masters, and how delighted we were when we were permitted 
to acquire knowledge in our own way. 

We all remember how in our boyish days we made whistles 
and pox)-guns, suckers and slings; how in our games we 
mimicked the ways and doings of man in the great world ; 
how we loved to wander in the fields and pluck the flowers and 
listen to nature's wild music ; how we distinguished birds one 
from another, or different animals one from another ; how wc 
loved to gaze upon the sea and the sky, or to penetrate the 
depths of the trackless forest, or to climb the rugged cliff ; how 
the contemplation of nature filled our little souls with ecstasy, 
and how we wondered if other people felt the same emotions 
that the words Gk)d, Eternity, Immensity, etc., excited in our 
minds; how imagination conjured up fictitious scenes and 
peopled them with the creations of our own brain ; how we 
hated the drudgery of tasks because we could not understand 
them, and with what pleasure we turned from them to read 
stories of animals or tales about children ; how readily we be- 



CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH. 145 

lieved in everything that was told us, and how our religion in- 
termingled itself with superstitious notions-; how we told ghost 
stories in the long winter nights to our playfellows sitting round 
the fire ; how we wished that our school-days were over, that 
we might think and read as our own instincts directed us, with- 
out being under the iron rule of hard masters ; with what 
pleasure we anticipated the approach of holidays and periods 
of festivities, and how we looked to the future when we should 
be without pain or anxiety, and when we should enjoy the full 
exercise of our faculties. 

We all remember— when our school-days were over, and 
when we fairly commenced the process of self-development— 
with what avidity we read books that suited our capacities and 
tastes, and what pleasure the exercise of our intellectual facul- 
ties afforded us ; how the dogmas our school-learning were for^ 
gotten or disregarded ; how we studied men and things for 
ourselves, and how our own faculties and feelings became dis- 
tinct objects of contemplation ; how our past Joys and sorrows, 
thoughts and emotions, passed in review before us ; and how 
hoi)e and high resolve shed a halo over the future, and urged 
us on in the career of life. 

And now, when the fairy existence of early youth is past, 
what remains for our matured age? The illusions of hope have 
melted away like the unsubstantial visions of the night ; life 
has lost its greatest charm, and the stem realities of existence 
meet us on every side ; most of the gay friends of our childhood 
are in the cold grave, and the voices that once charmed us, as 
with the sweetest melody, are silent and still. What remains 
for us ? Action I usefulness I and the prospect of meeting our 
lost friends in a better state of existence I 

This review of the facts of our past existence supplies us 
with valuable suggestions relative to the work of elementary 
education. 

A Onrsory View of our Intellectual and Moral Faculties 
as regards their Mode of DeTelopment.— Man is a thinking 
and a responsible being ; hence we speak of our intellectual and 
10 



146 PEIL080PHY OF EDUCATION. 

moral nature, of the poivers of intellect, whidi have respect to 
knowledge, and of the moral powers, which have respect to 
conduct. We think, fed, and act ; we have thoughts and emo- 
tions, and we have also the power of controlling our thouj^ts 
and emotions. Hence our mental phenomena may be divided into 
three classes: 1. Simple intellect, comprehending those faculties 
by which we perceive, remember, compare, conceive, imagine, 
and reason. 2. Emotions, usually called passions or affections ; 
these may be either passive or active ; passive emotions simply 
affect us with pleasure or pain ; active emotions affect our con- 
duct, and they may be either right or wrong, virtuous or vicious. 
8. Over all these powers and emotions is placed the principle of 
self-control, the voluntary principle — the will, which consti- 
tutes man a voluntary being, and which, acting in conjunction 
with SEASON and the power of consgiencb, that inherent in- 
stinctive sense of right and wrong— also constitutes him a moral 
and responsible agent ' 

Let us now endeavor to trace the successive stages of our in- 
tellectual and moral development. 

External objects produce impressions upon our senses, which 
impressions we call sensations ; we become eansdaus of these 
sensations, and we perceive the objects which produce them ; 
hence we regard sensation and perception as belonging to the 
first stage of our mental development. Sensation is the effect 
which external objects have upon our senses ; perception is an 
act of the mind, and hence we speak of the faculty of percep- 
tion. But a sensation may take place without being followed 
by its corresponding perception ; thus for example an object 
may be placed before our organs of vision without being per- 
ceived by us ; in fact, we must give our cUtentian to a thing be- 
fore we can have a full perception of it ; hence we recognize the 
existence of that voluntary power of the mind which we call 
the FACULTY OF ATTENTION. We remember past impressions 
and perceptions ; hence we are said to possess the faculty of 
MEMOBY. We recall at our will past impressions and scenes, 
and conceive them to be, as it were, placed before us with all 



STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT, 147 

the viyidness of the odginftl impreflsioDfl ; henoe we are said to 
possess the faculty of conception. By this faculty we make 
the idea— the conceptioii— of an object a distinct subject of con- 
sciousness and contemplation. We not only remember and 
conceive, but we also compare the impressions of objects, 
whether present or absent, with each other, and thus distinguish 
them one from another, or form a jvdgment relative to their re- 
spective qualities ; hence we arc said to possess the faculties of 
COMFABIBON and of PBDnriVB JUDGMENT ; these form the first 
elements of the process of reasoning. Things are perceived by 
us under certain relations of place, time, etc.; we reeoUeet them 
in the same order of place, time, etc.; henoe we are said to 
possess the faculty of bboollbction ; which is something more 
than simple memory, for it involves the faculty dl abbociatiqn. 
By the faculty of association certain written signs or sounds 
become suggestive of, or associated with, certain ideas. The 
name of a horse, for example, whether written or spoken, becomes 
associated with the conception or idea of a horse, so that the pres- 
ence of the one suggests that of the other. The gift of language, 
or as we might say, the faculty of language, not less than 
reason or the moral sense, distinguishes man from the lower 
animals. By means, of language, that wonderful symbol of 
thought, we hold conmiunion with one another, we record the 
results of our experience— our ideas ; and thus the life of a man, 
in a certain sense, is not bounded by his own individual term 
of existence, but embraces the whole period of the past existence 
of his species. We imitate the sounds which we hear, and copy 
the forms which we see ; hence we are said to possess the fa- 
culty of IMITATION. We not only believe in the facts which 
we derive from perception and observation, but we also readily 
accept the facts communicated to us by others ; hence we are 
said to have an instinctive belief in testimony ; hence that re- 
markable aptitude which children show for receiving instruction, 
and the unreasoning trust which they repose in the statements of 
their parents and teachers. This may be not inappropriately 
called the faculty of lbabning. 



148 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Let US now trace some of the earliest developments of imagin- 
ation, abstraction, and reason. 

We imagine things to exist, and invest them with various 
imaginary qualities. With the aid of visible representations 
we form an idea of absent objects and things — a small picture 
enables us to realize the idea of a mountain stream, or of some 
beautiful natural scene: hence we are said to possess the faculty 
of Idbalitt, which is obviously nearly allied to that of imagin- 
ation. 

We OBSBRVB the relation between events : a stroke upon the 
table, for example, is followed by a sound ; the stroke \b recog- 
nized as the CAUSE, and the sound as the effbct ; the stroke is 
repeated, and the same sound is produced, and we instinctively 
believe that the same effect will always be followed by the 
operation of the same cause. 

We see a series of objects having the same color ; they may 
be different in foim, taste, etc., but they have the same color : 
we f oim a conception of that color, apart from the other prop- 
erties of the bodies— that is to say, we form an abstract idea 
of it. 

We see a lot of balls— they may be different in color ; some 
may be rough, others may be smooth, but they have all the 
same form — ^they are all balls ; we realize a conception of this 
form apart from the other properties of the bodies. A particu- 
lar figure formed by three straight lines, and therefore contain- 
ing three angles, is called a triangle ; but we may draw another 
figure bounded by three straight lines, which shall differ very 
much from the first in the absolute and the relative lengths of 
the sides ; yet still we call this figure a triangle, for it is bounded 
by three sides and contains three angles : hence we form the ab- 
stract idea of a triangle, corresponding to the definition which 
limits or defines this species of form. And so on to other cases 
of geometrical form and magnitude. In like manner we arrive 
at a knowledge of the various properties of bodies. 

We see a lot of balls ; we count them by ones ; they make 
up a certain number ; but they may be grouped in different 



ABSTRACTION AND GENERALIZATION. 149 

ways, and the total number will be made up of the number in 
the different groups put together. Thus, for example, if there 
are five balls, we may put them into two groups, one of which 
shall contain three balls and the other two : then we arrive at 
the fact that three balls and two balls make five balls. But we 
may count in the same manner with buttons, or with any other 
objects : hence we form the abstract conception of numbers 
and the properties of numbers, without regard to the particu- 
lar objects which represent them, whether they be balls, or but- 
tons, or cubes, or anything else. The results thus attained, ex- 
pressed in language, become established truths or propositions, 
and we remember them as such. 

In all these cases we exercise the faculty of abstraction, 
which at the same time involves those of classification and 
GENERALIZATION. By the f aculty of abstraction, therefore, we 
arrange objects into classes, genera, and species. Thus we ob- 
serve that some objects have certain common proi)erties, by 
which we distinguish them from other objects; hence we 
classify them and call them by some name indicative of the 
class : thus we soon distinguish a horse from a cow, etc. ; hence 
also we generalize, that is to say, we take a comprehensive view 
of a multifarious collection of facts, by selecting one which is 
common to them all. 

Coexistent with this stage of intellectual development certain 
api)etites and passions exhibit themselves. The taste of a sweet- 
meat affords us pleasurb, the taste of a drug is unpleasant ; 
we LOVE and desire the one, while we disliee and avoid the 
other. Some sensations and ideas are accompanied with pain, 
others with pleasure ; we love the person that is kind to us, 
because his kindness affords us pleasure, and we hate and fear 
the person that treats us with cruelty, because his cruelty gives 
us pain. 

The sentiment of taste— the sense of the sublime and beauti- 
ful—early develops itself. We admire a beautiful object, be- 
cause the sight of it affords us pleasure. The flowers with 
their varied forms and colors and scents, the green fields and 



160 FBIL080PBY OF EDUCATION. 

wood0-» file bright sun lighting up the wide earth with life and 
joy, the silver moon as she sheds her soft and balmy light over 
the slumbering world, the stars as they twinkle in the depths 
of the azure canopy of night, all are beautiful to us, all are 
charming to us^ because they all awaken within us the senti- 
ments of love and admiration.- 

But the contemplation of the sublime, not less than the beau- 
tiful, affords us pleasure : the snow-dad mountain, the deep 
raTine, the boundless expanse of field and forest, the vast ocean 
as it swells and foams and responds to the moaning winds, the 
rolling thunder and the flashing lightning, all are sublime— all 
fill our souls with the sentiments of aws,venebatiok, and wok- 
deb, And impress us with the ideas of vastness, power, immen- 
sity, and infinitude. Above all and over all we adore and love 
the Great Qod, who made the world and all its fulness, and 
enthroned Himself amid its riches and goodness. 

We love knowledge in all its forms, because its acquisition 
affords us pleasure. Not satisfied with what we already know, we 
seek to know more; hence that insatiable appetite for knowledge 
— that ceaseless oubiosity which is ever craving for knowledge 
but is never satisfied, and which forms one of the most remark- 
able features of the infant mind. We love approbation, and 
the consciousness of mental power affords us pleasure. We 
eagerly strive with our companions in the race of improve- 
ment ; hence we are said to possess the principle of euula- 

TIOH. 

We also soon distinguish between what is good or bad in 
conduct : the bbnsb of thb BBAunpuii is closely related to 
and connected with the moral sense, or that faculty wh^^by 
we distinguish what is good and beautiful, and therefore praise- 
worthy in our actions, from what is bad and displeasing, and 
therefore blameworthy. The ioherent conviction of our moral 
responsibility leads us to follow the one and avoid the other. 
We see. that self-indulgence, if carried too far, is injiudous to 
ourselves and often detrimental to the happiness of others ; wo 
hence^ recognize two distinct principles, or rather two distinct 



THE MORAL SENSE. 151 

claases of emotions in our nature : the one daas has been called 
the SELFISH BMOTioNS, the other the BBREYOLEirr emotions ; 
the one seeks the gratification of self, the other seeks to promote 
the happiness of others. The principle of stmpatht leads us 
to adopt the golden rule of conduct, viz., to do imto others as 
we would that they should do unto us. We pity those that 
are in pain or distress ; we sympathize with them— that is, we, 
in a certain sense, make their misery our own, and thus we are 
led to relieve them. But our instincts are not all for good : we 
suffer injuries or injustice from others ; those injuries excite 
within us the emotions of hatbbd and beyengb, and other 
icALETOLBNT PASSIONS ; but wc Cannot indulge these passions 
without causing misery to ourselves as well as to others ; hence 
arises the necessity of self-contbol. We tell iiss— false- 
hoods— to screen ourselves from the consequences of our follies, 
or it may be to gratify our vanitt ; but our conscience raises its 
voice against the violation of tbuth. We take the property of 
others, or seek to indulge ourselves at the expense of others ; 
but the golden rule tells us that theft, injustice, etc., are wrong, 
and that honesty, justice, etc., are right. The love of approba- 
tion frequently engenders vanity, and the consciousness of 
power produces pbidb and conceit. Education stimulates the 
development of our virtuous emotions and checks the develop- 
ment of those that are evil. Scripture, the revealed word of 
Qod, lends its all-powerful aid to incidcate what is good and to 
denounce what is evil. We are there informed that Gk)d is holy 
as well as good — ^just as well as merciful ; as judge of all the 
earth, therefore. He will punish the wicked and reward the 
righteous in the world to come. 

Of all our intellectual faculties, imagination, reason, judg- 
ment, and invention are the latest in attaining their full growth 
and development. 

Out of our impressions of actual scenes and events we im- 
agine, or, as it were, create fictitious scenes and events, and in- 
vest them with all the vividness and warmth of reality ; hence 
we are said to possess the faculty of DiAaiNATiON. We sepa- 



152 PHILOSOPHY OP EDUCATION, 

rate facts or general principles from each other and throw them 
.into new combinations, with the view of deriving some new 
result or fact ; in this case we are said to exercise the faculty of 
iNYENTioN, which is obviously very nearly allied to that of 
imagination. 

We analyze facts, compare them with each other, observe 
their relations, and deduce from these relations certain general 
facts or principles ; we compare our mental impressions with 
external things, draw couclusions, and establish certain princi- 
ples of belief : in all these cases we are said to exercise the 
faculty of BBASON, or it may be that of judgmeht. By rea- 
son we investigate truth and determine the laws of evidence 
and belief. Reason is the highest faculty of our nature, and 
admits of an indefinite degree of cultivation. 

A more exact analysis of the mind, with a classification of its 
faculties, is given in Chap. III., Part I., of this work. 



CHAPTER n. 

CULTTVATIOH' OF THB INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES — CULTIVA- 
TION OF THE FEBCEPTIVE FACULTIES AND OF THE FAC- 
ULTIBB OF PBDOTIVE JUDGMENT, CONCEPTION, IMITATION, 
AB8TBAGTI0N, AJS1> LANGUAGE. 

OuB first knowledge of the existence and properties of the 
material world is derived through our senses ; hence it follows 
that our knowledge of the properties of material bodies is lim- 
ited by the number and acuteness of our senses. It is generally 
believed that we have five senses — sight, hearing, taste, smell, 
and touch ; but to these has been added the sense of muscular 
effort, or the sense of resistance to muscular action. 

Some properties are cognizable by one sense only; but in 
general our knowledge of the external world is derived from 



CULTIVATION OF THE INTELLECTUAL FACULTIEa. 168 

fhe combined action of seTeral senses. Thus color can only be 
known to us by the sense of sight, sound by the sense of hear- 
ing, taste by the sense of taste, cold or heat by the sense of 
feeling, odor by the sense of smell, and weight or force by 
the sense of muscular effort ; but the properties of torm, size, 
number, and texture are cognizable by at least two of our 
senses, viz., sight and touch ; the ideas of number and succes- 
sion may be conveyed to the mind by any of our senses ; thus 
a succession of sounds, tastes, etc., may impress us with the 
idea of number as perfectly as a series of objects placed before 
the eye can do. Our impression of solidity, roughness, or 
smoothness is derived from touch combined with muscular 
action. And so on to other cases. 

The first notions derived from our senses, however, seem to 
be limited and imperfect. Our real knowledge is only ac- 
quired by experience, in the course of which the impressions 
derived £rom one sense are used to supply the deficiencies and 
correct the errors of the impressions derived from another 
sense, and by the mind acting upon the impressions derived 
from all the senses. Thus, for example, the primary objects 
of vision are color and apparent form ; but the result of expe- 
rience, derived from the sense of touch, etc., enables us to 
judge of distance and mf^gnitude by our vision. It is well 
known that we have no idea of the distance of an object imless 
we have some knowledge of its magnitude, and mce verm. In 
like manner we have no idea of the intensity of sounds imless 
we have some knowledge of their distance, and vice vena. 
Experience also enables us to judge of the distance of an object 
by the degree of its brightness, or by the degree of distinctness 
of its outline : hence it is that, in a picture, distant objects are 
drawn faintly and with an indistinctness in the outline of their 
minute parts. The apparent form of a body is often very 
different from the true idea which we conceive of it ; in fact 
our conception of an object, derived from vision, is as much a 
matter of judgment as of sensation. We avail ourselves of this 
principle in perspective drawing, where we diminish the size 



154 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

of the lines representing known objects to conyey the idea of 
distance, and foreshorten the lines which represent the parts of 
objects seen obliquely. These observations show that we have 
to learn the right use of our senses. It is the business of the 
teacher to aid nature in accomplishing this end. 
On the cultivation of the senses Miss Edgeworth observes : 
" Rousseau has judiciously advised that the senses of chil- 
dren should be cultivated with the utmost care. In proportion 
to the distinctness of their perceptions will be the accuracy of 
their memory, and probably, also, the precision of their judg- 
ment. A child who sees imperfectly cannot reason justly 
about the objects of sight, because he has not sufficient data. 
A child who does not hear distinctly cannot judge well of 
sounds ; and, if we could suppose the sense of touch to be 
twice as accurate in one child as in another, we might conclude 
that the judgment of these children must differ in a similar 
proportion. The defects in organization are not within the 
power of the preceptor ; but we may observe that inattention 
and want of exercise are frequently the causes of what are 
mistaken for natural defects ; and, on the contrary, increased 
attention and cultivation sometimes produce that quickness of 
eye and ear, and that consequent readiness of judgment, which 
we are apt to attribute to natural sui)eriority of organization or 
capacity." 

The cultivation of the senses necessarily includes the cultiva- 
tion of the faculty of perception. This faculty demands the 
earliest attention and cultivation : its first development is best 
attained by directing it to the examination of form and num- 
ber, and afterwards to the various other properties of bodies. 
A sufficient time should be allowed the child to examine and 
olmrM the different parts and peculiarities of the object at 
which he looks ; and we should not expect him to give* his at- 
tention to more than one subject at a time. He should be led 
to coicPABJS one object with another, or it may be different 
parts of the same object with each other. He should be shown 
how to direct all his senses to an object with the view of de- 



CULTIVATION OF THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTim, 155 

termining all its properties. He will, in the course of this 
examination, frequently find that he is able to detect the same 
property by different senses. Thus, for example, the teacher 
may say to his pupil : What shape has this object (a ball) ? 
P. It is round. T, How do you know that it is round ? P. I 
966 that it is round. T, Is there no other way by which you 
can know that it is round ? Tou seem to hesitate ; now take 
it in your hand and run your fingers over its surface. P. I 
fed that it is round.* T, But your feeling tells of another 
property which that object has ; what is that property ? P. It 
f66l8 smooth. T, But there is another way by which you 
know that it is smooth ? P. It looks smooth ; it is glossy oi 
bright. T. True; your experience teaches you that bodies 
which appear bright or glossy are almost always smooth. Now 
close your eyes, and take Uiis body in your hands ; can you 
feel what color it has ? P. I cannot /e^? color. T. I^owoi)en 
your eyes, and tell me what color it has ? P.lsee that it is red. 
In cultivating the perceptive faculties the teacher should 
frequently require his pupils to jxtdgb of the distance of an 
object from its apparent size, or from its distinctness of outline, 
and vice versa, or of the distance of a sound from its intensity, 
or of the distance of a place by the time which it takes them 
to walk to it. The eye should be exercised in noting the posi- 
tion of objects with respect to each other, and in comparing 
the magnitude of the angles formed by lines and planes. They 
should be accustomed to use the foot-rule in measuring the 
lengths and breadths of different things, and also their dis- 
tances from one another, so that they may at once be able to 
verify their JUDaiiBNTS relative to the sizes of different objects. 
The weights and capacities of bodies should also be made a 
subject of observation. In order to give an idea of density, or 
the lightness or heaviness of a substance, the attention of the 



* "The mere sight of an object," says Pestalozad, " does not satisfy a 
child. He must handle it, weigh it, smell it, taste it, and examine it in 
all its parts in order to gain a complete idea of it." 



166 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATJON. 

child should be directed to the size of a pound of tea as com- 
pared with the size of a pound of sugar, or to the weight of a 
sovereign as compared with the weight of a shilling. 

In all these exercises the child should be required to express 
in LANOUAaE the results of his observations or judgments ; and 
wherever it is practicable, he should be required to dbaw the 
object or objects to which his attention has been directed ; 
nothing tends to cultivate the eye and the hand so much as 
drawing. Proceeding in this way, the teacher will combinb 

PEBCBPTION, OBSBBVATION, JUDGMENT, DBAWIKG, AND LAN- 
QUAOB IN THE SAME EXEBCIBE. 

The habit of exact perception and observation will be further 
cultivated by directing the attention of the child to various 
natural phenomena, such as we have described under our 
general axioms. It is almost unnecessary to say, that music 
will exercise the same influence in the cultivation of the ear, 
that drawing does in reference to the eye. 

The concefttve faculties should be cultivated at the 
same time as the perceptive faculties. After the attention of a 
child has been sufficiently directed to an object, it should be 
removed from his sight, and then he should be required to 
describe It in language, or, it may be, by drawing a repre- 
sentation of it. In like manner, after certain operations of 
numbers nave been explained to him, by reference to familiar 
objects, such as balls or strokes, he should be required to per- 
form, by the ordinary process of mental calculation, similar 
operations without the aid of such objects. He should also be 
required to describe, in his own language, particular scenes 
and events which he may have recently witnessed. 

A teacher should address his instruction to the EtE as well 
as to the bab. The subject should be illustrated by pictures, 
drawings, or figures, as the case may require, and new phrases 
or words should be written in large characters upon the black- 
board. In all cases, the conception of any new thing should 
be aided by words, by symbols, hy figurative representations, 
or by models. 



CULTIVATION OF THE CONCEPTIVE FACULTIES. 157 

After all the properties of a body havelieen examined by the 
pupils, the names given to these properties should be thoroughly 
impressed upon their minds. These properties, as we have 
before remarked, should then be made a subject of comparison 
or contrast, as the case may be, with the corresponding proper- 
ties of other bodies ; and then the property or properties by 
which the object on which the lesson is given is distinguished 
from other bodies should be distinctly pointed out, and the 
jitdgments thus formed should be expressed in simple and ap- 
propriate language. Thb uses to which the body is applied 
should then be exhibited ; and the connection between its dis- 
tinguishing properties and its uses should be carefully explamed 
and illustrated. 

Children like to dwell in the ideal world — ^the world of con- 
ceptions . The depth and vividness of their conceptions are 
intensified by the emotions elicited by our lessons. The fol- 
lowing subjects of instruction are highly calculated to inter 
est the feelings and to invigorate the conceptive faculty : zool- 
ogy, comprehending a description of the habits of the wild 
animals of the forest ; geography, comprehending descriptions 
of strange and distant lands ; mental arithmetic, in which the 
fundamental operations of numbers are conducted without the 
aid of symbolical notation ; astronomy, describing the revolu- 
tions of the vast globes which move through the amplitudes of 
space ; and so on. As an example, let the subject of the lesson 
be the form and magnitude of ths earth. 

Notes of a Lesson for cuUmUing the Faeultp of Ooneeption, 

Age of the pupils about seven* 

The world is a globe like an orange ; the orange is a little 
globe, but the world is a vast globe many thousands of times 



* It is doubtful whether a child of seven could comprehend this. What 
notion, for example, has a child or even an ordinary man of twenty-five 
thousand miles ? And what conception will this child have of one or 
of sixty millions f—S. 8. 



158 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

larger fhan the orange. When you look from the top of a high 
hill, you only see a small portion of the earth's surface ; beyond 
the distant hills and trees, which bound your view, there aie 
hills and trees, and again hills and trees far, far beyond. Navi- 
gators have sailed round the earth. The length of a line going 
round the earth is about 25,000 miles. You cannot tell what a 
great distance this is, but I shall try to give you some idea of it 
You have travelled in a railway train, and you know how fast 
it moves ; well, I once travelled in a fast train from London to 
York in four hours ; now it would take that train constantly 
going about three weeks to go round the earth. Such is the 
great size of the. earth. But the distance round the earth is 
almost nothing when compared with the celestial spaces. You 
have seen the evening star (Venus) when the sun is sinking in 
the western sky ; the sun is seen beside the farm>hou8e, and 
Venus over the forest, only a few miles from the farm-house : 
now the real distance between the sun and Venus is upwards of 
60 millions of miles, or more than two thousand times the girt 
(drcumferenee) of our earth. And so on. 

In this lesson we shall have cultivated other faculties besides 
that of conception. 

Definitions of terms should be given, as far as practica- 
ble, in connection with the things or properties which are desig- 
ifated by these terms. Thus, for example, if we wish to give a 
definition of the term eUuticUp, we should take a piece of india- 
rubber and stretch it out before the pupil, saying to him at the 
same time : Now I am exerting a pulling force, so as to stretch 
this long piece of india-rubber ; what do you observe in refer- 
ence to the alteration in its shape? P. You have stretched it out 
— ^it is longer than it was at first. T. Now I release it, — ^now the 
stretching force ceases to act, — what do you now observe ? P. 
It has returned to its original shape. T, This property is called 
elasticity, and the india-rubber is said to be elastic. Now tell 
me, in your own language, what you mean by the property of 
elasticity ? P. That if the body be stretched out, and then let 
go (released) from the force, it will return to its original diape. 



CULTIVATION OF THE CONCEPTIVE FACULTIES, 159 

T, True ; but we may express fhe same thing thus : elastidty 
is that property whereby a body returns to its original shape 
after the force which has altered its shape is withdrawn. 

Definitionb of fobm should be given in connection with the 
actual construction of the figures which we wish to define. As 
our geometrical definitions and postulates are based upon ex- 
perience and observation, one of the first steps in mathematical 
instruction is to show how geometrical figures may be described 
in accordance with their definitions, and, at the same time, to 
aid the mind of the pupil in forming general or abstract con- 
ceptions of these figures. The best way of showing the poBn- 
bUUy of drawing a perfect figure, is actua]ly to draw it with a 
greater or less degree of accuracy, according to the conditions 
of its abstract definition. Thus, if we wish to give the defini- 
tion of a circle, we should take a string and describe a circle 
with it before the pupil, saying to him at the same time : The 
figure bounded by this*chalk-line is called a circle ; the fixed 
point about which the string revolves is called the centre of the 
circle ; the length of the string, which constantly remains the 
same, is the radius; the chalk line itself, which forms the 
boundary of the figure, is called the circumference ; and the line 
drawn through the centre, meeting the circumference on oppo- 
site sides, is called the diameter. Now what have you to say 
about the distance of the circumference of a circle from its cen- 
ti'c ? P. It is always the same. T, In other words, you would 
say that the radii of a circle are all equal to one another. Now 
although this circle is not so perfect as it is possible to draw one, 
yet you can tell me what a perfect circle is. P. A circle is a 
figure bounded by a Ihie which is everywhere at the same dis- 
tance from a point within it called the centre. 

In like manner the pupil should be led to give in his own lan- 
guage the definitions of the terms radius, diameter, circumfer- 
ence, etc. Without materially altering the language employed 
by the pupil, the teacher may find it desirable to imprwe or cor- 
recta. 

Above all things, children should be accustomed to write their 



leO PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

own ideas in their own language. The writiDg of the contents 
of a hook is hetter than the study of a whole commentary upon 
it ; and the writing of the subject-matter of a single page often 
stimulates the appetite for learning more powerfully than tho 
reading of a whole folio. On this subject Richter observes : 
** Since writing signifies but the sign of things, and brings us 
through it to the things themselves, it is a stricter isolater and 
clearer collector of the ideas than even speech itself. Sound 
teaches quickly and generally ; writing, uninterruptedly and 
with more accuracy. It is certain that our representadon is 
much more a mental seeing than hearing, and that our meta- 
phors play far more on an instrument of color than of sound, 
and therefore writing which Ungers under the eyes must assist 
the formation of ideas to a much greater extent than the rapid 
flight of souDd. The scholar indeed carries it so far, that, when 
he reflects, he really seems to read a printed page ; and when 
he speaks, to give a little declamation out of a quickly and well 
written pamphlet. Let the boys write out their own thoughts 
sooner than copy yours, so that they may learn to exchange the 
heavy-ringing coin of sound into more convenient paper money. 
And let them be spared the writing-texts of schoolmasters, con- 
taining the praises of industry, of writing, of their master, or of 
some old prince ; in short, subjects about which the teacher can 
produce nothing better than his pupils. Every representation 
without some actual object or motive is poison. I cannot 
understand schoolmasters I Must the man even in childhood 
preach from the appointed Sunday text, and never choose one 
for himself from nature's bible ? Something similar may be said 
about the writing of open letters (an uusealed one is almost in- 
evitably half untrue) which the teachers of girls' schools re- 
quire, in order, say they, to exercise their pupils in epistolary 
style. A nothing writes to a nothing : the whole affair, under- 
taken by the desire of the teacher, not of the heart, is a certifi- 
cate of the death of thoughts, an announcement of the burning 
of the materials. Happy is it if the commanded volubility of 
the child, arising from coldness and addressed to emptiness, do 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION. 101 

not aocostom her to iosincerily. If letters must be f orthoomiiig, 
let them he written to some fixed person, aboat some definite 
thing. But what need of *so much ado about nothing/ since 
—not even excepting political or literary newspapers— nothing 
can be written so easily as letters on any subject when there is a 
motive for them, and Uie mind is fully informed of the matter." 



CHAPTER in. 



OXTLTIYATION OF THB INTELLECTUAL FACTJLTIB8, OONTO- 
TJED— CDI/nVATION OP THB PACTJLTT OP ATTENTION. 

In all our exercises of the senses, the faculty of attention 
should be assiduously cultivated, by all the artifices which we 
may have within our power.* The habit of directing the 
faculties promptly and intensely to whatever subject comes be- 
fore them, lays the foundation of the intellectual character. 
This habit requires careful cultivation : all the pupils should be 
expected to concentrate the whole of their powers of observa- 
tion on the subject brought before them ; imperfect perception 
should be carefully guarded against, and erroneous conceptions 
promptly corrected ; no subject should be dismissed until all its 
legitimate points of interest have been fairly exhausted ; and 
carelessness, lassitude, or indifference should never be permit- 
ted for one moment to exist. Besides the immediate benefits 
arising from such a course of education, it exerts a most 
momentous influence on the future characters of the pupils : 
it decides, in a great measure, as Fellenberg observes, '* whether 
they shall be superficial and desultory throughout life, or whether 
they shall maintain the contrary habits of application and ac- 
curacy with honorable perseverance." So much depends upon 



* ** The great object of all primary work is training in the power of at- 
tention.**— F. W. Fabkxb. 
11 



103 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

the faculty of attention, that its cultore should fonn a leading 
subject of practical education. 

To cultivate the faculty of attention, the effort on the port of 
the child must be voluntaxy.* By constraint, you may get a 
child to learn the task you have assigned him ; but by this exer- 
cise you do not cultivate his power of attention: you have only 
stimulated the child to exertion by the fear of punishment, or 
it may be by the hope of reward. By displaying the wonders 
of nature or art to a child, you render his attention voluntary, 
and out of a passive servile creature you make an active self- 
dependent agent. The best means of cultivating the habit of 
attention, therefore, is to associate pleasure with the exertions 
of the pupil, especially the pleasure which flows from success. 

To cultivate the faculty of attention our teaching should be 
suggestive ; that is to say, we should always leave something 
for our pupils to work out themselves : we should never do 
anything /(?r them which they can do for themselves ; and when- 
ever we assist them, it should be done in such a way as to lead 
them as speedily as possible to go on without assistance. We 
should not seek to remove the fair difficulties which lie in a 
pupil's way, but rather teach him how to surmount them. 
Never do anything, says Abbott, for a scholar, but teach him 
to do it for himself. How many cases occur in the schools of 
this country where the boy brings his slate to (he teacher, say- 
ing he cannot do a certain sum ! The teacher takes the slate 
and pencil, performs the work in silence, brings out the result, 
returns the slate to the hands of his pupil, who walks off to his 
seat, and goes to work on the next example, perfectly satisfied 
with the manner in which he is getting on. Such a practice, 
obviously, cannot conduce to the cultivation of the faculty of 
attention. 

We weaken the habit of attention by requiring our pupils to 



* iDterest in the subject of instructioii is the only means for securing 
permanent and undivided attention. The attention should be involun- 
tary. Forced or voluntary attention requires an already strong will such 
as is not generally to be found in a child of eight or ten years.— £. 8. 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION, 168 

Study too many things at once, or matters which are above their 
capacity ; by directing their minds too long to any one subject ; 
by urging tiiem up to or beyond the point of fatigue ; or by 
repeating too frequently the same exercises without yariation. 
Whenever an ezerdsc becomes too easy or too monotonous for 
our pupils, it then ceases to engage tiieir attention, and acts 
injuriously upon their minds by engendering habits of listless- 
ness and indifference. When a child, for example, writes the 
whole page of a copy-head, we generally find that the last line 
is the worst written. 

A skilful teacher will sometimes turn to account the inciden- 
tal circumstances which are calculated to draw off the atten- 
tion of his pupils from his lesson : a butterfly enters the school- 
room—in a moment all eyes are upon it ; instead of scolding 
them for this apparent violation of order, he cheerfully enters 
into their thoughts and feelings, catches the butterfly, and forth- 
with gives them a conversational lecture upon their beautiful 
winged visitor. Faraday never lectures so brilliantly as when 
he happens to fail in making an experiment.* 

When children become wearied out with long or intense 
attention, their enthusiasm may often be revived by bringing in 
some fresh motive for exertion. Darwin thus happily illus- 
trates this principle : *' A little boy, who was tired of walking, 
begged of his papa to carry him. ' Here,' says the reverend 
doctor, ' ride upon my gold-headed cane ;' and the pleased child, 
putting it between his legs, galloped away with delight." 

On the cultivation of the habit of attention Miss Edgeworth 
observes : " Whatever is connected with pain or pleasure com- 
mands our attention ; but to make this general observation use- 
ful in education, we must examine what degrees of stimulus are 
necessary for different pupils and in different circumstances. 
It is not prudent early to use violent or continual stimulus, 
either of a painful or pleasurable nature, to excite children to 



* " The skill of an intelligent teacher displays itself in his ability to ac- 
commodate himself to all natures, and to utilize everything that comes 
under bis eyes, either in the form of objects or in the deportment of his 
scholars and the incidents of the class-room."— Zilubr. 



164 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

application, because we should by an intemperate use of these 
weaken the mind, and because we may with a little patience 
obtain all we wish without these expedients. Besides these rea- 
sons, there is another potent argument against using yiolent 
motives to excite attention ; such motives frequently disturb and 
dissipate the very attention which they attempt to fix. If a 
child be threatened with severe puniidiment, or flattered with 
the promise of some delicious reward, in order to induce his 
performance of any particular task, he desires instantly to per- 
form the task ; but this desire will not insure his success ; unless 
he has previously acquired the habit of voluntary exertion, he 
will not be able to turn his mind from his ardent wishes, even 
to the means of accomplishing them. He will be in the situa- 
tion of Alnaschar, in the Arabian tales, who, whilst he dreamt 
of his future grandeur, forgot his immediate business. To 
teach any new habit or art, we must not employ any alarming 
excitements ; small, certain, regularly recurring motives, which 
interest but which do not distract the mind, arc evidently the 
best. The ancient inhabitants of Minorca were said to he the 
best slingers in the world ; when the^ were children, eveiy 
morning what they were to eat was slightly fastened to high 
poles, and they were obliged to throw down their breakfasts 
with their slings from the places where they were suspended, 
before ^ey could satisfy their hunger. The motive seems to 
have been here well proportioned to the effect that was required : 
it could not be any ereat misfortune for a boy to ^without his 
breakfast ; but as this motive returned every mormng, it became 
sufficiently serious to the hungry slingers. It is impossible 
to explain this subject so as to b^ of use without descending to 
minute particulars. When a mother says to her little daughter, 
as she places on the table before her a bunch of ripe cherries, 
• Tell me, my dear, how many cherries are there, and I will 
give them to you ? ' the child's attention is fixed instantly ; 
Siere is a sufficient motive— not a motive which excites any 
violent passions, but which raises just such a degree of hope as 
is necessary to produce attention. The little girl, if she knows 
from experience that her mother's promise will be kept, and 
that her own patience is likely to succeed, counts the dierries 
carefully, has her rewtuxl, ana upon the next similar trial she 
will from this success be still more disposed to exert her atten- 
tion. The pleasure of eating cherries, associated with the 
pleasure of success, will balance the pain of a few moments' 
prolonged application, and by degrees the cherries may be 
withdrawn and the association of pleasure will remain. Ob- 
jects or thoughts that have been associated with pleasure re- 



CULTIVATION OF THE WACVLTY OF ATTENTION. 165 

tain flie power of pleasing ; as the needle touched by the load- 
stone acquires polarity, and retains it long after the loadstone 
is withdrawn, whenever attention is habitually raised bv the 
power of association we should be careful to withdraw all the 
excitements that were originally used, because these are now 
unnecessary ; and as we have formerly observed, the steady^ 
rule with respect to stimulus should be to give tiie least possi- 
ble quantity that will produce the effect we want Success is 
a great pleasure ; as soon as children become sensible to this 
I)leasure, that is to say, when they have tasted it two or three 
times, they will exert their attention merely with the hope of 
succeeding. We have seen a little boy of three years old frown- 
ing with attention for several minutes together whilst he was 
trying to clasp and jmclasp a lady's bracelet : his whole soul 
was intent upon the business ; he neither saw nor heard anything 
else that passed in the room, though several people were talk- 
ing, and some happened to be looking at him. The pleasure 
of success, when he had clasped the bracelet, was quite suffi- 
cient ; he looked for no praise, though he was perhaps pleased 
with the sympathy that was shown in his success. Sympathy 
is a better reward for young children in such circumstances 
than praise, because it does not excite vaniw*, and it is con- 
nected with benevolent feelings ; besides, it is not so violent a 
stimulus as applause. Instep of increasing excitements to 
produce attention, we may vary them, which will have just 
the same effect. When sympathy fails, try curiosity; when 
curiosity fails, try praise ; when praise begins to lose its effect, 
try blame ; and when you ^ back again to sympaUiy, you will 
find that after this interval it will have recovered aU its origi- 
nal power. There are some people who have the power of ex- 
citing others to great mental exertions, not by the promise of 
specific rewards, or by the threats of any punishment, but by 
the ardent ambition which they inspire, by the high value 
which is set upon their love and esteem. When we have 
formed a high opinion of a friend, his approbation becomes 
necessary to our self-complacency, and we think no labor too 
great to satisfy our attachment. Our exertions are not fatigu- 
ing, because tney are associated with all the pleasurable sensa- 
tions of affection, self-complacency, benevolence, and liberty. 
These, feelings in youth produce all the vutuous enthusiasm 
characteristic of great minds ; even childhood is capable of it in 
some degree, as those parents well know who have ever en- 
Joyed the attachment of a grateful, affectionate child. Those 
who neglect to cultivate the affections of their pupils will 
never be able to excite them to riMe ends by noble means. 



166 PmLOSOPHt OF EbUCATlOK 

Theirs will be the dominion of fear, from which reason will 
emancipate herself, and from which pride will more certainlv 
revolt. If Henry the Fourth of France had been reduced, 
like Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse, to earn his bread as a 
schoolmaster, what a different preceptor he would probably 
have made ! Dionysius must have been hated by his scholars 
as mu(^ as by his subjects ; for it is said that * he practised 
upon children that tyranny which he could no longer exercise 
over men.' The ambassador who found Henry the Fourth 
playing upon the carpet with his children would probably 
have trusted his own children, if he had any, to the care of 
such an affectionate tutor. Henry the Fourth would have at- 
tached his pupils whilst he instructed them ; they would have 
exerted themselves because they could not have been happy 
without his esteem. Henry's courtiers, or rather his friends, — 
for though he was a king he had friends,~8ometimes expressed 
surprise at their own oisinterestcdness. * This king pays us 
with words,' said they, ' and yet we are satisfied ! ' Sully, when 
he was only Baron de Rosny, and before he had any hopes of 
being a duke, was once in a passion with the king, his master, 
and half resolved to leave him. ' But I don't know how it 
was,' says the honest minister ; ' with all his faults, there is 
something about Henry which I found I could not leave ; and 
when I met him again, a few words made me forget all my 
causes of discontent.' Children are more easily rewarded. 
When once this een6rous desire of affection and esteem is 
raia^ in tiie mino, their exertions seem to be universal and 
spontaneous ; children are then no longer like machines, which 
require to be wound up regularly to perform certain revolu- 
tions ; thev are animated wiUi a living principle, which directs 
all that it mspires." 

While the teacher endeavors to engage the attention of all 
his pupils, and equally to insure the progress of all, he must 
not expect to find that they will all manifest the same amount 
of attention, or that they will all make the same progress.* 



* " Do not hope to make all jour pupils alike. Providence has deter- 
mined that human minds should dilTer from each other, for the Teiy 
purpose of giving variety and interest to this busy scene of life. Now if 
it were possible for a teacher so to plan his operations as to send his 
pupils forth upon the community formed on the same model as if they 
were made by machinery, he would do so much towards spoiling one of 
the wisest plans which tiie Almighty has formed for making this world 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION. IQ'i 

It is especially necessaiy that the roaster should study the 
characters and tastes of his pupils, in order that his instruction 
may engage their attention. He must suppose human nature 
to be neither better nor worse than it really is ; he must not ex- 
pect to find the faculty of attention ready formed in the minds 
of his pupils ; on the contrary, he must expect that the cultiva- 
tion of this faculty in his different pupils will demand his con- 
stant study, and that unless means are adopted to secure this 
end, all his labor will be utterly lost. Some teachers seem 
never to make it a part of their calculation that their pupils 
will be guilty of wilful inattention, or do anything wrong, 
and then, when any misconduct occurs, they are disconcerted 
and irritated, and look and act as if some unexpected occur- 
rence had broken in upon their plans. Others understand and 
consider all this beforehand. They seem to think, a little be- 
fore they go into their school, what sort of beings boys and 
girls are, and any ordinary case of youthful delinquency, or 
dulness or inattention does not surprise them. We do not 



a happy scene. It is impossible if it were wise, and it would be foolish 
if it were possible, to stimulate by artificial means the rose, in hope of its 
reaching the size and magnitude of the apple-tree, or to try to cultivate 
the flg and the orange where wheat only will grow. No; it should be the 
teacher^s main design to shelter his pupils from every deleterious influ- 
ence, and to bring eveything to bear upon the community of minds be- 
fore him, which will encourage, in each one, the development of its own 
native powers. Error on this point is very common. Many teachers, 
even among those who have taken high rank through the success with 
which they have labored in this field, have wasted much time in attempt- 
ing to do what can never be done— to form the (diaracter of those brought 
under their influence after a certain uniform model, which they have 
ocmceived as the standard of excellence. Their pupils must write just 
such a hand, they must compose in just such a style, they must be simi- 
lar in sentiment and feeling, and their manners must be formed accord- 
ing to a fixed and uniform model ; and when, in such a case, a pupfl 
comes under their charge whom Providence has designed to be entirely 
different from the beau-ideal adopted as the standard, more tJme and 
pains and anxious solicitude is wasted in vain attempts to produce the 
desired conformity than half the school requires beside."— Jacob Abbott. 



168 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

mean that they treat such cases with indifference or neglect, 
but that they expect them, and are prepared for them. Such 
a teacher knows that boys and girls are the materials he has to 
work upon, and he takes care to make himself acquainted 
with these materials, just as they are. The former chu», how* 
ever, do not seem to know at all what sort of beings they have 
to deal with, or, if they know, do not consider. They expect 
from them what is not to be attained, and then are disap- 
pointed and vexed at the failure. It is as if a carjienter should 
attempt to support an entablature by pillars of wood too slight 
for the weight, and then go on from week to week, suffering 
anxiety and irritation, as he sees them swelling and splitting 
under the burden — ^finding fault with the wood, instead of tak- 
ing it to himself. It is, of course, one essential part of a man's 
duty in engaging in any undertaking, whether in acting upon 
matter or upon mind, to become first well acquainted with the 
circumstances of the case — ^the materials he is to act upon, and 
the means which he may reasonably expect to have at his com- 
mand. If he underrates his difficulties or overrates the power 
of his means of overcoming them, it is his mistake— a mistake 
for which he alone is responsible. Whatever may be the na- 
ture of the effect which he aims at accomplishing, he ought 
fully to imderstand it, and to appreciate justly the difficulties 
which lie in the way. Teachers, however, very often over- 
look this. A man comes home from his school at night per- 
plexed and irritated at the petty acts of misconduct and inat- 
tention which he has witnessed, and been trying to check — 
that is, he does not look forward and try to prevent the occa- 
sions of them, adapting his measures to the nature of the ma- 
terial upon which he has to operate ; but he stands like a car- 
penter at his colunms, making himself miserable in looking at 
the acts after they occur, and wondering what to do. 
" Sir," we might say to him, ** what is the matter ?" 
" Why, I have such boys, I can do nothing with them. 
Were it not for their inattention and want of respect, I might 
have a very good school." 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION. 169 

" Were it not for the boys I Why, is Hiere any peculiar de- 
pravity in them which you could not have foreseen?" 

" No ; I suppose they are pretty much VUke all other boys/' 
he replies despairingly; "they are all hare-brained and un- 
manageable. The plans I have formed for my school would 
be excellent, if my boys would only behave properly." 

"Excellent plans/' might we not reply, "and yet not 
adapted to the materials upon which they are to operate I No. 
It is your business to know what sort of beings boys are, and 
to make your calculation accordingly." 

The means which we employ in cultivating the habit of at- 
tention, therefore, should have a due regard to the natural 
differences of temper and talents of our pupils. Inattentive 
boys may be ranked under five classes: viz., the feeMe, the 
duffffM, the wUMe, the tmid, and the ^iek. An observing 
teacher soon discovers to which class any particular boy should 
be referred, and knowing the cause of inattention, he is able 
to apply the proper remedy. 

I. The bot of febblb intbllbct is inattentive because 
of his incapacity. He shows a feverish anxiety to understand 
what is said to him, and failing to do so, he soon relaxes his at- 
tention, and gives up in despair. The boy's dulness should 
never be a subject of censure, nor should he be stimulated to 
exertion by the hope of reward.* Eveiything should be made 
as easy for him as possible ; and as weariness is sure to follow 
any unusual stretch of attention, his lesson should be short as 
well as easy. Above all things, we should be patient with him, 
and never taunt him with the trouble which he may give us. 
By such means the feeble boy may become as remarkable for 
his steadiness and perseverance as he is for his want of intel- 
lectual power ; such boys not unfrequently become useful men. 
" If the Creator has so formed the mind of a boy, that he 



* ** Nothing Is more fatal to instruction, and capable of injuring more 
seriously the development of virtue, than to discourage or permit to be 
discouraged. To ridicule small children is to poison their souls.**— Y. 
Stobt. 



170 PrntOSOPBY OF EDUCATION, 

must go through life slowly and with difflcully, impeded by 
obstructions which others do not feel, and depressed by dis- 
couragements which others never know, his lot is surely hard 
enough without having you to add to the trials and suffering, 
which sarcasm and reproach from you can heap upon him. 
Look over your 'schoolroom, therefore, and wherever you find 
one whom you perceive the Creator to have endued with less 
intellectual power than others, fix your eye upon him with an 
expression of kindness and S3rmpathy." 

2. Thb sluggish, lazy boy is inattentive from a want of all 
mental activity. He hates learning for the trouble which it 
gives him ; and nothing seems to afford him so much enjoy- 
ment as lounging at his ease. His intellectual powers may be 
originally good, but he allows them to rust away for want of 
use. Here some powerful stimulants are required to arouse 
him from his mental torpor ; every motive to exertion should 
be tried, until we hit upon the right one. Locke divides slug- 
gish boys into two species — those who are indolent on]y at 
their books or lessons, and those who are indolent in every- 
thing, even at their play: the mental distemper in the former 
case seems only local and accidental, whereas in the latter 
case it is general and constitutional ; the one, under proper 
management, may be readily cured, but the other almost de- 
fies the power of remedy. The book-saunterer, as Locke 
would call him, is generally the leader at all sports and games ; 
and when any daring act of mischief has been done, he is sure 
to have had a hand in it Scott and Byron, as boys, belonged 
to this class, since their want of aptitude for learning was 
doubtless attributable to the dogmatic system imder which 
they were taught. We should never despair of a boy who ex- 
hibits great energy of character at his games ; for in a sluggish 
mind of this kind we often find the slumbering energies of a 
higher intellect : like the rough diamond, it must be cut and 
polished before it can shine with its proper brilliancy and 
loveliness. The most hopeless dunce is that boy in whom con- 
firmed sluggishness is combined with feebleness of intellect 



CtTLTtVATtON OF* T^E PACVLTY OF ATTENTtO^. I'M 

8. The tolatilb bot is inattentive from his lore of novelty. 
He is continually staring aboat him ; he is the first boy in the 
class to notice anything unusual, and his exclamation of sur- 
prise is generally the key-note of a general outbreak. He is 
fond of fun, and is a general favorite in the school, for he is 
neither feared nor envied. His disposition to wander from 
subject to subject prevents him from becoming sufficiently ac- 
quainted with any. In order to counteract this tendency, we 
should endeavor to fix his mind upon some subject for which 
he has shown something like a predilection, by directing his 
attention to it again and again until we have succeeded ; having 
once developed the faculty in relation to one subject, it then 
becomes a comparatively easy task to succeed with other sub- 
jects. Examples of application and perseverance should often 
be held up for his imitation, with the view of giving a proper 
direction to his ambition and enthusiasm. 

4. The timid bot is inattentive for want of a sufficient con- 
fidence in his own powers, as well as from a want of that im- 
plicit trust which children generally repose in their teachers. 
The mischievous boys in the school look upon him as fair 
game to be hunted down. He sconces himself in the most dis- 
tant nook of the schoolroom, and looks forth from his retreat 
upon the maps, the great card containing the routi^ie of lessons, 
the black-board with all the mysterious chalk lines upon it, 
the master with his pointer in his left hand and the chalk in 
his right — ^he looks upon all these, as well as the other school 
apparatus and appendages, with fear and trembling. Poor 
child I how can he direct his attention to the lesson that is 
being given by the master, who probably stands, thundering 
forth his expositions and demonstrations, as if he were com- 
manding a brigade of artillery. In order to counteract this 
timidity, he should be treated with gentleness and persuasion; 
he should be encouraged to apply himself to his work, by 
being shown that he is quite able to perform it ; he should 
never be pressed for time ; he should be shown that patience 
and earnest attention can do as much, or even more, for him, 



173 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

than quickness of intellect, and that to be slow and sure is 
more commendable than to be quick and uncertain. Such 
children are confirmed in their diffidence when they find that 
they cannot understand or remember one tenth of the knowl- 
edge forced upon them by an injudicious teacher. 

5. Thb quick, clbybb boy is inattentiye from his extreme 
mental activity, and from his excess of self-confidence. He is 
a great talker, but a bad listener ; he readily attains a super- 
ficial knowledge of a subject, but never attempts to penetrate 
its depths ; from the quickness of his apprehension, he cannot 
listen with patient attention to the long sermonizing lessons of 
a slow teacher, if he is unfortunate enough to have a slow 
teacher, who methodically doles out his knowledge by the 
hour ; at the close of such a lesson, he rouses himself up, 
catches the few concluding remarks, and upon examination i^ 
pears to have gained a fair knowledge of the lessons. The 
powers of such a boy should be fully taxed ; and to cure him 
of his presumption and conceit he should be occasionally puz- 
zled with questions, not difficult in themselves, but requiring 
for their solution those peculiar attainments in which he is 
most deficient Such boys rarely if ever realize the brilliant 
expectations of their friends : like the very early spring blos- 
soms, they soon wither and die; whereas true genius is slow in 
its growth — ^the noblest trees are latest in bearing fruit, and 
the largest animals are last in arriving at perfection. Mere 
talent requires labor for its development, but genius develops 
itself spontaneously and unobtrusively. 

6. Thb boy of OEinns is not inattentive in the ordinary ac- 
ceptation of the word, for he is occasionally capable of the 
highest efforts of attention. He sits in a half -dreaming mood, 
watching for the moment when a subject suited to his peculiar 
taste shall present itself : to a common observer he appears 
dull, but it is the dulness which proceeds from inward thought. 
His absence of mind is often mistaken for stupidity ; and his 
laconic yet significant answers to questions are frequently at- 
tributed to a want of a logical concatenation of ideas ; but to 



CULTIVATION OF THE FACULTY OF ATTENTION. 178 

appreciate him, we should consider what he does not say, not 
less than what he actually does say. He is a quiet, retiring, 
reflective, strange boy; nobody can understand him— he is 
always doing what he ^ould not do, and rarely does what he 
is required to do ; he talks when he should be silent, and loses 
his power of speech when he has to answer a question; nobody 
can understand him, because nobody will understand him. 
But all at once he shows a predilection for some particular 
study: Nature at length asserts her prerogative^his winged 
spirit bursts the walls of its prison-house, and mounts on high 
into its kindred sphere of thought; now everybody understands 
him — everybody knew perfectly well that his wayward acts 
were aberrations of genius, and that there could be no mistak- 
ing the sovereign stamp which Kiture had impressed upon his 
brow. Poor boy 1 if you had fallen in taking your ethereal 
flight, what scorn, what obloquy, would have been yours ! 

It becomes the sacred duty, not less than the high privilege, 
of the schoolmaster of the poor to foster and protect the boy 
of genius, struggling amid the pressure of indigence and per- 
secution. When his heart is about to sink under the conflict, 
let him be told of the triumphs of those kindred spirits who 
have gone before him: Thomas Simpson, who studied mathe- 
matics at the loom ; Hugh Miller, who mused on geology 
when he was hewing stones; Michael Faraday, who made 
chemical experiments when he was a journeyman bookbinder ; 
Ferguson, who watched the stars as he tended his flocks ; 
Gifford, who studied Latin when he was making shoes ; Peter 
Nicholson, who wrote his work on carpentry when he was at 
the bench ; Robert Bums, who carolled his sweetest songs as 
he followed the plough ; Benjamin Franklin, who drew the 
lightning from the clouds when he kept a piinter's shop. 

What are we to do with a boy of genius ? The fact is, we 
should rather ask. What should we refrain from doing ? We 
cannot cultivate his faculty of attention, for in him it grows 
best spontaneously ; is it not better, therefore, to leave him to 
the bent of his own genius ? Laplace would have been as in- 



174 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

attentive at an opera as Mozart would have been at a mathe- 
matical lecture. 

The faculty of concentration, or continuous attention, which 
requires careful culture in ordinary minds, seems to spring 
spontaneously into existence in the mind endowed with genius. 
This spontaneous development of attention may be regarded as 
one of the surest evidences of genius. Great men have always 
been remarkable for tlie power of concentrating all the energies 
of their soul on their favorite subject. Newton attributed his 
own greatness to the power which he had of " keeping a sub- 
ject constantly in his mind." The mathematician, absorbed 
day after day in the investigation of the properties of lines and 
symbols, gives evidence of this continuous attention. The 
philosopher, who shuts himself out from the gay world, denies 
himself the ordinary enjoyments of existence, and curbs the 
kindly S3rmpathies of his nature, to live in a world of abstrac- 
tions—the world of his own thoughts— he too gives evidence 
of this remarkable power. Gknius seems to be impelled by an 
irresistible law to deny itself everything which lies without the 
sphere of its action, and to live upon the impalpable essences 
of its own creation. Such men are scarcely to be envied : 
they too often become martyrs to their application, or unhappy 
victims to the intensity of their own power. 

A Sfiort Digression on ThougJvty Language , and Oenius. — Who 
can measure the pulsations of thought? Even our mightiest 
thoughts come and go like flashes of the subtile lightning. 
Lanmiage retards the passage of thought, as imperfect conduc- 
tors unpede the passage of electricity. Thou^t is something 
very different from language, yet we find it difficult to sepamtc 
the one from the other. We may have an exuberance of lan- 
guage with a poverty of thought ; and we may have thoughts 
which language but poorly conveys. Ordinary thinkers are 
never at a loss for words ; but original thinkers often feel the 
insufficiency of language — their ideas have to strugrfe their way 
into the world of expression. Commonplace thoughts are 
easily expressed, but language often fails to transmit some of 
our higher conceptions. There are thoughts to which language 
never yet gave expression, just as there are svstems whose light 
has not yet reached our world. Writings of genius are not so 



THOUGHT, LANGUAGE, AND GENIUS, 175 

much valued for the mere knowledge which they contahi as for 
the marvellous power which they have in creating thought. 
Thoughts of gcmus are always new^they are always sugges- 
tive ; they awaken fresh trains of thought in every minauat 
seeks to mterpret them : this is no doubt chiefly owing to the 
inadequacy of the language to give a sufficiently full expression 
to the vastness or intricacy of the thought, so that there is al- 
ways something like indefiniteness about the language. The 
truth is, language cannot comprehend the length, and oreadth, 
and depth oi a great conception ; for the languase is but ^e 
shadow of the substance. !Ever dnce the dawn of creation the 
sun has shed his light upon the host of planets which surround 
him, yet he has lost nothing of his original splendor ; so in like 
manner the glorious productions of creative genius have shed 
their light, age after age, upon the world, yet tney still shine on 
with undiminished bruliancy and lustre. How ^haustless are 
the works of genius I that god-like power which creates a world 
for the study of generations of ordinary men. Newton affirmed 
that the diamond was inflammable, but four generations had 
passed away before the conception was confirmed bv experi- 
ment ; and his law of gravitation has not yet attained its full 
development. After the lapse of three centuries the concep- 
tions of Shakespeare have lost nothing of their virgin freshness 
and bloom. 

Slight circumstances often determine the peculiar bent of 
genius. The swinging of a chandelier in a ball-room led Gali- 
leo to the invention ci the pendulum ; the great philosopher 
heard not the Inspiring music, saw not the gay glittering throng 
with which he was surrounded, felt no rapture at the smile oi 
beauty ; his attention was concentrated on the synchronism of 
the vibrations of the chandelier ; thousands had, age after age, 
looked upon the same thing without having caught hold of tne 
grand idea which it was calculated to suggest. While in the 
act of bathing Archimedes was led to the conception of specific 
gravity ; his attention was aw^ened by feeling the buoyancy of 
nis body when submerged in Uie water. The falling^ of an ap- 
ple, it is said, led Newton to the discovery of gravitation. Had 
none before him asked the question. Why does the apple fall? 
Doubtless many had asked the question, but to them Nature had 
given no satisfactory response— she had only echoed back the 
mquii^ ; but the simple fact became, in the mind of the prince 
of philosophers, the first link in the chain of induction which 
led him to the great principle which animates the material uni- 
verse. Our greatest philosopher was knighted : does the name 
of Newton appear less illustrious by being shorn of its title of 



176 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

nobility ? Newton might do honor to the title, but it could con- 
fer no honor upon him. No public monument has yet been 
reared to bear testimony to a nation's gratitude for the adiieTe- 
ments of her greatest son. Eyerywhere we meet with statues 
and towers and triumphal pillars, erected to record the existence 
of our monarchs, or to commemorate the deeds of our states- 
men and warriors ; but, as if conscious of the insufficiency of 
such a tribute, we haye reared no monument to him whose 
fame is as far aboye that of kings, or statesmen, or heroes as 
heayen is aboye earth. Foolish conception! raise a monument 
of stone and mortar to perpetuate the memory of Newton I 
His monument is the temple of the uniyerse, and his name is 
written in imperishable characters in the great laws which he 
dlscoyered. The pyramids of Egypt will moulder and decay, 
empires which at present rule the world will one day appear as 
little specks upon the stream of time, old ocean will change its 
channel ; but secure amid the wreck of time the fame of New- 
ton will be seen towering in growing majesty and grandeur, for 
the laws which he dlscoyered will haye then receiyed a fullar 
deyelopment. The superhuman genius of Newton appeared at 
its proper epoch — that is, when the law of grayltation had to be 
reyealed to humanity. No physical law has been dlscoyered 
out of which such yast results haye been eyolyed. Indeed it 
is difficult to conceiye that there actually remains to be dlscoy- 
ered any law of nature more comprehensiye than that of grayl- 
tation, which enables us at once to look back upon the past 
history of the solar system, and forward to the aspect whidi it 
will present at any giyen future period ; which enables us to 
determine the existence, position, and magnitude of planetary 
bodies which had eluded the searching power of the telescope ; 
which carries our intelligence into those regions of Fpace where 
the human eye has not penetrated, or oyer which the light of 
our sun has not yet trayelled. Upon what apparently triffing 
circumstances ereat discoyerics often depend 1 Long before the 
present seas had rolled, or the present yegetation had coyered the 
earth, a huge monster fortuitously left its footprints upon a 
plastic strand, which in the lapse of cycles of ages became hard- 
ened and coyered oyer with rocks and clays ; but the geologist 
excayates these imprints, and in his hands they become the 
medals of creation, telling of its yast antiquity, and of the 
races which had been time after time swept away from the face 
of the globe before it attained its present condition of perfect 
maturity. How maryellous are the disooyeries of modem phi- 
losophy ! Truly the human race is but in its infancy. 



CULTIVATION OF MEMORY AND BECOLLBCTJON. 177 



CHAPTER IV. 

CULnVATIOir OF THB INTBLLBCTUAL FACULTIB8, O OHTIWUED 
— €X7i;nYATI0N OF MBMOBT ASTD BBCOUiECnOIT. 

The art of memory, says a distinguished writer, is the art of 
attention ; so that, in fact, the cultivation of memory reduces 
itself to the cultivation of the habit of attention. If we take 
care to engage the attention, we may safely leave the memory 
to take care of itself. 

There is, however, a great difference between simple memoiy 
and that modification of it which we call recollection. Mem- 
ory is a receptive faculty,* and seems to act, in some measure, 
independently of the will. It is perhaps more subject to physi- 
cal conditions than any other intellectual faculty, and being 
considered in itself more a natural than an acquired gift, it al- 
most entirely lies without the sphere of the educator. On the 
other hand, recollection is to a great extent a voluntary power, 
which grows with our intellectual growth, and therefore admits 
of the highest degree of culture. 

The power of remembering facts in the exact order in which 
they transpired, or of remembering words in the order in which 
they were spoken or printed, may be called a mere local mem- 
ory, where no Judgment is exercised by the individual in the 
selection or arrangement of the materials; but that kind of 
memory which is based upon a proper classification of the 
ideas, and not upon mere local or incidental relations, may be 



* Memory is not a faculty: it depends on association and reproduc- 
tion of conceptions. In speaking of kinds of memory, the words used 
do not imply any particular faculty, but only have the significance of 
collective nouns. (Kant distinguishes a mechanical, a judicious, and an 
ingenious memory 1)— E. S. 

12 



178 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIOIT. 

called a philosophical memory— the recoUectiye faculty in its 
highest sense ; for while it constitutes a distinguishing feature 
of the truly cultivated mind, it must at the same time be re- 
garded as one of the most important instruments in the forma- 
tion of the intellectual character. Teachers are too apt to over- 
rate the value of a mere local memory : the truth is, the boy 
with a ready parrot-like memory pleases everybody, whereas 
the boy who has to cogitate and con over what he wishes to 
remember rarely stands high in popular estimation. 

There are great original differences in the power of memory 
amongst boys : some boys have naturally a quick as well as a 
retentive memory ; others readily receive knowledge, but as 
quickly lose it ; indeed, a quick memory is not generally a re- 
tentive one, for we find that what we readily learn we easily 
forget, and what we are at some pains to acquire we never lose. 
Some schoolmasters consider that the best kind of memory is 
that which simply retains the greatest number of ideas for the 
longest time ; others with more discrimination prefer the recol- 
lective, reflective kind of memory, which selects and arranges 
the facts and ideas as they are committed to the intellectual 
treasury for future use. A great verbal or local memory has 
hitherto been too much regarded as the sign and seal of intel- 
lectual superiority.* A good memory is what everybody can 
appreciate, but the higher powers of intellect cannot be tested 
by a common observer. The leading educational axiom, with 
a certain class of teacherSj seems to be — exercise the memory, 
and out of its exercise all the other intellectual faculties will be 
evolved ; give the child the materials of thought, and all the 
higher functions of thought will develop themselves ; fill the 
memory with ideas, and then reason, judgment, and imagina- 
tion will spring up spontaneously. This is a gross error in 
education : the memory does not exercise the wonder-working 



*' The aim of education should be rather to teach us how to think than 
what to think; rather to improve our minds so as to enable us to think 
for ourselves than to load the memory yrlth the thoughts of other men." 
—Dr. Bbattik. 



CULTIVATION OF MEMORr AND RECOLLECTION. 179 

power which these teachers would aasign to it ; except, perhaps, 
in classical learning, a mere verbal memory is not of the great- 
est importance in the acquisition of knowledge, and in reality 
it is of very little account as regards the development of the 
other powers of the mind. A great memory is not at all essen- 
tial to greatness of intellect: Newton and Shakespeare were 
neither remarkable for extraordinary erudition, nor for unusual 
powers of memory. Indeed, men who are prodigies in this re- 
spect are never oUierwise distinguished for intellectual endow- 
ments ; their minds become so loaded with the ideas of others 
as to render them incapable of exercising any independent 
thought. Memory to a great man is a humble, confidential 
servant, — ^a sort of keeper of the stores, —who is expected to 
guard and preserve carefully whatever is conmiitted to his 
charge, and at the same time to be always ready to bring for- 
ward anything at the moment it is wanted. We hold that an 
unusual manifestation of this power in childhood tends to 
counteract the healthful development of the other intellectual 
powers. The boy who can readily commit the language of 
others to memory is not compelled to exercise his Judgment 
upon the ideas which are intended to be conveyed to his mind ; 
besides, through a want of discrimination on the part of the 
master, boys with a ready memory almost invariably rise to 
the highest places in the school, and thus no adequate Induce- 
ment can be held out to them to cultivate any other faculty ; 
they consequently seek distinction by the path which is most 
accessible to them. Teachers are not sufficiently aware of the 
evils resulting from a negligent disregard of the laws of our in- 
tellectual and moral nature. That boy whose memory is cul- 
tivated at the expense of his Judgment cannot become a really 
useful member of society ; his vanity is inflated by unmerited 
applause, and he is unconsciously led to indulge in dreams of 
future greatness which will never be realized : on the other 
hand, the boy with a slow, unostentatious, recollective memory 
is slighted and discouraged. A teacher should never com- 
pliment a boy for having a good natural memory ; boys of this 



180 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

kind soon enough gain distinction for themflelves, for a good 

memory is a truly marketable sort of thing, which meets with 

patronage in all companies and from all classes of society ; and 

it is further important to observe, that there is no gift of which 

a boy more readily becomes unduly and obtrustvely vain than 

that of memory. The teacher should, on all fitting occasions, 

give the highest praise to the boy who habitually cultivates the 

recollective faculty. 

It is, however, not surprising that classical teachers should 
attach an undue importance to the cultivation of verbal mem- 
ory. Before the discoveiy of the art of printing a retentive 
memory was one of the most essential prerequisites for literary 
or even for scientific distinction. " A man who had read a few 
manuscripts and could repeat them, was a wonder and a treas- 
ure ; he could travel from place to place, and live bv his learn- 
ing ; he was a circulating library to a nation, ana the more 
b(K>ks he could carry in his head the better ; he was certain of 
an admiring audience if he could repeat what Aristotle or Saint 
Jerome had written ; and he had far more encouragement to 
enCTave the words of others in his memory than to invent or 
judge for himself." And even within the last fifty yeai's, be- 
fore Medianics' Institutions had been established, when books 
were dear and scarce amongst the middle and lower classes of 
society, a person with a retentive memory was highly prized 
and esteemed in company. But now since knowledge has been 
diffused over the length and breadth of the land, in me form of 
cheap and useful books, this species of memory has been very 
much lowered in value. People now have the power of refer- 
ring to a book for any particular information without being 
reduced to the necessity of consulting a man who may have 
read the book. We need not now encumber our memory with 
passages from any author which we may wish to quote : it is 
only necessary for us to turn to the page of the book itself 
where tiie subject is treated. Mere erudition, too, has lost 
much of its value in the present age of literature. We have 
grown too wise for our hoary and decrepid tutors—the an- 
cients. We cannot any longer amuse ourselves with the puerili- 
ties of ancient philosophy, or pay our adorations at the shrine 
of paganism, with all its miserable ideal creations of gods and 
goddesses. The world has at least passed the first stege of its 
infancy, and the dawnings of its approaching youth are already 
being seen from the tops of the mountains. Positive philosophy 
in its strictest and most useful sense, and Christian philosophy 



MEMORY INFLUENCED BY ATTENTION, 181 

in its highest and purest sense, have been transfused throui^ the 
countless channels in which our knowledge at present i^ws — 
from the all-creative minds as a centre to me utmost extremities 
of the body of society. 

At the same time it must be admitted that a good verbal 
memory under proper management, and duly subordinate to 
the higher powers, is not without its value in the formation of 
the intellectual character, nor is its use to be ignored as an in- 
strument in the acquisition of technical knowledge. But we 
again assert that the main business of the teacher is the cul- 
tivation of the faculty of recollection, — ^the philosophical mem- 
ory,— not that of mere local or verbal memory. 

Having pointed out some of the evils which have crept into 
our present plans of education relative to the cultivation of the 
memory, we shall now proceed to consider the principles upon 
which memory, in its widest sense, may be strengthened and 
improved. 

Memory is very much influenced by attention, and by 
our existing intellectual habits. — We always remember those 
things best on which we have bestowed the most earnest atten- 
tion. All those means, therefore, which we employ for the 
cultivation of the faculty of attention will also tend to culti- 
vate that of memory. 

The degree of attention which we bestow on any subject is a 
voluntary act, but the i)eculiar direction which our minds will 
take depends almost entirely upon our previous intellectual 
habits and associations. 

" Of four individuals," says Abercrombie, ** who are giving 
an account of a journey through the same district, one may 
describe chiefly its agricultural produce ; another, its minera- 
logical character ; a third, its picturesque beauties ; while the 
fourth may not be able to give an account of anythiuj^ except 
the state of the roads and the facilities of travelling. 'Aie same 
facts or objects must have passed before the senses of all the 
four ; but their remembrance of them depends upon the points 
to which their attention was directed. Besides the manner here 
alluded to, in which the attention is influenced by previous 
habits or pursuits, some persons have an active inquirmg state 



182 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

of mind, which keeps the attention fully engaged upon what- 
ever is passing before them ; while others give way to a lisdess 
inactive condition, which requires to be strongly excited, be- 
fore the attention is roused to the degree reqiured for remem- 
brance. The former, accordingly, remember a great deal of 
all that passes before them, either in reading or observation. 
The latter are apt to say that they are deficient in memory : 
fheir deficiency, however, is not in memory but in attention ; 
and this appears from the fact, that they do not forget any- 
thing which deeply engages their feelings or concerns their 
interests." 

Our power of memory is limited by our predilections : no 
person has a memory for every subject of knowledge, because 
no person possesses a taste and talent for every subject. The 
mathematician readily remembers his theorems and formulas, 
whilst he forgets even the name of the existing prime-minister. 
The antiquarian, oblivious of the common occurrences of the 
day, suffers not a single past event which is hallowed by time 
to escape from his intellectual treasury. The schoolboy, who 
perfectly remembers the names of flowers, and trees, and birds, 
and animals, tells his master that he cannot say his task, because 
he has got a bad memory. The girl, who retains the names 
of all the articles of fashionable dress, cannot even remember 
the titles of her father's books. Under proper management, 
however, the person who can remember things may also be 
made to remember words. In order to give a child a memory 
for any particular subject, we should invest it with some 
charm calculated to interest his feelings. 

Memory is very much influenced by AssociationB. — The 
principle of association performs a most important part in 
nearly all our mental operations. By the association of ideas, 
two or more conceptions or ideas, which have been contem- 
plated together or in immediate succession, become so con- 
nected or associated in our minds, that one of them recurring 
recalls the others in the same order in which they were at first 
contemplated. Moreover, a particular idea suggests another 
idea which has some kind of relation to it ; this second idea 



MEMORY INFLUENCED BT ASSOCIATIONS, 188 

suggests a third, and so on to any continued series or train of 
ideas. This train of successive suggestion may go on to such 
an extent, that the last idea, or the one which we stop to con- 
template, may have no relation to the one with which we first 
started, excepting in the chain of association existing in our 
minds. The particular chain of thoughts which arises in our 
minds is no doubt much influenced by our intellectual habits, 
and by associations previously existing in our minds ; but there 
are also certain general principles of relation, whereby one 
thought suggests another. These principles of association* may 
be referred to three heads : 1. Contiguity in Time and Place ; 
2. Resemblance and Contrast ; 8. Cause and Effect. 

1. Associations of this kind have a relation to succession of 
time or place. When a boy commits a column of spellings to 
memory, he remembers the words in the order of succession, 
both as to time and place. To impress the words upon the 
memory, they must be repeated for a certain number of times 
in the order in which they are to be remembered. This mode 
of exercising the memoiy is excessively irksome, and anything 
but instructive. There are, however, some local associations 
which are highly pleasurable or painful, as the case may be, 
and which make very deep impressions upon the mind. Thus 
we associate an idea with the person by whom it was conmiu- 
nicated, or with the place where we first formed the concep- 
tion, and the idea is recalled by us whenever the person or 
place enters our thoughts. 

After long years of travel, by land and water, I visit again 
my native pisce ; I wander along a river's bank ; I look upon 
an old beech-tree, whose wide-spreading branches afford a cool 
shade for some children at play. Memory waves her magic 
wand, recalls the past into existence, and peoples the scene with 



* " The act of association is accomplished far more easilj when the 
faculties are under the influence of pleasurable excitement than when 
the mind is perfectly calm. Besides, whatever is enjoyed awakens a de- 
sire for repetition."— L. E. PATBinas in " Quincy Methods.^ 



11 



184 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

bdngB long since dead : on that flowery bank sit my father and 
mother, in their holiday attire ; she smiles in his face as he 
looks upon their children at play beneath the old beech-tree. 
I see mem too ; I call them by their names, and they an- 
swer me : ah I the vision fades. Stay I dear loved ones, stay ! 
Why will ye fly back to the house of death, and leave me to 
the desolation of my own thoughts— to mourn over the memo- 
ries of the past ? 

" Mark yon old mansion frowning thro* the trees. 
Whose hollow turret woos the whistling breeze. 
That casement, arched with ivy's brownest shade. 
First to these eyes the Ught of neaven conveyed. 
The mouldering gateway strews the grass-grown courts 
Once the gay scene of many a simple sport ; 
When nature pleased, for me itself was new, 
And the heart promised what the fanpy drew. 

See, thro' the fractured pediment revealed. 
Where moss inlays the rudely sculptured shield. 
The martin's old, hereditary nest ; 
Long may the ruin spare its hallowed guest ! 

As jars the hinge, what sullen echoes call I 
Oh, haste, unfold the hospitable hall I 
That hall, where once, in antiquated state. 
The chair of justice held the grave debate. 

Now stained with dews, with cobwebs darkly hung, 
Oft has its roof with peals of rapture rung ; 
When round yon ample board, m due degree, 
We sweetened every meal with social glee. 
The heart's light laugh pursued the circling jest. 
And all was sunshine in each little breast. 

*Twas here we chased the slipper by the sound. 
And turned the blindfold hero round and round. 

Te Household Deities! whose guardian eye 
Marked each pure thought, ere registered on hig^ 
StUl, still ye walk the consecrated ground, 
J^od breathe the soul of Inspiration round. 

As o'er the dusky furniture I bend. 
Each chair awakes the feeling of a friend. 
The storied arras, source of fond delight, 
With old achievement charms the wildered sight ; 
And stiU. with Heraldry's rich hues imprest. 
On the dmi window glows the pictured crest. 
The screen unfolds its many-colored chart. 
The <dock still points its moral to the heart. 
That faithful monitor 'twas heaven to hear, 
When soft it spoke a promised pleasure near ; 
And has its sober hand, its simple chime, 




Uiose muskets cased with venerable rust ; 

Those once-loved forms, still breathing thro' their dust. 

Starting to life— all whiqper of the past.'' 



» 



BX8KUBLANCK AND CONTRAST. 185 

How trae to satare Is Byron's pictoie of the Dying Gladia- 
tor! 

** I see before me the Gladiator Ue ; 
He leans upon his band— his manly brow 
Consents to death, but oonqoBrs agony. 
And his drooped head sinks giadually low. 
And through hds side the last drops, ebbing slow. 
From the red gash. fallheaYy, one by one, 
Like the first Gt a umndosshower : and now 
The arena swims around him— he is gone, 
Bre ceased the inhuman shout which hailed the wretch who woo. 
He heard it but he heeded not— his eyes 
Were with his heart, and that was f&r away ; 
He recked not of the life he lost nor prize, 
But where his rude hut by the Danube lav: 
There were his yomur bourbarians all at play; 
There was their Dadan mother— he, their sire. 
Butchered to make a Boman holiday— 
All this rushed with his blood: shall he expire, 
And unavenged? Arise! ye Qoths, and glut your ire." 

In cultivatiDg the memory of ohfldren, the judicious teacher 
will not fail to associate important ideas with local scenes and 
events. 

The order of time and succession is one of the earliest princi- 
ples of association ; but children should be taught how to em- 
ploy higher principles of association ; badly educated people 
continue through life to remember things by the mere associa- 
tion of time and place ; ideas which have no real or rational con- 
nection with each other remain in their minds, to the end of 
existence, associated together. One person ties a string about 
his finger, another makes a knot in his handkerchief, and so on 
to other artifices, in order to remind them of something which 
they particularly wish to remember. We scarcely need observe 
that the memory of such people has not been properly culti- 
vated in childhood.* 

2. Associations of resemblance are rarely so vivid as those of 
oontraflt ; aiMl hence it follows that scenes or events which are 
jn Qootrast with each other are m<Hre likely to be remembered 
tium jttose which have a resemblance. Contrast, like light and 



* Tale demands what Kant calls a judicious memoiy. The assocla- 
tioiia which aid in recalling are not to be of an accidental Siatin^, but to 
follow from a logical relation.— B. S. 



186 PHILOSOPHT OF EDUCATION 

shadow, makes the objects more prominent; resemblance 
sometimes proves the greatest stumbling-block to memory. 
The quiet beauty of the landscape is best remembered when it 
is associated with the picturesque majesty of the rugged moun- 
tain scenery ; the playfulness of childhood most readily sug- 
gests to us the gravity of age ; and the happy home of peaceful 
industry and purity is most readily associated in the mind with 
the wretched dens of idleness and profligacy. Thus we remem- 
ber more by contrast than by resemblance. Men of great moral 
daring and adventure always have a more vivid recollection of 
the events of their existence than those who pass their lives in 
peaceful seclusion. Our past life appears long or short, accord- 
ing to the number of events, or according to the number of 
ideas, which we remember : old men who remain much at home 
And so little to remember in the course of a year of their mono- 
tonous existence, that a day of their youth really appears longer 
to them than the year of their dotage. 

8. Although causes and effects generally stand in the relation 
of contiguity as to time and place, yet there is something more 
than mere contiguity in the connection ; for the constancy and 
dependence of the connection subsisting between a cause and its 
effect gives us the idea of a more intimate relation. The minds 
of children are so constituted, that they most readily remember 
effects in connection with their causes: for example, they readily 
associate the light of day with the presence of the sun ; storms, 
with winds and clouds ; the heat of summer, with the long daj^s 
of sunshine ; the improvement of the mind, with application to 
study ; misery with crime, and happiiiess with virtue ; and so 
on. Associations of this kind are most interesting and instruc- 
tive ; one idea becomes the nucleus of a whole series, and idea 
becomes so linked with idea, that we are enabled to form a con- 
tinuous chain of them. Thus, for example, we readtiy remember 
the following chain of associations: Rdn falls from the clouds ; 
the clouds are chiefly formed by winds and mountains; the 
cold on the tops of the mountains condenses the moisture in the 
air, and thus clouds are formed ; the ccld on the tops of moun- 



SULE3 FOR THE CULTIVATION OF MEMORY. 187 

tains is caused by the thinness of the air, etc. ; thin air is 
colder than dense air, because it has a greater capacity for hcnt: 
and so on. The phenomena of nature, as well as the results 
of science and art, will be most easily remembered when they 
are associated with their causes. A boy who is acquainted with 
the physical geography of England finds no difficulty in remem- 
bering the localities of our manufactures, of our agriculture, or 
of our shipping trade. In like manner, the great events of his- 
tory are readily remembered when they are taught in connec- 
tion with their causes. And so on to other subjects of elemen- 
tary instruction. 

Philosophical Associations.— Associations are called philo- 
sophical when a fact or an idea is, by a mental process, asso- 
ciated with some fact or idea previously known, to which it has 
some relation. The fact or idea thus acquired is said to be put 
by in its proi)er place, so that it may be easily recalled to the 
mind by means of this connection or association. The habit of 
forming such associations gives rise to what we have called the 
philosophical memory. One great object of education, as we 
have already observed, should be the cultivation of this kind of 
memory. 

" Lulled in the countless chambers of the brain. 
Our thoughts are linked by many a hidden chain; 
Awake but one, and lo, what myriads risel 
Each stamps its image as the other flies. 
Each, as the various avenues of sense 
Delight or sorrow to the soul di8i>ense. 
Brightens or fades; yet all, with magic art, 
Control the latent fibres of the heart.** 

These general principles of association naturally suggest to 
ns the following practical rules for the cultivation of memory. 

Rules fob the Citltivation of Mbmobt. 

L The memory of children is cultivated by leading them 
to form associations on natural and proper principles* — Some 
of these principles deserve special notice. 



188 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

1. Facte or ideas BfunUd he a/rrange!d m their order of logical 
sequence. 

In relatiDg a story, for example, the natural chain of events 
should not he hroken hy the introduction of any trifling or ex- 
traneous matter calculated to destroy the unity of the suhject. 

2. Olamflcation and generalisation are great helps to the re- 
membrance of facts or ideas. 

Every fresh fact or idea should he put hy in its proper place 
in the mind ; that is to say, the new fact or idea should he asso- 
ciated with its proper class of facts or ideas already existing in 
the mind. 

A general principle gives the key to the rememhrance of a 
whole series of facts or events. Physical facts are hest remem- 
hered through a knowledge of their general law; effects, 
through a knowledge of their cause ; and results, through a 
knowledge of the general principles upon which fhey de- 
pend. 

A general formula, in mathematics, enahles us to rememher 
with the utmost precision all the particular cases which it com- 
prehends. In the suhject of grammar, the general fact that all 
nouns ending in y, when preceded hy a consonant, form their 
plural hy changing the y into ies, very much aids the memory; 
and so on to other general principles of language. If a child is 
told that James 11. was cruel, higoted, and hlindly despotic, he 
has got in his mind a general fact, which will assist him in re- 
memhering the most remarkahle events in this monarch's reign. 
The hest way to make a hoy remember the directions in which 
the constant and periodic winds blow, is by teaching their cause. 
A knowledge of the general physical properties of a substance 
affords the greatest aid to the pupil in remembering the various 
experimental facts which may be given in relation to it : thus, 
for example, a knowledge of the general property that acids 
combine with alkalies enables the pupil to remember the result 
of any particular combination of these two classes of substances. 
These illustrations might be indefinitely extended. 

Teachers, therefore, should constantly aid their pupils in 



UTILITY OF GROUPING IDEAS, 189 

grouping fhelr ideas under general heads or principles. Even 
in the common concerns of life this is of great utility.* 

* " Betty," says a fanner's wife to her servant, ** Bet^, you must go 
to market for some things." *' Tes, ma'am." ** But, Oh-deary-me ! you 
have got such a bad memory, that if you have only three or four things 
to do, you are sure to forget one of them. Do try this time to remember 
what I want. Tou have so many good qualities, and you are so tidy and 
so good-looking, that I really do not wish to part with you; but^our for 
getfulness is insufferable." "Tes, ma'am ; but if my Maker has given 
me a bad memory, how can I help it?" " Listen to me— I want suet and 
currants for the pudding." ** Tes, ma'am : suet and curranta for the 
pudding." " Leeks and barley for the broth: don't forget them." " No, 
ma'am : leeks and barley for the broth." "A shoulder of mutton, a 
pound of tea, a pound of coffee, six pounds of sugar: be sure you don't 
forget the sugar, Betty, for we have not a bit in the house. " ** No, ma'am, 
I won't forget the sugar." **And mind you call at the dressmaker's, 
and tell her to bring out with her the calico for the lining, some black 
thread, and a piece of narrow tape." "Tes, ma'am." "Stay, Betty, 
you'd better tell the grocer to give us a jar of black-currant jam." 

During this colloquy the honest farmer had been apparently engaged 
in making entries in his farm-book, but in reality quietly and attentively 
observing what had been going on. He had his own views about Betty's 
bad memory; he felt too Uiat Betty's confession was no atonement, and 
most certainly gave no promise of amendment. The fact is, the honest 
farmer had almost a father's love for poor Betty. 

" Come here, lass," said he, " come here, and let me see if I cannot get 
you to mind what you are going for." " Tes, sir." " Now then, tell me 
what you are going to bring from market." " Well, sir, there is sugar 
and tea, a shoulder of mutton, coffee,— coffee— let me see— and— ." 
" Hy good girl, that is not the way of doing business. Tou must arrange 
your articles under different heads, as the parson does his sermon, or 
you will never remember them. Now it appears to me that there are 
three things to provide for: Ist. Breakfleust; 9d. Dinner; 8d. A Dress- 
maker." 

" 1st. What are you to get for the breakfast?" " Sugar, tea, and cof- 
fee, and jam— which I shall get at the grocer's." 

"ad. What articles are you to get for the dinner?" "There's the 
butcher's meat, the broth, and the pudding." " Now, what have you to 
get for each of them?" "Well, sir, the shoulder of mutton, leeks and 
barley for the broth, and suet and currants for the pudding." " Very 
good— where do you get them ?" " The mutton and suet at the butcher's ; 
the leeks at the gardener's; the barley and currants at the grocer's." 
" But you had something to get at the grocer's for the breakfast?" " Tes, 



190 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

8. BeoiOfUngtt one qf the bea helps to msmory. 

Besults should be, as far as possible, aasodated with the 
processes of reasoning by which they are derived. This is 
especially applicable to aU mathematical subjects. Many stu- 
dents find a greater difficulty in remembering results than in 
remembering the steps of reasoning by which these results are 
established. Such persons will say to you, " I do not remem- 
ber the formula exactly, but I remember the way in which it 
is got, and that to me is far more valuable." 

One of the greatest drudgeries, in the form of tasks, is com- 
mitting arithmetical tables to memory. But even here, if the 
memory is aided by reasoning, the drudgery of the task is very 
much lessened. Thus, for instance, in learning the multipli- 
cation-table the child should be shown how to derive the suc- 
cessive results of the table. 



sir, I had sugar, tea, coffee, and Jam to get for the breakfast, and be- 
sides I have barley and currants to get ; so that— let me see— I have alto- 
gether Biz things to get at the grocer's." "Very good, Betty; you are 
getting to understand matters. Now, when you get to the grocery 
fancy one part of his counter your breakfast-table, another part of the 
counter your dinner-table, and then run over all the articles and see 
that you have got them aU right." ** Oh yes, sir, that is capital; I feel 
sure that I shall not forget anything to-day." 

" 8d. The dressmaker. What has she to bring with her to-morrow r' 
*' The calico, the thread, and the tape." " Now go, Betty, and remem- 
ber that I feel much interested in your success." 

"Well, Betty," says her mistress, "you have got back." "Tes, 
ma'am." "But have you brought all the things right?— let me see,— 
sugar, tea, coffee, barley, . . . ; well-a-day, if you have not brought 
everything right this time!" " Betty," says her master, " I am glad to 
see that you are an apt scholar; and I do believe, that if you would 
always try to disentangle things in the way we liave done to-day, you 
might by and by rival the schoolmaster for memory, and the people 
say that he can repeat the catechism backwards." " Tes, sir; I am cer- 
tainly much obliged to you, and I shall always tiy to follow out what 
you have shown me to-day." "Remember also never to blame your 
Maker for faults which are due to your own negligence: be good, and 
endeavor in all things to improve the talents that He has given you, npd 
I should not be at all surprised if you render yourself fit for becoming \ 
farmer's wife." 



RESEMBLANCE AND CONTRAST. 191 

The ideas, rather fhan the toorda, of an author should be 
remembered. The passage which we wish to remember 
should be analyzed and the essential ideas separated from the 
non-essential. In order to show that ideas, not words, are the 
great things to be remembered, the teacher should explain to 
his pupils how the same ideas may be expressed in different 
forms of language. 

Problems in arithmetic afford excellent illustrations of this l 
let us suppose the following question to be proposed by a mas- 
ter to his pupils : 

Question. A draper paid eight i)ounds ten shiUings for six 
pieces of fine linen, containing eighty yards ; how much should 
he pay for twenty-five yards of the same kind of linen ? 

Or thus in other words: 

Question. How much should a draper pay for twenty-five 
yaras of fine linen, allowing that he had paid eight pounds ten 
shillings for eighty yards of it ? 

"Here" (we may suppose the master to say to his pupils) 
** we must first write down an abstract of the data, or thmgs 
given, necessary for solving the question, or, in other words, we 
must separate me essential data from the non-essential. Now 
the number of pieces is not necessary for the solution of the 
question, because the measure of the whole is given, and the 
cost required is for a certain number of yards, without any 
regard to the number of pieces. The essential data of the ques- 
tion are as follows : 

** The cost of 80 yards is £8 10«. ; the cost of 25 yards is re- 
quired. Having made this abstract of the question, we may 
now go on with the solution, etc." 

4. A89oeiation8 of resemblance and contrast a/re great helps to the 
memory. 

This principle of association may be used with advantage in 
almost every branch of instruction. In geography, the pupil 
should contrast different regions of the globe with each other, 
or, it may be, trace their various prominent points of resem- 
blance, as to form, climate, population, etc. The same course 
should be pursued in history, divinity, arithmetic, chemistry, 
and other branches of natural philosophy, etc. The teacher 
should classify, for the use of his pupils, the subjects which 
are most eligible for being viewed in contrast or resemblance. 



193 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

as the case maybe. The following brief fonns of claiwiflcatton 
will sufficiently indicate the nature of the method propoied* 

OBOGBAFHT 

SatQects of contrast. The old world and the new world ;* 
the two hemispheres;* the frigid and torrid zone&— climate, 
vegetable productions, etc. ; Russia and Switzerland ; Spain and 
England ; the Andes and the Cheviots ; the Amazon and the 
Thames ; London and Paris ;* Lancashire and Devonshire; east- 
em and western coasts of continents ; temperature of the land 
and temperature of the ocean ; inundations of Siberian rivers 
with inundations of tropical rivers ; the Hindoos and the Rus- 
sians ; the Llanos of South America in the dry and the wet 
season ; the climate of New South Wales with the climate of 
Canada ; the rains of the torrid with those of the temperate 
zone ; the Esquimaux with the Patagonians ; Quito with the 
Steppes of Astrakhan in Southern Russia ; the Highlands and 
Lowlands of Scotland ; the Valley of the Mississippi with the 
Desert of Sahara ; the rivers of eastern with the rivers of west- 
em America ; Cornwall and the district around the Wash, etc. 

Subjects of resemblance and comparison, Spain and Italy ; 
France and England ; the Thames and the Seine ; Manchester 
and Lyons ; Paris and Edinburgh ; Glasgow and Manchester ; 
Edinburgh and Dublin ; Great Britain and Vancouver Island ; 
Great Britain and New Zealand ;* tlie Islands of Ceylon and 
Madagascar ; the Gold Fields of Australia with those of Call- 
fomia ; the water-shed between the basins of Hudson's Bay and 
the Gulf of Mexico with the water-shed between the basins of 
the Baltic and the Black and Caspian Seas ; the Isthmus of 
Suez with the Isthmus of Panama ; Milford Haven and the 
Moray Firth ; the Vale of Exe and the Vale of Eden ; the Paris 
basin with the London basin ; the coast of Norfolk with the 
opposite coast of Holland ; Hull and Liverpool as seaports ; the 



* The subjects marked thus are eligible for oomparison as well as ooa- 

trast. 



BESEMBLANCE AND CONTRAST, 198 

ezporto of Riusis with the exports of Canada ; the correntB of 
the South Atlantic with those of the North Atlantic ; etc. 

HI8TOBT. 

SuJtjjecUofeonl/rait, Alfred the Great and Charles 11. ; Crom- 
well and Charles I. ; Mary and Victoria ; Elizaheth and Mary 
of Scotland ; Henry YIII. and John ; the 14lli century and the 
19th ; Cranmer and John Ejiox ; Jeffries and Hale ; Watt and 
Napoleon ; etc. 

Subjects cf resenibiance. William I. and Edward I.; Charles 
I. and James 11.; Henry III. and Edward HI.; Cromwell and 
Napoleon ; Marlborough and Wellington ; Richard I. and Ed- 
ward VI. ; William HI. and Richard HI. ; Wolsey and Thomas 
A Becket ; Bacon and Newton ; Blake and Nelson ; Captain 
Cook and Columbus; etc. 

THB 8CBIFTUBB8. 

Stttijeets ofcorUrast, Adam and Christ ; Cain and Abel ; Esau 
and Jacob; David and Solomon; Joshua and Samuel; Paul 
and John ; Paul and Balaam ; Matthew and Luke ; Enoch and 
Judas Iscariot ; Joseph and Moses ; Samson and Gideon ;* Ju- 
daism and Christianity ;* etc. 

SvifjecU of resemblance, Moses and Christ ;* Samson and 
Dayid ; Noah and Lot ; Elijah and Elisha ; Paul's conyersion 
given in the 9th and 26th chapters of Acts; Death of Christ as 
given by the four Evangelists ; etc. 

ICATHEICATICAL GEOGBAPHT AJSJi ASTBONOMT. 

SuXfjecU of contrast. Surface of the earth and a known i)or- 
tion of it ; latitude and longitude ; summer and winter ; Jupiter 
and the Earth ; the Sun and the Planets ; distance of Neptune 
and the distance of the Moon ; distance of Neptune and the 
distance of the nearest fixed stars ; the Sun and the Moon ; etc. 

BuijQects of eovnpa/mon. Comparative magnitudes of the 
13 



194 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

planets; approximate numbers representing the lelatiTe dis- 
tances of the planets from the Son ; etc. 

PBOPEBTIB8 OF BODDBB. 

Jhytperdea in eonirast. Long and short, round and angular, 
etc.; hard and soft ; fluid and solid ; transparent and opaque ; 
elastic and non-elastic ; black and white ; nutritiye and poison- 
ous; etc. 

ProperUea in re^emilanoe or comparison. Resemblances of 
form ; degrees of hardness or softness ; more or less transparent ; 
resemblances of color ; more or less elastic ; more or less nutri- 
tiye ; etc. 

BXFlBBIMBIfrrAL 8CIBNCB. 

Sulffeeta qfeontrcut. Acids and alkalies ; oxygen and hydro- 
gen,* etc. ; north and south poles of a magnet ;* positiye and 
n^gatiye electricity ;* reflection and refraction ; conduction and 
radiation ; etc. 

QuI^ecU of resemManee. Chlorine and sulphur;* nitro- 
gen and carbonic add ;* light and heat ; ebullition and eyapo- 
ration ; dew and fog ; electricity and magnetism ; etc. 

ABTTHMBTIO Ain> MATHB1CATIC8. 

In no subject is the memory more aided by resemblances and 
contrasts than in that of mathematics. Subtraction is the re- 
verse of addition ; division is the reverse of multiplication ; and 
the processes of Rule of Three may be regarded as combinations 
of the four elementary operations of numbers. The analogies 
of the cylinder, cone, and sphere are too obvious to escape 
notice ; the pupil who has been shown how to derive the sur- 
face of the sphere from that of the cylinder will never forget 
those rules of mensuration treating of these three solids. 

THB ALPHABET. 

The dissimilar letters of the alphabet should be taught to 
children before those that are similar ; for, as we have already 



RESEMBLANCE AND CONTRAST, 195 

shown, resemblonoes in such cases confound the memory of 
children. The child should be taught the Egyptian characters 
first, on account of their being the most^sunple form of the let- 
ters ; and the master should draw them on a bold scale with 
chalk upon the black-board while he is giving his lesson. 

In order to interest the children and help them to form fa- 
miliar associations, graphic names may be given to the different 
letters, descriptive of their peculiar forms. Thus, O may 
be called the round O ; D half the round O ; 8 a pot-hook ; 
J a walking-stick ; U a horse shoe ; B crooky-back ; V a fool's 
cap upside down ; A a fool's cap with a bar through it ; i a 
blind stroke ; H two blind strokes with a bar between them, etc. 

While comparing the forms of different letters with each 
other, the teacher will very much aid the memory of Uie chil- 
dren by showing them how one letter may be converted into 
another. Thus, P is readily converted into B, or into R ; C in- 
to an O, and then O into Q ; 1 into L or into T ; 1 into F, and 
then F into E ; and so on. 

THE SFBLUNG AND MEAKINO OF WOBDB. 

The spelling of words together which have nearly the same 
sound but differently spelled, such as of and off, were and where, 
etc., is a bad plan/aon account of the resemblance of the Words ; 
and the method of teaching spelling by columns of words 
alphabetically arranged is equally objectionable. The niceties 
of spelling and meaning should l)elong to a higher stage of in- 
struction. Words in contrast having the same radical part are 
easily remembered ; thus we have 

Words in contrast. Agree and disagree ; Join and disjoin ; 
temperate and intemperate ; humanity and inhumanity ; thank- 
ful and unthankful ; kindness and unkindness ; etc. 

The following illustrations of the method of instruction here 
proposed will no doubt be acceptable to many of our readers. 



196 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 



lUudrathnB. 

GEOGRAPHICAL OONTRASTS AND RESEMBLANCES. 
1. TBI Old and Nxw Wobld. 



ContrcuU, 



The Old World. 
History ancient. 

The principal mass of the Old 
World, Asia and Europe, extends 
from east to west, over one half of 
Uie circumference of the globe. 

The mountain-ranges run from 
east to west. 

Asia, Europe, lie within the tor- 
rid, north temperate, and north 
frigid zones. 

Mountain-ranges somewhat cen- 
tral. 

Rivers of Europe, smalL 

Traversed l^ different mountain- 
chains. 

Vast table-lands or plateaus. The 
mountains and plateaus of Asia 
cover five sevenths of its surface. 

Volcanoes on the Continent. 

Coast-line of Europe very much 
indented. 

Inhabitants, white, dark, black, 
etc. 

Animals, Lion, tiger, leopard, 
elephant, giraffe, cow, crocodile, 
nightingale, etc. 



The New World. 

History modem. 
The New World extends from 
north to south, over two flftbs of 
the circumference of ^e globe. 

The mountain- ranges run from 
north to south. 

America comprehends all climatic 
sones, and hence presents a greater 
variety of phenomena. 

The mountain-range extends like 
a band along the western border. 

Great watei^basins. Rivers and 
lakes very large. 

One mountain-chain— the Andes 
and Rocky Mountains. 

Vast plains, vrhksh. form two 
thirds of Its surface. 

Great volcanoes on the islands. 

Coast-Une not so mudi indented 
as Europe, but more indented than 
Asia or Africa. • 

Native inhabitants chiefly red 
men. 

Animals. American lion, laguar, 
panther, gristAy bear, buffalo, alli- 
gator, mocking-bird, etc. 



Resemblances. 



Land in two great masses— Eu- 
rope and Africa in the west, and 
Aaa in the east. 

Istimius of Suea connects Africa 
with Europe and Asia. 

The coast-line of Europe is more 
broken or indented than that of 
Asia, and still more than that of 
Africa. 

Europe better adapted for human 
societies than Asia or Africa. 

Europe 1 mile of coast to 160 of 
surface; Africa 1 mile of coast to 
690 of surface; Asia 1 mile of coast 
to 400 of surface. 



Land in two great masses— North 
and South America. 

Isthmus of Panama connects 
North with South America. 

The coast-line of North America 
is more broken or indented than 
that of South America. 

North America better adapted for 
human societies than South Ameri- 
ca. 

North America 1 mile of coast to 
280 of surface; South America 1 
mile of coast to 880 of surface. 



OEOOBAPHICAL CONTRASTS AND RESEMBLANCES, 107 



The direotion of the land oorre- 

rods with the general directloii of 
mountain masses. 

The Boathem extremity' termi- 
nates in a point directed towards 
the Southern Ocean, while tbqr go 
widening towards the nortii. 

The peninsulas have nearly all the 
same direction. 

The highest mountain in the Him- 
alaya is a Uttle more than 6 miles 
above the level of the 



The same as in the Old World. 



Tbe same as in the Old World. 



Tbe same as in the Old World. 

Tbe highest moontain in the 
Andes is nearly 6 miles above the 
toivel of the sea. 



S. SuBOPB AMD Am. 
ContraiU, 



Europe. 
In the highest condition of dvili- 
Ation and progress. 

Religion, diielly C9iristlani(y. 

Ckmtour most varied, but its pe- 
ninsulas are not large. Indenta- 
tions in all parts by the ocean and 
by inland seas; thereby enjoys one 
xnile of coast for every 160 square 
miles of surface. 



The inland seas and the ocean 
lying between the indentations form 
neany one half of its surface. 

Open to inland navintion. 
Lies between the other portions 
of the Old World and America. 
Best adapted for human societies. 

Its physical features are higlily 
diversified. 

Broken in relief by mountains and 
valleys. The hljrhest mountains do 
not exceed 8 miles in height. Ex- 
tensive plains fresh with vegeta- 
tion. 

Its numerous peninsulas form 
about one third of its surface. 

Like a perfect tree, with numer- 
ous spreaomg branches clothed with 
luxuriant f ofisge. 

Rivers numerous, but not luve. 

Climate chiefly temperate, wmda 
and rains variable. 



AU the vegetables essential to life 
grow in almost every portion. 



As^a. 

The cradle of dvHimtlon, but now 
chiefly sunk in ignorance and super- 
stition. 

Religion, chiefly Mahometanism 
and idol-worship. 

Oontour more uniform. Has vast 
peninsulas on its eastern and south- 
em coasts, but the indentations of 
the coast-line are not so numerous; 
it in consequence only possesses one 
mfle of coast for every 460 square 
miles of surface. 

In spite at the depth of the inden- 
tations, there remains a great pre- 
ponderating mass of unbrokm land 
towards the centre. 

Open only at its margins. 

Farthest removed from the New 
World. 

Vast portions scarcely accessible 
to commerce. 

All its physical features are on a 
gigantic scale. 

Great mountains nearly double 
the height of those in Europe. Vast 
plateaus and deserts. 



Its vast peninsulas onlyform one 
fifth of its surface. 

Like avast trunk, with a few large 
branches, with a scanty foliage. 

Rivers large, but not numerous. 

Burning heats in its equatorial 
portions and extremes of cold in its 
northern regions. Subject to tropi- 
cal winds and raina. 

Exuberant vegetation in its troid^ 
cal portions, and sterility in uie 
frosEen tracts of Siberia. 



198 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATlOlT. 



Wfld animals are not numerous. 

Domesticated animals very nu- 
merous. 

Neither flowers nor birds have 
much variety or brlUianqy- of color; 
but the flowers refresh us with their 
scent, and the birds delight us with 
their song. 

Bich in mineraUL 



Wild animals exceedingly numer- 
ous. 

Domesticated animals not numer- 
ous. 

In the tropical regions the flowers 
and birds haye the most brflliant 
colors, but the flowers have little 
scent, and the birds have no song. 

Poor in minerals. 



8. Enolaitd and Spain. 
ContnuU. 



Bngland. 

Forms the greater portion of an 
Island. 

For the most part level, vet 
beautifully diversCaed with hills, 
valleys, and plains. 

Tlie elevation of the highest 
moimtain, Scaw Fell, in Cumber- 
land, is only a little more than half 
a mile. 

The rivers are numerous, and 
many of them are navigable for a 
considerable distance into the in- 
terior. 

The climate is damp and change- 
able. 

Grows all kinds of grain, etc., but 
the climate is too cold for the vine. 

Rich in coal, and also In iron, 
copper, and lead ores. 

The religion is Protestantism. 

Has advanced very rapidly since 
the Reformation. 

The population of the capital is 
upwards of two millions. 

The work-shop of the world. A 
land of steam-engines, railways, and 
manufactures. 

The greatest country in the 
world. 

Possesses the most perfect poli- 
tical in8titutions. 

The people are pious, industrious, 
generous, and brave. 

Its colonies flourish in every part 
of the globe. 

Stands foremost in the ranks of 
modem science and art 

Famed for her philosophers, 
poets, statesmen, and heroes. 

The greatest maritime power in 
the world's history. 



Spain. 

Vanna the chief portion of a 
peninsula. 

Mountainouit; a considerable por- 
tion forms a plateau. 

The elevation of the highest 
point of Uie Pyrenees is about 2^ 
miles. 

The rivers are not numerous, and 
none of them can be said to be 
navigable. 

The climate is generally warm 
and salubrious. 

Fine agricultural country. Grows 
grapes and oranges. 

No coal. 

The religion Is Romanism. 

Has retrograded since the period 
of the Reformation. 

The population of Madrid, the 
capital, is only one tenth that of 
London. 

Cannot supply its own people 
with manufactured goods. 

One of the most contemptible 
states in civilized Europe. 

A prey to civil diHCords; no 
protection to life or property. 

The people are bigoted, indolent, 
treacherous, and base. 

Its colonies are dismembered and 
enfeebled. 

Has done nothing to advance 
humanity. 

Possesses no name associated 
with greatness. 

Her ships are barely sufficient for 
her own limited commerce. 



HISTORICAL CONTRASTS AND RESEMBLANCES. 199 



HISTORICAL CONTRASTS AND RESEMBLANCBS. 

1. AfJUKO TBS GRBAT AlTD CHABUM IL 

Conira$U, 



Alfred the Great. 
The glory of his country. Amid 
dangers and toil, devoted himself 
to his oountry. 

The saviour of his country. 

Established just and merciful 
laws. 

A true patriot. Laid the founda- 
tion of the future greatness of his 
country. Said that " The English 
ought to be as free as their own 
thoughts." 

Rewarded his friends and conci- 
liated his enemies. Temperate, 
frugal, studious, prudent, and 
pious. Burnt the cakes when 
thinking of his oountry. Divided 
his time. Converted his enemies 
to Christianity. 

Beloved and revered during his 
life, and almost idolised after his 
death. 



Charles U. 

A disgrace to humanity. After 
much bloodshed, he became king, 
and then devoted his country to 
himself. 

Sold his country to France. 

Violated the rights and privileges 
of his people. 

Cared only for having the name 
and privilege of a king. Content 
if the nation would only last his 
time. 

Ungrateful to his friends and 
heedfess of his enemies. Sensual, 
extravagant, idle, thoughtless, and 
profuse. 



Hated and despised during his 
life, and at his death the dogs were 
permitted to lick his blood. 



Mary. 

Despotic and cruel. Bigoted and 
intolerant. Morose and miserable. 
Died childless. 

A friend of ignorance and super- 
stition. 

Lived in an age of darkness and 
ignorance. 

An age of thumbscrews, racks, 
and other instruments of torture. 



2. Mart and Victobia. 
CorUraxts, 



Vtetoria. 

Liberal and benevolent. Pious 
and tolerant. Cheerful and happy. 

Lives the mother of a large 
family. 

A promoter of education and 
religion. 

lives in an age of knowledge and 
progress. 

An age of science, of steam-en- 
gines, and of all the arts which add 
to human happiness. 



SCRIPTURE CONTRASTS AND RESEMBLANCES. 

1. Cain and Abbl. 
ContrasU. 

A tiller 



Cain. 

Cain was the first bom. 
of the g^round. 

Was wicked. 

Offered to God the fruit of the 
ground. 

His offerings were not accepted 
by God. 

Slew his brother. 

The first murderer. Branded 
with God's curse. 



Abel. 

Abel the first that died. A keeper 
of sheep. 

Was nghteous. 

Offered to God the firstlings of 
his flocks. 

His offerings were accepted by 
God. 

The voice of his blood cried unto 
the Lord from the ground. 

Enjoyed God's f^vor. 



200 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 



Cain became a vagabond. 
Cain had children. 



Abel died in the hope of lalTa- 
tion. 
Abel died childless. 



8. MoBKS AND Christ. 
Retmhla-MeB. 



Moses. 

Delivered the Israelites from the 
bondage of the Egyptians. 

The founder of the ceremonial 
dispensation. The founder of Ju- 
daism. 

Delivered to man the ten com- 
mandments. 

Led the Israelites through the 
wilderness. 

Moses lifted up the brazen ser- 
pent in the wudem^ss, so that 
those who looked upon it might be 
healed of the bites of the fiery ser- 
pents. 

Moses conducted the Israelites 
towards the land of Canaan, the 
promised land flowing with milk 
and honey. 



Christ. 

Delivered us from the bondage of 
sin. 

The Founder of the New Testa- 
ment dispensation. The Founder 
of Christianity. 

Gave to man the law of faith. 

Said to His followers, " Lo, I am 
with vou, even unto the end of the 
world." 

Christ offered up Himself upon 
the cross as a sacrmce for the sins 
of man, so that those who look 
upon Him may be healed of the 
leprosy of sin and corruption. 

Christ leads His people to the 
heavenly Canaan. 



Adam. 
Adam was created. 



8. Adah and Christ. 
ContraaiB. 



Through Adam we lost a 
trial paradise. 
Adam broke the law. 



terres- 



By Adam^s sin, death came into 
the world— death temporal as well 
as spiritual. 

Ill Adam all die. 

Through Adam sin came into the 
World 

Through Adam man was rendered 
liable to God's wrath and curse. 

Through Adam we are the ser- 
vants of the devil. 

Through Adam disease and i>ain 
entered the world. 



Adam, as the first man, is our 
natural father. 

Adam's death was not propitia- 
atory, for he suffered deatn on ac- 
count of his own sin. 

Through Adam we are called 
upon to fulfil the works of the law. 



Christ. 

Christ, as the Son of God, existed 
from all Eternity, and was the 
Creator of all things. 

Through Christ we shall gain a 
celestial paradise. 

Christ fulfilled the law and made 
it honorable. 

By the death of Christ, we shall 
be restored to life. 

In Christ all shall be made alive. 

Through Christ we shall be 
clothed with righteousnes. 

Through Christ man is restored 
to God's favor. 

Through Christ we become the 
servants of God. 

Throi^h His stripes we are 
healed. He has a ifellow feeling 
in all our painp, and pleads our 
cause at God's right hand. 

Christ is the spiritual father of 
all those who trust in Him. 

Christ's death was an atonement 
for the sins of the world, for He had 
no sin, neither was guile found in 
His mouth. 

Through Christ salvation comes 
by faith and not by works. 



OBOOSAPHT SHOULD BE ILLUSTRATED BY HISTORY. 201 

6. lb impTote (he memory toe should auodaiU important ideoi 
foUK ihingi, menn, and ewnt$. We should give graphic pictures 
qfimportani scenes and events. 

Maps, useful and sdentiflc pictures, scripture texts, and im- 
portant school-rules should be hung in the schoolroom. These 
objects being kept before the eye suggest important trains of 
association. After a time such things, no doubt, fail to arrest 
the attention; but, in order to avoid this consequence, they 
should be removed at stated periods and fresh ones put in their 
place, or they may simply be taken away for a time and then 
replaced. The teacher will at once see the value of having 
such rules as the following hung up in the schoolroom : 1. A 
suitable place for everything, and everything in its place ; 2. 
A proper time for everything, and everything in its time ; 8. 
A distinct name for everything, and everything called by its 
name ; 4. A certain use for everything, and everything put to 
* its use ; 6. Try to improve at school every day ; 6. Guard 
against vulgar language ; 7. Pray daily to Qod, and praise his 
holy name. The rules put up by the master should always 
have a relation to the existing circumstances ; thus, for example, 
during the fruit season the following would be highly appro- 
priate : " Never eat sour or unripe fruit." 

Teachers cannot be too strongly impressed with the fact that 
our school-day associations exist in the mind to the latest period 
of our existence. 

** The Schoors lone porch, with reverend mosses gray, 
Just tells the pensive pilgrim where it lay. 
Mute is the bell that rung at peep of dawn, 
Qoickenlng my truant feet across the lawn ; 
Unheard the diout that rent the noontide air, 
When the slow dial gave a pause to care. 
Up springs, at every step, to claim a tear, 
Some little friendship formed and cherished here; 
And not the lightest leaf, but trembling teems 
With golden visions and romantic dreams!" 

Geography should be taught in connection with history. 
No teacher should give a lesson on the geography of a country 



302 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

without associating the leading geographical facts with the 
most remarkable events of its history, or with its existing 
resources of trade and wealth.* He should also introduce his- 
torical and picturesque descriptions of the great cities of the 
country of which he treats. Great cities constitute Uie identity 
of a people : their past history is sculptured on their monu- 
ments, churches, and public buildings ; their existing industry, 
and real sources of wealth and power, are exhibited in their 
machinery, their factories, their shipping, and their market- 
places or thoroughfares, where the products of nature and art 
are bought and sold ; their intellectual, moral, and political 
tendencies may be seen in the tastes, habits, and pursuits of 
the people that crowd their public rendezvous ; for the ceaseless 
struggle of opinions, passions, and interests, which here mani- 
fest themselves, may be regarded as the throbbings of the great 
heart of society, which extend themselves, as certainly as by 
the action of an hydraulic law, to the utmost extremities of the * 
living mass. 

The events of scripture history should be taught in connec- 
tion with the map of Palestine. In like manner, history should 
be taught in connection with geography. Local associations 
give vividness and i)ower to the remembrance of events. 

" And hence the charm historic scenes impart; 
Hence Tiber awes, and Avon melts the heart." 

A man who has looked upon the field of Bannockbum, 
where the devoted bands of Scottish patriots withstood the on- 
slaught of the mighty host of their oppressor, T\ill never forget 
the historical events connected with the battle. ''That man," 
says Johnson, "is little to be envied whose patriotism would 
not gain force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety 
would not grow warmer among the ruins of lona.'' Who can 
look on the statue of Henri lY., standing on Pont-Ncuf , which 
crosses the Seine in the heart of Paris, without having the re- 
markable events of this chivalrous monarch's life more deeply 
impressed upon his memory ? The birth-places or the sepul- 



* It is to be regretted that nearly all of our text-books on history 
and geography ignore this. The association of all the branches of study, 
except in a few instances, has hardly been attempted.— E. S. 



Picturing Out sCEifJSs. ^o3 

chrcs of great men form some of our most remarkable links of 
association. 

(( wp^m gygj. thus. As now at Virgil^s tomb 
We blfiSB the shade and bid the yexdure bloom; 
80 Tully paused, amid the wrecks of Time, 
On the rude stone to trace the truth sublime; 
When at his feet, in honored dust disclosed. 
The immortal Sajg^e of Syracuse reposed." 

Picturing out icenes. Children are passionately fond of pict- 
ures, whether real or imaginary, whether addressed to the 
outward or to the inward sense of vision. This jmssion con- 
stitutes one of the most unconquerable instincts of our nature . 
but why should we wish to conquer it ? none but antiquated 
governesses or old maiden ladies would do such violence to our 
happy nature. 

(t trp^^g here, at eye. we formed our tairy ring; 
And FanQ7 fluttered on her wildest wing. 
Giants and genii chained each wondering ear; 
And orphan sorrows drew the ready tear. 
Oft with the babes we wandered in the wood, 
Or viewed the forest feats of Robin Hood: 
Oft fancy-led, at midnight's fearful hour. 
With startling step we scaled the lonefy tower, 
O'er infant innocence to hang and weep. 
Murdered by ruffian hands, when smiling in its sleep.** 

The gallery lessons given to children should contain pictures 
addressed to the imagination. This mode of instruction not 
only secures their attention by gratifying their intellectual in- 
stincts, but also supplies their recollect! vc faculty with appro- 
priate links of association. The picturing style of teaching 
gives life and vivacity to a class ; whereas the dull, dry, sermo- 
nizing style of giving a lesson is better than any soporific to 
be found in the Pharmacopoeia. The tick-tick of the clock in 
our room is rarely heard : so it is with the repetition of certain 
set forms of words : the sounds grow familiar to our ears ; and 
the ideas, however sacred, like an of^to1d tale, cease to make 
any impression on our minds. 

This is especially the case with respect to scripture reading. 
The plan of picturing out the scenes and events connected wiUi 



204 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

a passage of scripture that may have been read is eminently 
calculated to produce the most yivid and lasting Impressions on 
the minds of children. 

In order to illustrate this plan of teaching, let us suppose 
the first three verses of the sixth chapter of St John to have 
been read by the master to his pupils. How few of the chil- 
dren would trouble themselves at all about the familiar sounds 
that had fallen upon their ears I And of the few \dio had given 
their attention to the matter, how many of them could form any 
clear conception of the ideas intended to be conveved ? A skil- 
ful teacher, it is true, might, by the usual method of inteiroga- 
tion, succeed in making 3ie children comprehend the subject- 
matter of the verses ; but how long would they retain the ideas 
thus conveyed to Uiem? How many of them would be' able to 
answer the questions that might be put to them by the master 
on the following day ? 

But now suppose that the master could by some magic power 
show to his pupils the real scene which these verses describe.* 
Suppose he could go back through the eighteen hundred years 
which have elapsed since these events occurred, and taking his 
pupils to some elevation in the romantic scenery of Palestine, 
from which thev might overlook the country of Gkdilee, show 
them all that this chapter describes. 

** Do you see," he might say, " that wide Sea which spreads 
out beneath us, and occupies the whole extent of the valley ? 
That is the Sea of Tiberias ; it is also called the Sea of Galilee. 
All this country which spreads around it is Galilee. Those 
distant mountains are in Galilee, and that beautiful wood 
which skirts the shore is a Galilean forest." 

'* Why is it called the Sea of Tiberias ?" a child might ask. 

** Do you see at the foot of that hill, on the opposite shore of 
the lake, a small town? It extends along the margin of the 
water for a considerable distance. That is Tiberias, and the 
lake sometimes takes the name of that town." 

" But look ! Do you see that small boat coining round a 
point of land which juts out beautifully from this side of 
the lake ? It is slowly making its way across the water ; we 
can almost hear the splaying of the oars. It contains the 
Saviour and some of His disciples. Thev are steering towards 
Tiberias : now they approach the shore ; they stop at the landing, 
and the Saviour, followed by His disciples, wall£ up the shore." 



* This picture is mainly taken from Abbott^s ** Toung Christian.'* 



ENFEEBLINQ INFLUENCE OF FEAR. 205 

" Some sick person is brought to the Sayiour to be healed. 
Another and another is brought. A crowd collects around 
Him. He retreats slowly up the rising ground, and after a little 
time He takes His place upon an elevated spot, where He can 
overlook and address the throng." 

If teachers could accustom themselves to the habit of drawing 
pictures like this, how strong and how lasting would be the 
impression made on the minds of their pupils I Years, and 
perhaps the whole of life itself, would not obliterate the impres- 
sion. Even this faint description, though it brings nothing new 
to the mind, will make a much stronger and more lasting im- 
pression than merely reading the narration would do. And 
what is the reason ? Why, it is only because we have endeav- 
ored to lead you to picture this scene to your minds, to con- 
ceive of it strongly and clearly. Now any teacher can do this 
for himself, in regard to any passage of scripture. It is not 
necessary that we should go on and delineate in this manner the 
whole of the accoimt. Each teacher can, if he will task his 
imagination, picture for himself the scenes which the Bible 
describes. And if he does bring his intellect and his powers of 
conception to the work, and read not merely to repeat formally 
and coldly sounds already familiar, but to bring vivid and clear 
conceptions to his mind of all which is represented there, he 
will be interested himself and will also interest his pupils. He 
will find new and striking scenes continually coming up to view, 
and will be surprised at the novelty and interest which this 
simple and easy effort will throw over those very portions of 
the Bible with which the ear has become most completely 
familiar. 

6. FrivoUms, unncUural, or unpUasarU assodatums should be 
avoided, Fea/r enfeebles the memory, and terror pa/rdlyzes U, 

Our associations should always be in keeping with the 
dignity of the subject. The unnatural and trifling modes of 
association adopted by the advocates of systems of mne- 
monics are unworthy the notice of intellectual teachers of 
youth. If any artificial system of memory be necessary, it 



206 - PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

should be constructed on the principle of the chemica] nomen- 
clature, which is really one of the best systenis of memoria 
technica that ever has been invented. 

The plan of giving tasks as punishments cannot be too 
strongly deprecate : it invests learning with painful associa- 
tions, and most effectually engenders a sullen and wilful habit 
of inattention. 

Fear enfeebles the memory by producing tremor and nervous 
debility. How can a boy exercise his memory when the ter- 
rors of the rod are placed before him ? How can the inteUect- 
ual faculties exercise themselves freely or vigorously when the 
soul is manacled ? When the axe of the executioner is about 
to fall upon the doomed wretch, can you expect him to admire 
the surrounding scenery, or to observe the various passions pic- 
tured on the faces of the eager crowd ? 

" Come here, you dunce," says the pedagogue to his task- 
ridden pupil—" come here. Well now, what aost thou chiefly 
learn in these Articles of thy Belief ?" To which the boy with 
trembling and hesitation answers, *' First, I learn—." " Well, 
what do you learn ?" To which the boy, rendered stupid by 
fear, rephes, " Please, sir, I don't know." " You saucy block- 
head — ^Uiere, take that, and that. Now you stand there, and 
never move from the spot until you have committed the whole 
of the question, word for word, to memory. In an instant give 
over crying, or I shall give you something to cry for, — what 
are you sobbing for ? "Plcare, sir — I cannot— help— it." 
" You cannot help— saucy again— I'll make you help it,— there 
— there— and there. Now you will remember that the rod 
bites, if you cannot remember yoiu* task." True, the boy 
will probably remember to the day of his death that he was 
cruelly thrashed because he could not repeat the answer to the 
question on the Articles of Belief. 

A wise teacher in the place of thrashing his dull pupil would 
assist him in completing his task by first impressing the tdects 
contained in it on his memory. After having read the answer 
twice or thrice over, he might proceed as follows : " The an- 
swer to this question contains three parts. The first relates to 
Qod the Father, the second to Gk)d the Son, and the third to 
God the Holy Ghost. Let us now break down the ideas con- 
tained in the first part. In whom have we to believe ?" *' In 
God the Father." " What is God here said to be ?" "Heis 



IMPORTANCE OF REGULAR INSTRUCTION. *JOJ 

Baid to be the Father." " What have you to do in reference to 
God the Father ?" " I have to believe in Him." " What did 
God the Father do for you ?" " He made me." " What did 
He make besides ?" ** He made all the world." 

Proceeding in this way, the Judicious teacher might analyze 
the whole of the answer ; after this is done, the pupil would 
probably find little difficulty ui committing it to memory. 

7. The memory ekovld he eulUixUed in reUxHon to eomman, 
ikings and every-day events. 

The most ordinary and trifling occurrences may be made a 
source of inteUectual improvement : as the habits of animals, 
or the manners of a people ; the construction of articles of 
furniture and clothing ; the structure of a feather, a leaf, or a 
flower ; the mode of building houses, or the making of a pin ; 
and so on. 

The difference of information found amongst men does not 
depend so much upon the niunber of sights which they may 
have witnessed, as upon the remembrance of the ideas whicn 
these sights are calculated to suggest. Mr. S. never goes a 
lourney, no matter how short, without being able to amuse his 
family by relating to them some incident, to describe to 
them something new. " I don't know how it is," says Mr. B., 
who had travelled over the world for the mere sake of locomo- 
tion, " that my friend Mr. S. finds so much to talk about. 
He cannot go a journey of a dozen miles without having had 
adventures enough to serve a man for a lifetime ; for my part, 
I have visited most of the great cities in Uie world, but I can 
hardly get people to listen to my stories." The fact is Mr. S. 
was an observing man, and never allowed an opportunity to 
slip without storing his memoir with useful facts ; with him 
every new event became the nucleus of a new series of thoughts. 

8. Instruction should be given on a reguUi/r and connected plan. 
Every lesson should have its proper time assigned to it, i^d it 

should always be given at that time. A subject should never 
be taught by fits and starts ; for nothing so much enfeebles the 
recollection as sudden leaps from one branch of knowledge to 
another. When the foundations of one science are fairly laid, 
then another one may be commenced ; but a schoolmaster, like 
the blacksmith, should never have too many irons in the fire. 



208 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

" Nothing" says Abercrombie, " appears to contribute more to 
progress in any intellectual pursuit than the practice of keeping 
one subject habitually before the mind, and of daily contribut- 
ing something towards the prosecution of it." Important sub- 
jects of knowledge, having thus had time for their roots to 
spread themselves in the soil, become as it were incorporated 
with the mind itself. 

II. The memory is strengthened by all those exercises 
which tend to cultivate the habit of attention.— We have 
already explained some of the most important artifices which 
may be employed in the cultivation of the habit of attention : 
the following, however, deserve especial notice in relation to 
the faculty of recollection. 

1. Interrogate your pupiU upon what they may have read. 

2. Oet yourpupHs to put questions to each other at the end of a 
lesson; and also to talk together after school hours about the sub- 
jects of the day's instruction, 

8. The pupils should write in their own languaob what is 
most important for them to remember. 

These notes should be neatly and methodically written ; they 
should not be mere extracts from books, or verbatim reports of 
lessons. 

4. Make your pupils famujab mth important principles and 
results. 

It is not sufficient for your pupils simply to remember im- 
portant principles and results; they should remember them 
perfectly — that \b, in such a way as it would be impossible 
ever to forget them. 

"James," a teacher mifht say to his pupil, "have you 
learned the fourth line of your multiplication - table yet V* 
** Yes, sir* ; I said it to you yesterday." "It is true, my boy, 
you said it ; but it was done with some hesitation. You must 
learn it so thoroughly that nothing can put you out when you 
are called upon to repeat it. Now you go on with the fourth 
line while I repeat the fifth, and wc shall see whether you put 
7ne out or I put you out." 

As a matter of course James is put out ; whereupon the 



CULTIVATION OF IMAGINATION AND TASTE, 209 

teacher might go on to say, "Now I have put you out." 
" Well, sir, but I could have said it correctly if you had not 
jarred with me." "Exactly so. But do you uiink that I 
could put you out in repeating the alphabet ? Let us try." 

"Here, you see, I cannot put you out, because jou have 
learned tiie alphabet perfectly. iNow it is equally important 
that you should learn Uie multiplication-table perfectly.'^ 



CHAPTER V. 



CULTIYATION OF THE nTTBLLBCTUAL FACULTIES, C0NTINT7ED 
—ON THE CULTIVATION OF IMAGINATION AND TASTE. 

Thebe is no faculty of the mind which requires more care- 
ful culture than that of imagination. When properly regulated 
and directed, it may be made to contribute to the development 
of all that is noble and estimable in our nature. It forms an 
essential element of inventive genius. By imagination we are 
enabled, as it were, to place ourselves in the situation of 
others, and to sympathize with them in their distress, or to 
participate in their sorrows.* A man deficient in imagina- 
tion, however estimable he may be in his general conduct, is 
usually imsocial, illiberal, and selfish. On the other hand, a 
person with a wild, misguided imagination occupies his mind 
in the pursuit of idle dreams and delusions, to the neglect of all 
those pursuits which are calculated to ennoble a rational being. 
The imagination should always be kept under the control of 
reason, and it should never be allowed to wander too long at 
discretion, amid beautiful and fallacious scenes, so as to impair 
the judgment. The unrestrained indulgence of imagination 



* The indifference of children to the sufferings of others, their want of 
sympathy and provoking cruelty as manifested in the pleasure they seem 
to derive from torturing animals, is in most instances the fault of an un- 
developed imagination.— E. S. 



210 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

often exerdses an enfeebling influence over the oUier powen 
of the inteUect; but a properly regulated imagination giyes 
strength to all the other faculties, and adds a chann to exist- 
ence. 

" His the city's pomp': 
The rural honors his. Whatever adonis 
The princely dome, the column, or the arch. 
The breathing marbles, or the sculptured gold, 
Beyond the proud possessor's narrow claim, 
His tuneful breast enjoys. For him, the Spring 
Distils her dews, and from the silken gem 
Its lucid leaves unfolds; for him the hand 
Of Autunm tinges every fertile branch 
With blooming gold, and blushes like the mom. 
Each passing hour sheds tribute from her wings ; 
And still new beauties meet his lonely walk. 
And loves unfelt attract him. Not a breese 
Flies o'er the meadow— not a cloud imbibes 
The setting Sun's effulgence— not a strain 
From all the tenants of the warbling shade 
Ascends, but whence his bosom can partake 
Fresh pleasure, unreproved." 

To cultivate the imagination, we should exercise it on legiti- 
mate objects, and this should be done in harmony with the die- 
velopment of the other powers of the mind. The imagination 
is exercised — (1) By fictitious narratives ; (2) By compositions 
of the poet and the orator, addressed to the passions ; (8) By 
saUies of wit and humor ; (4) By works of art addressed to the 
sense of the beautiful. 

The man who excels in all or any of these productions of 
imagination is said to have an inventiye genius ; but it is ob- 
vious that this must depend quite as much upon the strength of 
the faculty of reason as upon that of imagination. G^meters 
and scientific discoverers are often much indebted to the fertility 
of their imagination. Persons of extraordinary power of im- 
agination are not unfrcquently deficient in judgment Why? 
certainly not from any want of harmony between these facul- 
ties, but rather from Uie want of a proper education ; for a man 
of philosophic intellect must have a vi^rous ima^B;ination : the 



CULTIVATION OF IMAGINATION AND TASTE. 211 

genius of the poet and that of the mathematician are more nearly 
allied than people generally suppose. 

I. The picturing style of teaching (described in relation to the 
cultivation of memory) is one of the best means of developing 
the imagination ofchUdren, 

Very few of our works of imagination are simple enough for 
the comprehension of a child — ^the sentences in them arc too 
long and involved, and the figures and analogical phrases are 
too far beyond the range of his experience. We cannot expect 
authors (who generally care more for their own fame than for 
the improvement of their readers) to put in print all the little 
and apparently trifling things which they would say to a child. 
An experienced teacher, on the other hand, naturally clothes 
his ideas in short pithy sentences, and draws his illustrations 
and figures of speech from the things with which his pupils are 
most familiar : he will frequently analyze the figures or analo- 
gies which he employs, so as to render their appositeness more 
vivid and apparent, and to show the difference between a meta- 
phor and an analogical phrase ; and above all things, he will 
constantly endeavor to inspire his pupils with a love of nature, 
and to kindle within them the sentiment of beauty. When he 
has occasion to call the attention of his pupils to the aspect of 
the morning sky, he speaks of " the blushing mom," or, it may 
be, " the rosy mom ;" if anything comes suddenly into his 
mind, it "flai^es" upon him ; if he draws a picture of an ex- 
tensive forest, he speaks of " the trackless woods ;" if he makes 
a comparison between imagination and reason, he speaks of 
fancy's flash and reason's ray. He speaks of reason as the rud- 
der of the soul, which guides us through the stormy sea of life ; 
of hope as the anchor of the soul ; of religion as the great pillar 
of the state ; of remorse as the never-dying worm which gnaws 
the vitals of its victim ; of crime as a loathsome monster, and 
virtue as a lovely angel clothed in light ; of the darkness of ig- 
norance, and the light of knowledge ; of old age as the autumn 



213 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

of life, when all that is lovely withers and decays ; of the whtt- 
per of the breeze, and the rocM" of the tempest. 

n. The imaginaUon of children is ctUUvated hy nmple pieces 
of poetry, or hy prose compositions of taste and feeling. 

Simple good poetry delights the ear of children at the same 
time that it elevates their character ; and even the harmony of 
elegant prose, if not beyond their comprehension, will melt their 
tender souls. The best books for children are those which con- 
tain simple phrases of beauty, which turn on figures that depend 
on points of harmony or analogy between the physical and the 
moral world. "Pilgrim's Progress" is one of the best books 
for children of ten or twelve years of age. Children should 
never be allowed to read poetry which they cannot understand, 
far less to commit it to memory. How matter-of-fact a poetical 
conception becomes after it has been profaned, day after day, by 
senseless repetitions ! How many of oiur intellectual pleasures 
have been marred by our having had the language of poetry 
impressed upon our memories at a time when we could not real- 
ize its import I Rhetorical readings, in schools, are something 
like the exhibitions of the common phantasmagoria— things to 
laugh at. Teachers conunit ,a gross mistake when they attempt 
to bring the higher faculty of imagination too soon into play ; 
just in the same way as many persons lose at chess by moving 
their queen too early in the game. Every faculty must be fully 
developed before the infant soul can spread its wings and fly 
towards the higher heaven of poetry. True poetry is the holy 
of holies of the intellectual tabernacle, into which no one should 
enter until all his faculties are matured and consecrated. 

III. Fhl>les and simple tales are amongst the best means of cuUi- 
wiUng the imagination of children,* 

Children must romance, whether we permit them or not— it 

* Most of our fairy tales, fables, and children's games and plays can be 
traced back to a time previous to written history. They are the pro- 
ducts of the human mind at an epoch when it had attained the develop- 
ment of the child of eight or ten, to-day.— E. 8. 



CULTIVATION OF IMAGINATION AND TASTE, 218 

is one of the most uncontrollable laws of human nature. Gkxxl 
fables and tales always contain instruction— they turn facts into 
poetry, and instruct the reason through the imagination. Some 
little stories contain, in an unobtrusive form, more practical 
wisdom than many learned homilies. Who would wish to for- 
get the story about the fox and the grapes ; or the dog and the 
shadow ; or the shepherd boy and the wolf ; or the dog in the 
manger ; or the cock and the diamond ; or the lion and the 
mouse ; and so on ? Nothing affords children a more sparkling 
entertainment than to listen to the parley between the lion and 
the ass, or between the fox and the crow ; while each of them 
adheres to its character with dramatic strictness, each at the 
same time, personates some moral quality. The perception of 
this analogy leads, in the most pleasurable manner, to the cul- 
tivation of abstraction and reason. 

What child does not read the Arabian Nights' Entertainments 
with the most lively emotions ? Children like to transport 
themselves, on the wings of imagination, from the cold and 
sober realities of our northern clime to the warm and romantic 
scenes of oriental climes, with their glittering caverns and 
golden palaces, their genii and their wonderful lamps and 
rings, their brilliant skies and gorgeous flowers. 

** Let Ffctfon come, upon her yag^rant wings 
Wafting ten thousand colors through tiie air, 
While by the glances of her magic eye 
She blends and shifts at will, through countless forms. 
Her wild creation." 

Gkxxl tales contain nothing really deceptive ; for a child with 
a properly regulated mind knows perfectly weU when he passes 
the boundary-line which separates the region of fiction from 
that of facts. The very worst tales are those which adhere too 
rigidly to every-day scenes and events, and inculcate religion 
and morality with all the mock solemnity of a theological primer. 
Those very pious, truthful, sermonizing tales (such as Peter 
Parley's) outrage the patience of children, and r^tlly defeat the 



J5t4 PBlLOaOPffY OP EDVCATION, 

end which they have in view. How can the soul of a child ap- 
proach its Qod clothed in the garb of fiction I * 

None of our modem novels are sufficiently adapted to the 
Juvenile mind : they are too long ; their stories, for the most 
part, are neither simple enough nor romantic enough ; and be- 
sides, they generaUy presuppose a knowledge of human nature 
and character whidi boys below fourteen years of age cannot 
possibly possess. We should like to see a few novelettes written 
after the fashion of " Waverley/' or " The Last of the Mohicans/' 
but rendered somewhat more infantine in the characters de- 
scribed. 

No tale should do any unnecessary violence to the feelings 
and sympathies of children : if the story tells of hideous wild 
beasts in pursuit of some little innocent child, they should al- 
ways at last meet with a proper punishment ; or if it describes 
dismal dungeons or deep caverns, some way out of them should 
always be found leading to celestial scenes of loveliness and 
enjoyment ; or if it relates the adventures, by sea and land, of 
some tameless being, he should always at last find a quiet and 
happy home. We do not appear to have made any advance in 
this kind of literature, at least for the last quarter of a century. 
Hans Andersen's fairy stories of the Flying Trunk, the Wild 
Swans, etc., are very much inferior to our old oriental tales : 
what modem story of adventures can be placed by the side of 
our old and dear friend Robinson Crusoe ? 

lY . The sentiment of the beatUifui, in ehOdrm, should be eul- 
Utated by dravoing and mime. 

Children should be taught drawing and music almost as soon 
as they can speak. They should be early led to copy the most 
beautiful forms and to sing the sweetest songs. Whatever is 
insipid or deformed should never be placed before them for 



* Since Tate wrote this there has been a great improTement in 
juvenile works and papers. But the fairy tales and Robinson Crusoe 
which delighted the child fifty years ago hare not been surpassed by any 
later productions.— E. S 



CULTIVATION OF REASON, 215 

imitatioo. The sentiment of taste should be constantly colti- 
vated, by directing their attention to whatever is captivating in 
nature or beautiful in art. The cultivation of taste not only 
affords us a refined source of pleasure, but also, somehow or 
other, gives force and acuteneas to the moral sense. 



CHAPTER VI. 



CULTIYATION OF THE INTELLBCTVAL FACULTIES, OOimNVED 
—ON THE CULTIVATION OF BEA80N AND JUDGMENT. 

Reason is that mental faculty whereby we distiaguish truth 
from falsehood. When we duly exercise this faculty, we com- 
pare facts with facts and events with events, and from their 
relations and bearings we deduce certain conclusions. We say 
that a man possesses a sound judgment when he judges cor- 
rectly of the relations of facta, events, or circumstances, and 
gives to each its due amount of influence in the conclusions or 
deductions which he makes. Reason is, in a certain sense, op- 
posed to imagination, inasmuch as it deals solely with facts and 
realities. Reason is distinguished from simple memory, by 
which facts or events are merely connected by the laws of as- 
sociation, without any regard to their natural or philosophical 
relation. Reason, in a well-regulated mind, holds the mastery 
of all the other faculties ; it gives strength and precision to every 
one of them, and harmonizes and regulates their operations as a 
whole ; as we have already shown, it especially improves the 
memory, and checks any unhealthful exuberance of imagina- 
tion. No faculty in our nature is more susceptible of cultiva- 
tion than reason ; and the neglect of its cultivation is attended 
with the greatest possible evils, as well to the individual as to 
society at large. No doubt there are original differences in the 
power of reason, but we have no hesitation in stating that the 



216 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

chief source of the differences in this power found amongst men 
is to be traced to culture and discipline. When we neglect the 
cultivation of the reason of young persons, their minds become 
engrossed by trifles, or carried away by the wild freaks of ima- 
gination; and the most sacred and momentous opinions are either 
treated with unbecoming levity and indifference or accepted 
without thought or reflection. Such persons readily become the 
victims of sophistry, or the willing slaves of superstition and 
bigotry. They have not the power, because the habit has not 
been cultivated, of giving a full and candid examination of all 
the facts which ought to influence their opinions in any subject 
of inquiry. Such persons never pursue truth for its own sake, 
— they do not know what it is to yield their minds to the force 
of truth ; and, as a necessary consequence, their opinions are 
formed from prejudice or passion. 

Keason is, of course, aided by other mental faculties, such as 
memory, attention, conception, and abstraction, but especially 
by attention and conception. These two faculties, as we have 
already shown, are strictly voluntary faculties, and therefore 
may be greatly strengthened and developed by exerdse and 
habit. A vivid conception of all the parts of a subject of inves> 
tigation is the first great step gained in the process of inquiry. 

It has not been considered necessary, in what follows, to make 
any distinction between an act of judgment and an act of reason. 
Our higher kinds of judgments seem to involve all the essential 
elements of a process of reasoning. 

The following general rules may be laid down for cultivating 
the reasoning powers of children : 

I. The minds of children should be first exercised in easy pro- 
cesses of reasoning, adapted to their state of inteUecttuil def)elop' 
ment. Their reason should he first exercised in the discernment 
of the relations, connections, tendencies, and analogies offamiUar 
facts. 

Until a child has some knowledge of facts and effects he 
cannot inquire into principles or causes. Our first steps in the 



FIRST EXERCISE OF THE EEASONINQ FACULTY. 217 

process of reasoning are observation and comparison, then fol- 
low deduction and generalization. A child is capable of form- 
ing conclusions long before he can put his reasoning into lan- 
guage. The teacher should be in no haste to break the spell of 
this silent — this truly ideal— process of reasoning : it is better 
that ideas — conceptions — judgments-^should precede language, 
for the formality of language too often casts a blighting shadow 
over what might otherwise have been a glowing vital concep- 
tion. But this solitary communion of a child with nature can- 
not always go on; it is proper that the child should be for a time 
cast upon the bosom of nature ; but after the nursling has at- 
tained a certain stage of spontaneous development, it is necessary 
that he should be able to express his ideas in language, in order 
that he may profit from the results of the experience of others. 
Hence it follows, that the vocabulary of children should be 
gradually enlarged with the enlargement of their ideas or real 
knowledge. Words become a hindrance to reasoning when the 
vocabulary of the child exceeds his ideas. This we cannot 
help regarding as one of the greatest evils in our present systems 
of education; and we are sorry to observe that men high in au- 
thority have recently given, indirectly at least, their countenance 
to the evil, by exacting a knowledge of the letter, rather than 
the spirit, of certain subjects of instruction— such as religion, 
geometry, arithmetic, and algebra. 

The reason of children is frequently misled by the erroneous 
use of words. We should constantly encourage them to ex- 
plain their views and opinions in order that we may rectify 
their errors. Some people do not care what absurdities they 
utter in reasoning with children ; they do not hesitate to talk 
to them about things which are far above their comprehension, 
and they have always a ready explanation to give of matters 
involving the greatest mystery. Such tutors fill the young 
mind with errors and prejudices, which years of training may 
fail to eradicate ; for it is often more difficult for us to unlearn 
what is false than it is to learn what is true. To judge whether 
a subject of reasoning is within the comprehension of a child, 



218 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

we should consider whether the facts or events upon which it 
is based are within the range of his experience. 

Beasoning must not be rendered a task, or conducted in so 
formal a manner as to weary the mind of the pupil ; the exercise 
of his reason must be spontaneous. We should give him the 
facts and materials for reasoning, rather than make a direct de- 
mand upon his reason. A desultory style of presenting those 
facts will best secure our purpose ; for it is a law of the human 
mind, that while we can achieve but little in the higher pro- 
cesses of reasoning without the strictest observance of order — 
in the first steps of reasoning, on the contrary, we seem to de- 
rive the most healthful excitement from the very absence of 
order. Every experienced teacher knows this to be true, and 
unconsciously acts upon this conviction. The reasoning pow- 
ers of a child are exercised whenever we put the question why 
or receive the answer because. The higher principles of a sci- 
ence should never be taught before the pupil has been made 
acquainted with the relations and analogies of the most familiar 
facts. But many teachers, for the sake of following what they 
conceive to be a logical order, or, it may be, the arrangement 
given in their textbooks, reverse the natural order, and teach 
the most abstract and least attractive things first 

Mathematical subjects afford one of the best exercises for the 
reasoning powers. Mathematical reasoning is simple, and free 
from all uncertainty ; this depends chiefly upon the following 
circumstances : 

1. Nothing is taken for granted or on mere authority ; for its 
principles or reasoning are axioms of self-evident truths. 

2. Its proper objects are the relations of numbers, lines, and 
spaces, things which are cognizable by our senses, and which 
can be defined and measured, with a precision of which the ob- 
jects or no other kinds of reasoning are susceptible. 

The earliest conceptions of a child relate to form and number, 
and they are the first which their minds are capable of viewing 
abstractedly : hence the elements of arithmetic, algebra, and 
geometry idiould be amongst the very earliest subjects of study, 



MATHEMATICAL AND MORAL KVIDENCS. 219 

for the purpose of developing the reasoning powers. Mathe- 
matics, however, like other first subjects of study, should be 
taught progressively, avoiding as much as possible the formali- 
ties of technical demonstration ; and principles should always 
be taught in connection with their applications. 

It is a gross error to suppose that a pupil will have the power 
of applying abstract principles merely because he is able to 
demonstrate the truth of these principles. A knowledge of 
Euclid is one thing, and the employment of geometrical theo- 
rems in the business of life is another. The bringing of fa- 
miliar facts and abstract principles into apposition is not only 
attractive to the young mind, but also exercises the reasoning 
powers in a way which no other subject can do. Who does 
not remember the pleasure that he felt when he saw the doc- 
trine of similar triangles applied to the finding of the height of 
a tower by means of the shadow of a stick ? 

Although the mathematical sciences may form one of the 
best initiatory trainings of the reasoning powers, yet it is com- 
paratively inefficient in giving that higher finish and develop- 
ment to Uie powers of reason. It only exercises the mind in 
appreciating one kind of evidence — namely, fMUhemaUctU m^ 
denM. Some other subject, therefore, should be adopted for 
the purpose of developing the reasoning powers of children in 
relation to moral mdenee. 

These branches of knowledge* may give a false direction to 
the mind, if they are not taught with caution, and in connection 
with mardl icience. The certainty and peculiar nature of 
mathematical science often inspire the disposition to demand 
the same kind of demonstration in other points. The wonder- 
ful extent to which we can trace and imitate the operations of 
nature, tempts us to rest on second causes, and forget that 
Power which is necessary to eitdbliah and maiiitain the laws 
which toe only discover . For this purpose, these studies should 
not only be conducted in a religious spirit, but should be ac- 



♦ Wbodbridge. 



220 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

oompanied and alternated with those which will give another 
direction to the mind. A pupil thus learns much of the nature 
of moral evidence and moral relations, and is accustomed to 
employ these, as well as mathematical demonstration, as a part 
of his series of thought, and as a sufficient ground for his con- 
clusions. 

On this subject Abercrombie observes: "Notwithstanding 
the high degree of precision which thus distinguishes mathema- 
tical reasoning, the study of mathematics does not, as is com- 
monly supposed, necessarily lead to precision in other species 
of reasoning, and still less to correct investigation in physical 
or mental science. The explanation that is given of this fact 
seems to be satisfactory. The mathematician argues certain 
conclusions from certain relations of quantity and space, which 
are ascertained with absolute precision ; and these premises are 
so dear, and so free from all extraneous matter, that their truth 
is obvious, or is ascertained without difficulty. By being con- 
versant with truths of this nature, he does not learn that kind 
of caution and severe examination which are required in other 
sciences for enabling us to judge whether the statements on 
which we proceed are true, and whether they include the whole 
truth which ought to enter into the investigation. He thus ac- 
quires a habit of too great facility in the admission of data or 
premises, — which is the part of every investigation which the 
physical or mental inquirer scrutinizes with the most anxious 
care, — ^and too great confidence in the mere force of reasoning, 
without adequate attention to the previous processes of investi- 
gation on *which all reasoning must be founded. It has been, 
accordingly, remarked by Mr. Stewart and other accurate ob- 
servers of intellectual character, that mathematicians are apt to 
be credulous in regard both to opinions and to matters of testi- 
mony ; while, on the other hand, persons who are chiefly con- 
versant with uncertain sciences acquire a kind of skepticism in 
regard to statements which is apt to lead them into the oppo- 
site error." 

The physical and mathematical sciences are full of simple 



" SCIENCE AT HOME. ' 221 

facts and principles, which are highly calculated to cultivate 
the reasoning powers of children. History, too, if proi)erly 
taught, may be made a great instrument in the cultivation of 
theh* reasoning powers : not that history which merely relates the 
dull, dry detail of events in their chronological order, and gives 
more prominence to the installation of a monarch than to the 
discovery of a physical law, or to the advent of a great man 
whose soul is destined to rule the world of philosophy ; not 
tliat history which perseveringly follows the blood-stained foot- 
prints of warriors, or the chicanery of crafty, little-souled 
statesmen, or the various ramifications of the petty schemes of 
ambitious autocrats, who fret their day upon the stage of exist- 
ence, then die and leave no sign behind them ; not that history, 
in short, which ignores the philosophy of history— but that 
history which gives the record of really great events, which 
follows the development of society, marks the relations of 
events to each other, and resolves them into epochs. The child 
will thus be taught to study the nature of moral relations and 
moral evidence. In the same manner we should like to see 
language and literature taught. 

In all these subjects the teacher should lead his pupils to dis- 
tinguish between the relations of facts and events which are 
merely Incidental from those that are fixed and uniform.* 



* Twenty years ago, when amateur teachers were few, the writer of this 
work gave lessons on the science of common things (or what he called 
" science at home") to an evening class of boys, varying from twelve to 
fifteen years of age. 

These lessons were illustrated by simple and striking experiments 
made with apparatus constructed, for the most part, out of the ordinary 
articles of household use. The subjects selected for instruction were not 
only useful in themselves, having a relation to the occui)ations of life, 
but also* so simple as to be within the comprehension of his young pupils. 
Recondite facts of science, however useful in their remote applications, 
were generally avoided when they did not admit of graphic or experi- 
mental illustrations. 

The following is a list of the subjects on which these familiar lectores 
were given: 

What is the best kind of gravel for making a path? The properties 



222 PHILOSOPHY QF EDUCATION. 

From fbe relations of familiar facts and events he wiU fre- 
quently rise to the illustration of general principles ; at other 
times he will descend from the general principles to the famil- 
iar facts or events which illustrate them. But before children 
are taught any systematic course of study they should be led 



tlie lerer ahown by a rod balanced upon the edge of a book. Tlie best 
way of wiA^iriiig a fire. How a candle bums; and why you should not 
take the snuff off too dose. Why the smoke rises hi the ohhnney; and 
how a amftHng chhuuey may be to a oertahi extent cured. To explain 
the use and oonstaructlon of a wheelbarrow. How breathing and flame 
vitiate the air: and how pure air should be supplied to apartments. Bad 
smells are not only disagreeable, but they carry .with them the seeds of 
disease and death; how bad smells may be prevented; importance of 
cleanliness, of drainage, and of good dwelling-houses. How to sink a 
wen. How to make a pump. How to economise labor. How to econo- 
mise food, and to preserve common articles of use. How to preserve 
health: you should live upon plain wholesome food; you should perform 
some physical labor; your clothes should be adapted to the season and to 
the state of the weatiier. Wherethewater of the river Ouseoomes from 
and where it runs to. And so on. 

These lessons on common things were productive of the most satisfac- 
tory results. The boys were so interested In the lessons, that they would 
at any time leave their games to attend the class. Many of the parents 
did not at first quite understand what their children had to do with sd- 
enoe; but when th^ found that the teacher had been explaining how to 
make a fire, how to prevent the chimney from smoking, etc, th^ became 
as much interested in the lessons as their children; and thus the parents 
speedily became powerful auxiliaries In carrying on the work of educa- 
tion. It is true that some parents stood out for a long time agahist the 
new-fangled system: they merely wanted their boys taught reading, 
writing, and accounts. Indeed, a mother thrashed her son for asserting 
that the teacher had shown him how the earth turned round every 
twenty-four hours. " Hold your tongue, sirrah 1 don*t tell me such Ues," 
said this prejudiced mother; ** master could never put such a falsehood 
into your head. Has not the stack-yard stood at the beck of our house 
ever since I was a child, a girl, and a married woman; and does it not 
stand there still?" But this argument did not carry conviction to the 
boy *s mind, and as a last resource he was thrashed for his obstinacy. 

Noble lords and learned doctors and newspaper editors have lately dis- 
covered the importance of teaching the science of common things hi our 
schools; and some of them no doubt will have their names emblazoned 
in our blue-books as the great renovators of popular education. 



RELATIONS OF THINGS AND EVENTS, 228 

to reason and to exercise their judgment upon commoa things, 
facts, and events. 

"Thus the men 
Whom nature's works can charm wttfa God TWwMAif 
Hold conTerse; grow familiar, daj by daj. 
With His conceptions; act upon His plan; 
And form to His the relish of their souls." 

The relations of things and events may he viewed in six dis- 
tinct aspects, viz., relations of character, of degree, of cause 
and effect, of connection and composition, of analogy, and of 
law. We shall give a few examples of these different kinds of 
relation, with a view of illustrating what is here meant 

(1) Relations of Character. — All animals with four feet 
are called quadrupeds; then a cow must be a quadruped. A 
fowl is not a quadruped. Why? All hot-blooded animals 
breathe air : then a horse must be a hot-blooded animal. Trans- 
parent bodies can be seen through : then water is a transparent 
body, because I can see objects through a glass of water. 
Acids are sour to the taste and change vegetable-blue colors to 
red : then vinegar must be an acid, for I am sure it tastes sour 
enough, and the drop which Jane let fall on her blue apron has 
made it red. All quadrilateral figures have four sides : then a 
sheet of foolscap paper has the form of a quadrilateral figure. 
Heavy substances sink in water : then chalk must be a heavy 
substance. Inflammable bodies bum : then coal must be an in- 
flammable body. The particles of a fluid body readily move 
amongst themselves : then mercury must be a fluid body. 
Metals have a peculiar lustre, called the metallic lustre, like 
gold and silver : then copper and lead must be metals. Artifi- 
cial substances are made by man : then woollen cloth must be 
an artificial substance. A natural substance is produced by 
nature without the aid of art : then wool is a natural substance. 
Bodies like the air which support flame ^re called supporters of 
combustion ; then chlorine must be a supporter of combustion, 
for a candle bums in this gas. 

(2) Relations of Degree and Proportion. — John's shoe is 



224 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIOK. 

too small for Henry's foot : then the child will readflj make the 
deduction — Henry's foot must he larger than John's. Our d<^ 
is larger than the cat : then a hole through which the dog can 
just go must he larger than a hole which the cat can Just go 
through. I cannot reach to the top of the door : then the door 
is higher than I am.* 

I can lift the chair, hut I cannot lift the table * then the table 
is heavier than the chair. James can push the sofa along the 
floor, but he cannot carry it : then it is easier, that is, it requires 
less force, to push the sofa along the floor than to carry it I 
cannot lift that stone, but I can easily overturn it : then it re- 
quires less force to overturn a heavy body like the stone than It 
does to raise it up or lift it. 

Thomas takes an hour to walk from Charing Cross to Chel- 
sea, whereas I can walk over the distance in three quarters of 
an hour : therefore I walk faster than Thomas. 

Yesterday the water in the kettle took three quarters of an 
hour to boil, but to^y it has only taken half an hour : then it 
follows that the fire is hotter to-day than it was yesterday. The 
sun is longer above the horizon in summer than he is during 
winter : hence the summer is hotter than the winter. Water 
never freezes at Bermuda : then the climate of Bermuda must 
be warmer than that of England. 

A body of a red color can be seen at a greater distance than a 
body of a blue color : then red must be a brighter color than 
blue. 

The shadow of that tree is longer than the shadow of that 
house : then the tree must be higher than the house. 

A pound weight of bread is larger in bulk than a pound 
weight of lead : then lead must be a heavier substance than 
bread. Bread floats on water, but cheese sinks in it: then 



* Much more attention Gihould be given to the neoessUy of teaching 
facts, etc., from relations. A child, if told that a city has 600,000 inhab- 
itants, can form no notion of such a number. It will, however, form an 
approximately correct idea of that city if told that it contains fifty times 
more inhabitants and covers thirty times as much ground.— E. S. 



m^m^m 



RELATIONS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT, 225 

cheese must be a heavier substance, bulk for bulk, than bread. 

Smoke rises in the air, but silk paper falls : then smoke must 
be a lighter substance than silk paper. 

(3) Relations of Cause and E£fect. — A kettle on the fire 
will never bum so long as there is water in it : then the boiling 
water or steam must carry off the heat. It is warmer during 
the day when the sun shines than it is during the night : then 
the sun must be the source of heat. A crow on the top of St. 
Paul's Cathedral does not look larger than a sparrow : then the 
height of St. Paul's must be very great. When the fire burns 
briskly light pieces of paper are carried up the chinmey : then 
there must be a current of air rushing up the chimney. When 
sealing-wax, glass, or brown paper is rubbed with a dry piece 
of flannel electricity is produced : then friction generates elec- 
tricity. Snow-flakes fall in the air, soap-bubbles rise in the air : 
then snow must be a heavier substance than air, and soap-bub- 
bles must be lighter than air. 

The soap-bubble is a heavy fluid inflated with hot air : then 
this hot air must be the thing that makes the soap-bubble 
lighter than the surrounding air. After a little time the soap- 
bubble bursts. Does it burst inwards or outwards ? Inwards. 
Why ? The soap-bubble moves from the shade to the simshine. 
It bursts. Why ? Inwards or outwards ? Outwards. Why ? 
The soap bubble is globular in its shape. Why ? 

In order to roast a joint of meat it is made to turn before the 
fire. Why ? The meat is turned round in order that every 
part of it may be properly roasted. A register stove throws 
out more heat than a common flre-place. Why ? Because the 
register stove reflects the heat of the fire, or, in other words, it 
throws the heat of the fire into the room. Woollen clothes 
keep our bodies warm in cold weather. Why ? Because 
woollen clothes prevent the heat from passing out of the body ; 
or, in other words, we may say woollen is a bad conductor of 
heat. Nature has clothed the lower animals either with wool, 
hair, or feathers. Why ? Nature has done for them what the 
reason of man enables him to do for himself. In igniting a 

15 



226 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

fire we put shavings and wood at the bottom of the fire-place 
and the coals above them. Why ? Prudent x>cople take their 
principal meal about the middle of the day. Why? Men 
work during the day and sleep diuing the night. Why? 
When the sky is cloudy we arc likely to have rain, but when 
the sky is clear we never have rain. Why ? Ice feels cold, 
boiling water feels hot. Why ? Because the ice is colder than 
our bodies, and the boiling water is warmer. The iron part of 
a spade feels colder than the wooden part. Why ? Because 
the iron conducts or conveys the heat from our bodies more 
rapidly than the wood. The handle of a coffee-pot is usually 
made of wood. Why ? Deal floors are warmer than brick 
floors. Why ? In frosty weather the water from the clouds 
falls in the form of snow or hail Why ? With us the north 
wind is usually colder than the south wind. Why ? At noon- 
day, when the sun shines, our shadows fall towards the north. 
Why ? The snow falls upon the mountain-tops more than it 
does in the valleys or plains. Why ? The west wind with us 
is usually accompanied with rain. Why ? Because the west 
wind passes over the Atlantic Ocean, and therefore comes to 
us chaiged with moisture. The east wind is dry and parching. 
Why ? Thunder-storms generally take place at the close of 
summer. Why ? 

(4) Relations of Connection and Oomposition. — The earth 
on which we live is globular : then navigators should be able 
to sail round it. When a body can be seen a long way off it 
must be very large : then Windsor Castle must be very large, 
for it can be seen from Richmond Hill ; then the moon must 
be very large for we know that she is far, far above the clouds. 
A square whose side is two feet may be divided into four small 
squares one foot in the side : then a square which is two feet in 
the side must be four times the size of a square which is one 
foot in the side. When hydrogen gas bums in oxygen, water 
is formed: then water must be composed of hydrogen and 
oxygen. When phosphorus is burned in oxygen a white sub- 
stance is formed* called phosphoric acid : then phosphoric acid 



^H 



RELATIONS OF ANALOGY. 227 

must be composed of phosphorus and oxygen. When sul- 
phuric acid is x>oured upon chalk, carbonic-acid gas is given 
off : then chalk must contain carbonic acid. When red lead 
or oxide of lead is heated, oxygen gas is given off, and metallic 
lead is left behind : then red lead must "he composed of lead 
and oxygen. Drunkards always shorten their days : then a 
drunkard must be guilty of self-murder or suicide. 

(5) Relations of Analogy.— A piece of cork rises in water 
in the same way as a balloon rises in the air, or as smoke rises 
in the air : as the cork is. lighter than the water, so the balloon 
is lighter than the air, bulk for bulk. When a piece of lump 
sugar is placed in a spoonful of water, the water rises up the 
pores of the sugar in the same way as water rises up the pores 
of a sponge, or as water rises up a fine tube, or between two 
plates of glass placed near to each other. Water will dissolve 
sugar in the same way as water will dissolve salt, or as spirits 
of wine will dissolve camphor. If a soap-bubble be twirled 
round just before it is thrown from the bowl of the pipe, it will 
revolve and become flattened at its poles by its rotation on its 
axis. When a mop is twirled round, it assumes a somewhat 
flattened shape, in the same way as the whirling motion of the 
earth has caused its equatorial parts to swell out. The steam 
from boiling water, by its elastic force, sometimes raises the lid 
of the kettle, in the same way as the steam of a steam-engine 
raises the piston or plug in the cylinder. A watch has had a 
maker; in like manner the world has had a Creator. As a 
magnet attracts iron, so somewhat in the same manner the sun 
attracts the planets in the solar system. As the contrary poles 
of a magnet attract each other, so bodies electrified in contrary 
ways attract each other ; and as like poles of a magnet repel 
each other, so bodies electrified in the same way repel each 
other. As bodies in front of a fire become warmer than those 
at the sides, so in like manner places at the equator more 
directly under the sun's heat become warmer than those places 
towards the poles, where the sun's heat glances obliquely upon 
them. 



228 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

What qualities have sealing-wax, sulphur, and pitch in com- 
mon ? They are all inflammable, fusible, brittle when cold, 
but adhesive when melted, and generate the same kind of elec- 
tricity by friction. What qualities and points of structure have 
carnivorous animals in common ? An iron hoop is elastic. 
Kame some other bodies analogous to the hoop in this respect. 
A bullet is a sphere. Name some other bodies that are spheri- 
cal. What properties have all bodies in common ? Weight, etc. 

When a child learns for the first time some new property of 
a thing with which he is quite familiar, he is taken by that sort 
of surprise which affords him the highest pleasure, and which 
forms one of the most powerful incentives to intellectual ac- 
tivity. Thus, for example, a boy readily admits that the air is 
a transparent fluid ; but when he is shown that it has weight, 
like lead, or any other material substance, he is taken by sur- 
prise,— a surprise which is nearly allied to doubt, — and he is 
thereby prepared to give an earnest attention to any experi- 
ments we may make upon the subject. 

(6) Relations of Law, depending on Inductive Reason- 
ing. — When iron is heated, its bulk is increased ; when water 
is heated its bulk is also increased ; and the same holds true 
with respect to any other substance which has been tried : 
then one general law of heat is that it expands all bodies. 
Sound travels over eleven hundred feet in one second, twice 
eleven hundred in two seconds, thrice eleven hundred feet in 
three seconds, and so on ; then sound travels at a uniform 
rate. 

Misery, disease, and death always follow drunkenness, dis- 
sipation, and all such crimes : then vice and misery are in- 
separably connected. Liars and thieves arc never trusted ; a 
truthful and honest person is always esteemed : then honesty 
must be the best policy 

A body let fall from a tower falls sixteen feet in one second, 
four times sixteen feet in two seconds, nine times sixteen feet in 
three seconds, and so on : then the spaces passed over by falling 
l)cclies increase as the squares of the times. 



RELATIONS OF LAW, 229 

A ball struck along a floor moyes in a straight line ; the 
harder the blow the farther the ball moves. Then something 
must cause the ball to stop. What is it ? Is it the roughness 
of the floor (the friction of the floor), or the blowing of the air ? 
If the floor were smoother would the ball move further ? 
Would the baU stop if there were nothing tending to destroy its 
motion ? Let us try. Has anybody tried this ? Yes, my 
child, we may suppose a teacher to say, this has been tried, and 
it is found that the more we remove the resistances of friction 
and the air, the farther and farther the ball will move : then 
if these resistances could be removed altogether, what should 
we expect ? Why, that the ball would never stop ; that is to 
say, it would move on and on in a straight line forever, if it did 
not meet with any external force or resistance to stop it. 

(7) Relations of Law, depending on Deductive Reason- 
ing. — The force of gravity decreases as the squares of the dis- 
tances : then a body will be lighter at the top of a mountain 
than it is at the sea-shore : then a pendulum will vibrate slower 
at the top of a mountain than it will do at the sea-shore. The 
atmosphere is an elastic fluid : then the air at the top of a 
mountain is not so dense as it is on the plain. The temperature 
at which water boils' increases with the pressure upon it : then 
water will boil at the top of a mountain at a less degree of heat 
than it would do at the sea-shore. Bough bodies radiate or 
throw out heat more rapidly than smooth- polished bodies: 
then, other things being the same, hot water in the kettle will 
become sooner cold than if it were in a polished metal teapot. 
The force of the wind makes a kite fly : then a kite must fly 
best in windy weather. When a flame is applied to a mixture 
of street gas and atmospheric air it explodes : a lighted candle 
should never be taken into a room where there is an escape of 
gas. The pressure of water is in proportion to its depth : then 
the strength of embankments should be in proportion to the 
depth of the fluid which they have to sustain : then the strength 
of beer barrels should be in proportion to their depth. The 
intensity of light decreases as the squares of the distances in- 



280 PBILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

crease : then the light of a candle at twenty feet distance will 
be one fourth of what it is at ten feet. 

The height to which water may be raised by the common 
pump is in proportion to the pressure of the surroimding air : 
then the common pump will raise water to a greater height on 
the plain than it will do on the top of a mountain. The resist- 
ance of fluids to a moving body is in proportion to the squares 
of their yelocities : then there must be a considerable loss of 
X>ower when raUway-carriages move with great velocities. The 
resistance which friction presents to a moving body is the same 
for all velocities : then so far as friction is concerned there is no 
loss of power in moving railway carriages at a high speed. 

n. JJter (he reasoning powers haw been exercised in the man- 
ner just described, the process of reasoning should be analyzed; 
and ihis should be done in connection with simple examples. 

It should be shown that every process of reasoning consists of 
two parts, — the premises and the conclusion,— the thing or things 
which we take for granted or assume to be true, and the pro- 
position which we have to establish. 

The premises consist of— (1) First or intuitive truths ; (2) Pro- 
positions and principles, either taken for granted or which have 
already been proved ; (3) Certain facts, or relation of facts, 
which we believe to be authentic, and to which our assumed 
principles are to be in some manner applied. 

The conclusion is deduced from the application of the assimied 
principles to the facts. Here we have not only to assure our- 
selves of the correctness of the principles assumed, and of the 
authenticity of the facts, but also to determine whether the 
principles are legitimately applicable to the facts; for the 
principles may be correct and the facts may be authentic, and 
yet the reasoning may be false from the want of a true connec- 
tion between the principles and the facts. 

We examine the truth or falsehood of a process of reasoning 
or argument by the method of the ancient syllogism. Formal 
logic is of very little use in the discovery of truth, or even in 



SYLLOGISTIC REASONIKO. 281 

the first stages of school instruction ; yet a knowledge of the 
syllogism will frequently enable a young man to detect the 
sophistry of an argument which might otherwise confound his 
judgment. An intelligent boy of thirteen or fourteen years of 
age may readily understand the nature of a syllogism. 

If I simply say that "the greatest philosophers are mortal, 
for they are but men/' I reason — ^I employ the elements of a 
syllogism. Thus we have — 

First. I employ the general fact that all men are mortal. 

Second. The special fact, coming under the general class of 
facts referred to this proposition, that philosophers are men. 

Third. The inference or deduction from this connection, 
that philosophers are mortal. 

The first is called the nuj0or proposition, the second the miTwr 
proposition, and the third the conclusion or new proposition. 
Thus the foregoing reasoning may be put in the form of a 
syllogism : 

Major Proposition, All men are mortal. 
Minor Proposition, Phflosophers are men, 
Conduaion , Therefore philosophers are mortal. 

In order that our conclusions may be valid it is necessary that 
the major and minor propositions should not only be separately 
true, but the minor proposition must belong to the class of facts 
included in the major proposition. 

Exercise your pupils in putting simple processes of reasoning 
(such as those given under the head of relations in the foregoing 
article) into the form of a syllogism. Bequire them to name 
the propositions or principles taken for granted (are they in- 
tuitive, or have they been proved?), the facts alleged to be true 
(upon what evidence do they rest?), the major and minor pro- 
positions (is the former true without exception? does the latter 
come under the former?), and so on. 

Give instances of false reasoning, and call upon your pupils 
to detect them. Let us ^ve a few example& 



232 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

Stcample 1. Point out the error in the following process of 
reasoning : 

The diagonals of all parallelograniB bisect each other. 

Trapezoids are parallelograms; 

Therefore the diagonals of trapesoids bisect each other. 

Anrwer, Here the major proposition is true, but the minor 
proposition is not true ; that is to say. it is not one of the class 
of facts comprehended by the major : therefore the conclusion 
is false. 

Mtample 2, Point out the error in the following process of 
reasoning: 

An created beings are mortal. 
Angels are created beings; 
Therefore angels are mortal. 

Answer. Here the minor proposition is true, but the major is 
not true, for we have no ground for such a belief. 
MBample 3. Where is the error in the following reasoning? — 

All hmnan beings are mortal. 
Angels are not human beings; 
Therefore angels are immortal. 

Answer, Here, although the conclusion is true, the reasoning 
is false ; for since the converse of a proposition is not always 
true, we are not entitled to infer that because human beings 
are mortal, therefore angels, which are not human beings, are 
not mortal. 

m. Some of the most common sources of f (Use reasoTdng shotUd 
be pointed out, 

1. The admission of alleged facta without a due examina- 
tion. 

"James," we may suppose a master to say to his pupil, 
" how do you explain the fact that a steel needle will float upon 
water?" 

" I don't know, sir ; for steel being heavier than water, I 
should have thought that the needle would sink in water. In 
short, sir, I question the truth of the alleged experiment.' 



» 



SOURCES OF FALSE REASONING. 238 

"That la just what I should have expected from you," re- 
plies the master. " You were quite right to examine the truth 
of an alleged fact, especially when it appears to interfere with 
your previous expferience, or at variance with certain general 
principles which you know to be true. At the same time I 
shall make the experiment, which establishes the fact, and you 
will then see, upon further reflection, that the phenomenon is 
due to the operation of a certain principle which counteracts 
the tendency which the needle has to sink in the fluid." Illus- 
trations of mis kind may be readily extended by the teacher. 

2. Mistaking incidental connections for those that are uni- 
form and constant, or confounding accidental coincidence with 
causation. 

a. Black ribbon being rubbed with the hand becomes elec- 
trified. A child, upon observing the experiment, may natu- 
rally enough conclude that the color of the ribbon is essential to 
the result, unless he is shown by further experiments that the 
effect is independent of the color, and that the essential or per- 
manent conditions are, that the substance should be silk, and 
that it should be perfectly dry. 

b. This spring, little James weis looking at a man who was 
mowing the grass before the door. It had been raining, and 
when uie sun shone the vapor began to rise from the grass. 
' Does the man mowing Tnake the smoke rise from the grass? ' 
said the little boy. He was not laughed at for this simple ques 
tion. The man's mowing immediately preceded the rising of 
the vapor ; the child had never observed a man mowing before, 
and it was absolutely impossible that he could tell what effects 
might be produced by it ; he very naturally imagined that the 
event which immediately preceded the rising of the vapor was 
the cause of its rise ; the sun was at a distance ; the scythe was 
near the grass. The little boy showed bv the tone of his in- 
quiry that he was in a philosophic state oi doubt ; had he been 
ridiculed for his questions, had he been told that he talked non- 
sense, he would not upon another occasion have told his 
thoughts, and he certainly could not have improved in rea- 
soning." 

The best way to improve the judgment of children with re- 
spect to the interpretation of natural phenomena is to extend 
their knowledge and to lead them to make experiments, so that 
by the rex>etition of such experiments they may discover what 



384 PHIL080PHT OF EDUCATION, 

circumstances are essential to the production of anj given ef- 
fects, and what are merely accidental or accessory. 
8. Assuming the converse of a proposition to be true. 

In mathematics nearly all the converse of propositions are 
true ; but in general physics and the business of life this is far 
from being the case. Thus, while all gaseous bodies are das- 
tic, all elastic bodies arc not gaseous. All horses are quadru- 
peds, but all quadrupeds are not horses. Angels are mamor- 
tal, but all immortal beings are not angels. Mag;nets attract 
iron-filings, but all bodies which attract iron-filings arc not 
magnets, for any electrified body will attract iron-filings ; and 
so on to numberless instances. 

4. Confounding a mere illustration, or an analogy, with a 
demonstration. 

The relation of the times and spaces of a falling body is com- 
monly illustrated by the division of a triangle into a series of 
little triangles, etc. ; but something more is required to raise the 
character of this Ulustration to the dignify of a demonstration. 

The whirling of a stone is often used to illustrate the law of 
centrifugal and centripetal forces ; but this scarcely advances 
us a single step in the demonstration of the great law, whidi 
rcgulates the planetary motions. Illustrations arc excaadingly 
valuable in their place, but the pupil should never be allowea 
to regard an illustration or analogy as a ground for dispensing 
with a full demonstration. He should be led to regard illus- 
trations and analogies as prcliminary steps to demonstration. 

6. In attaching erroneous or ambiguous meanings to terms ; 
or in using terms in difPercnt senses in the course of an argu- 
ment. 

Much false philosophy is based upon the ambiguities of 
language. 

Teachers should carefully rectify the verbal errors of 
children. 

** Turkey is an unhealthy country/' said a teacher one day to 
his pupils, " but this is owing more to the want of precaution on 
the part of the people, than to the badness of (he climate." The 
boys did not appear fully to understand what was said to them. 
"Precaution," said my friend, "that is a hard word for you 
to comprehend. What boy will tell me the meaning of this 
word? ' The boys hesitated : they first stared at their master. 



nULES FOR THE PURStTiT OF TRtrTH. 235 

and then at each other, bat gave no further sign of intelltgcncc; 
the case was desperate— they had got a tickler. The teacher 
then, with the view of ascertaining the full amount of their 
ignorance, said : " Now tell me whether precaution is exported 
or imported." The bait took, for the head boy of the class at 
once shouted out, ** Exported, sir," — and, as a matter of course, 
the answer went the round of the class. 

6. When we assume, in a disguised form, the principle 
which is to be proved. 

This is commonly called begging the question. 

Or when we take for grant^ any principle which requires 
proof. 

In proving, for example, that the angles at the base of an 
isosceles triangle are equal to each other, if we assume that the 
angles on the other side of the base are equal to each other, we 
should take for granted a proposition, which is almost equiva- 
lent to the one which is required to be proved. 

lY. Some general rules should be oecastonctUy given to children 
for the conduct of their understanding in the pursuit cf truth. 

The following are a few examples of this kind : 
Before commencing any inquiry, strip your mind of aU prepos- 
sessions, prejudices, or hastily formed opinions, and yield your- 
self freely and dispassionately to the force of truth. Earnestly 
seek the truth. Never argue in support of opinions which you 
do not believe ; for the habit of false reasoning distorts and 
warps the soul, and tends to confound all distinction of right 
and wrong: let the love of truth be your ruling principle. Re- 
member that you are responsible as well for your opinions 
^d judgments as for your actions and conduct. 

** Majestic truth; and where Truth deigns to come. 
Her sister Liberty will not be far." 

Weigh well tbe validity of your arguments, or, it may be, 
the accuracy of your processes of investigation. Never form 
hasty conclusions ; always ask yourself, before you have come 
to a final decision. Is there no other view of the case which is 
as feasible as the one which I have taken? 



286 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

See that your axioms, or first troths, may be fairly ranked as 
such. You may explain first troths, but you cannot prove 
them. 

Be watchful relative to the authenticity of facts. In the 
formation of your opinions and in the regulation of your con- 
duct give a due weight to all the facts which ought to influence 
your decision. 

Take care that your assumption, or it may be your definition, 
does not include the truth of the proposidon which is to be 
proved. Remember, that the converse of an established pro- 
position ma/y not be true. 

Clearly distinguish between an illustration of a troth and a 
demonstration of it. Bear in mind that facts may either il- 
lustrate the truth of a principle or they may prove the troth 
of it. In reasoning from analogy, inquire whether there exist 
any points of difference between the analogous cases which 
may make the principle of reasoning inapplicable. 

ON THE CULTIVATION OP WIT AND INVENTION. 

Wit is only a peculiar form of reason: wit is reason exercised 
in search of grotesque resemblances between things apparently 
dissimilar. The decisions of judgment, which is another form 
of reason, are slow— those of wit are rapid ; but the heavy thunder- 
clouds of judgment not unfrequently burst forth in the light- 
ning flashes of wit. The passage from the settled gravity of 
philosophy to the electric gayety of wit is easy and not unnatu- 
ral. Great philosophers have generally been remarkable for 
their wit. The earliest shoots of intellectual growth are witty. 
It would be well if the teacher would try to enliven the dull 
routine of school duties by occasional sallies of wit and humor. 
His example would soon be followed by his pupils, for nothing 
glances from mind to mind more rapidly than the flashes of 
wit: such intellectual efforts are singularly procreative — one 
witty idea soon doubles and triples itself. Wit and humor, 
like gleams of sunshine, shed gladness and joy over a class of 



CULTIVATION OF WIT AND INVENTION, 237 

children. The great object of Divine benevolence, says the 
venerable Dwight, is the happiness of His creatures, and he 
who promotes the happiness of a little child for half an hour 
is a fellow-worker with Gk)d. 

Invention, considered with respect to reason, consists in find- 
ing out new relations, or in discovering new truths from these 
new relations, and in putting these relations in such an order 
or form as to show how new truths arise out of them. 

If schoolmasters would endeavor to foster the development 
of the inventive powers of their pupils, we might have fewer 
learned unproductive drones, but most certainly we should have 
more inventors.* We have known boys to make pulleys and 
other kinds of wheel machines, electrical machines, and other 
sorts of experimental apparatus. Boys soon acquire such a 
passion for construction and invention, that they would rather 
spend their market half -pence in the purchase of the materials 
for construction than in sweetmeats. 

In order to cultivate the inventive powers of children, the 
teacher, after having supplied them with facts, might occasion- 
ally throw out suggestions like the following : Could you make 
anything of paper to illustrate the construction of the smoke- 
jack, or the wind-mill, etc.? Can you make a cone, etc., out 
of card-paper ? In how many different ways could you divide 
the ground floor of a house into three equal apartments ? How 
would you join three pieces of wood together so as to make a 
model of the principal rafters of the roof of a house ? What 
would be an Improvement to the common snuffers, etc., etc.? 
How would you Join, without glue. In the simplest manner, two 
pieces of wood, so as to form a T square? And so on. 



* "The intellectoal action and exercise in which the learner's edu- 
cation essentially consists are performed by himself alone. It is what he 
does himself, not what is done for him, that educates him.*'— Jobbp^ 
Fatns. 



238 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



CHAPTER Vn. 

OULTITATION OF THB MOBAL FAOULTIBB. 

Man was originally created after the image of his Creator, in 
knowledge and holiness : this was absolutely necessary in order 
that the creature should become the worshipper of the Creator ; 
for we can only have a knowledge of God l]y the contemplation 
of His own image as it is reflected from our souls. The fall of 
man has neither eradicated any principle from his soul, nor im- 
planted any new one. This disastrous moral catastrophe has 
destroyed the balance of the various moral and intellectual facul- 
ties, by giving a preponderance to what we call the malevolent 
and animal propensities over the intellectual and moral ones. 
One great object of teaching should be to restore, under the 
blessing of God, the various faculties of our nature to their first 
condition of purity and harmonious action, by stimulating the 
intellectual and benevolent affections, by curbing the undue 
activity of the selfish and animal propensities, and by directing 
them to their original ends and objects. There is no principle 
in our nature which, under the blessing of €k)d, may not be 
directed to what is good. In like manner the fall of man has 
neither eradicated any law or principle in physical nature, nor 
given birth to any new or supplemental principle : it merely 
destroyed the balance of the various laws operating in nature, 
by giving an undue preponderance to the operation of certain 
destructive or rather corrective agencies. The storm and the 
whirlwind, which at present frequently spread havoc and deso- 
lation over the earth, and the noisome weeds, which frequently 
infest the soil, become evils only from their undue preponder- 
ance. But the providence of God, cooperating with the labor 
of man, which can make the wilderness to blossom as the rose, 
which can make the dark and howling regions of the earth be- 
come radiant with joy and gladness, can also illuminate and 



CULTIVATION OF THE MORAL FACULTIES. 239 

purge those dark and foul recesses in fhe human soul which 
have become the seat of gloomy and demoniacal passions. The 
same beneficial Influence, coK)perating with the better nature of 
humanity, which can convert whatever is apparently evil in the 
external World into its original usefulness, can also divert the 
current of our evil tendencies into a right channel. The pas- 
sions of suspicion, anger, hatred, and revenge, which arm the 
midnight assassin with the dagger or the poison cup, may be 
legitimately directed to the detection of error, to the denuncia- 
tion of vice, or to the punishment of crime. " Woe unto you," 
says He who has no guile, *' Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I 
for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear 
beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and 
of all uncleanness." The love of self, which, in the form of 
selfishness, is really the most fruitful source of the moral evils 
which at present exist in the world, may become the mainspring 
of religion. " Why will ye die 1 O house of Israel." Pride, or 
the consciousness of power, which often leads us to despise what 
is humble and to oppress what is weak, may shield us from the 
meanness of falsehood or raise us above tii3 contamination of 
folly. Rashness and temerity, which often result in misery to 
ourselves, and in discomfort to our friends, may assume the 
form of that high-toned moral courage which is one of the most 
essential elements of true greatness. Ambition, combined with 
inflexible purpose, which like a giant in its strength tramples 
upon whatever stands in its path, and ruthlessly sacrifices all 
that is great or holy at its shrine, may lead us to glory in what 
is good, and to esteem it a greater honor to be a door-keeper in 
the house of God than to be a dweller in the tents of sin. The 
love of approbation, which in its vitiated form manifests itself 
in a vain and heartless display of our own powers, may under 
proper guidance stimulate us to merit the approbation of the 
good and great, and above all to seek the approbation of Qod 
and our own conscience. The man whose soul has been ex- 
panded by philosophy, and sublimated by virtue and religion, 
possesses the same faculties as the being whose soul has been 



240 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

cramped and enervated by ignorance, and corrupted and de- 
based by crime. What a contrast between two things possess- 
ing the same elements 1 The one is like the sparkling and inde- 
structible diamond, radiant with all the hues of heaven's own 
light ; the other is like the charcoal — black, crumbling, shape- 
less, and worthless. The great business of education, there- 
fore, is not to eradicate any principle of our nature, but to direct 
all our faculties towards their proper objects,— to foster what 
is good and to check the development of what may tend to evil. 
All the moral faculties, without exception, should be trained 
from the earliest infancy ; for they manifest themselves at a 
much earlier period than the higher faculties of inteUect " Train 
a child," says the inspired writer, "in the way in which he 
should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it." The 
moral training of a child is, of course, best conducted by his 
parents, and especially by his mother. Home is the proper 
sphere of moral training ; the earthly parent possesses, in this 
respect, the delegated authority of the heavenly Parent ; and 
any system of school education which seeks to ignore this 
heaven-stamped authority must be bad, not only in its princi- 
ple, but also inexpedient and erroneous in its practice. But do 
parents undertake this sacred duty ? or are they always willing 
to perform it in an efScient manner ? If parents do not (and we 
fear that many of them in the present state of society fall far 
short in this respect), is the teacher qualified, or is he authorized, 
to undertake the sacred function ? The question is diflScult to 
answer when put in this comprehensive form. At least, how- 
ever, we may safely say that he may fairly endeavor, to the best of 
his abilities and opportunities, to educate the child placed under 
his care in those grand and essential truths of morality and re- 
ligion which are recognized by the great body of the people 
in this coimtry.* But the teacher should always endeavor to cn- 



* To live in conformity with social laws, and even moral principles, 
does not prove morality of the individual. The great object of educa- 
tion is to develop character— that is, the habit of making our actions con- 
form with what reason persuades us to be true and naturaL— E. S. 



MORAL TRAINING. 241 

list the co-operation of the parents in training the moral facul- 
ties of their children. There are few parents so far sunk in 
ignorance and crime as to remain callously indifferent to the 
remonstrances of a teacher relative to the future well-being of 
their own children. What parents would desire that their own 
moral degradation should be perpetuated in their children? 
The instinctive and disinterested love of the parent consecrates 
cveiy moral lesson which he may give to his offspring. No 
school-teacher can possibly place himself in the same attitude in 
relation to his pupil.* 

The moral and religious training of children would be 
greatly advanced if our clergy would frequently address pa- 
rents from the pulpit on the best methods of conducting home 
education ; and also if the teacher, along with the clergyman, 
would frequently visit the parents of his pupils, with the view 
of showing them how to proceed with the training of their 
children at home. 

/. AU moral trainiin^ sTiovM he hosed up<m rdigion, 

Avaunt that heartless secular system of training which would 
inculcate moral precepts apart from the sublime and soul-in- 



* " There is a love^of ofFsprlng: that knows no restricttve reasons; that 
extends to any length of personal suffering or toil; a feeling of absolute 
self-renimciation, whenever the inter^fts of children involve a compro- 
mise of the comfort or tastes of the parent. There Is a love of children in 
which self-love is drowned; a love which, when combined with intelli- 
gence and firmness, sees through and casts aside eveiy pretext of per- 
sonal gratification, and which steadily pursues the highest and most re- 
mote welfare of its object, with the determination at once of an animal 
instinct, and of a well-considered, rational purpose. There is a species 
of love not liable to be worn by time, or slackened, as, from year to year, 
children become less and less dependent upon parental care: it is a feel- 
ing which possesses the energy of the most vehement passions, along 
with the calmness and appliancy of the gentlest affections a feeling 
purged, as completely as any hiunan sentiment can be, of the grossness 
of earth; and which seems to have been conferred upon human nature 
as a sample of emotions proper to a higher sphere."—" Natural Histoiy 
of Enthusiasm." 

16 



243 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

spiring doctrines of revelation 1 Begone with your tape-lines 
and scissors— we do not want morality doled out to us by the 
measure I Begone, thou sneering spirit of scepticism, "with all 
your fine-spun moral theories of expediency, brought forward 
to supplant the sublime doctrine of salvation by faith ; you 
cannot disguise your cloven foot I Begone from the land of 
honest old England — Christian England ; destroy not the 
quiet happiness which reigns in her hearths and homes 1 Back 
to sceptical France, if you please ; if not there, then back to 
your native hell, and leave €k)d-f earing teachers to do Qod's 
work! 

Away with those false metaphysics which would persuade 
us that the idea of Qod is too subtle for the mind of a child. 
Its heartless propounders, no doubt, gauge the capabilities of 
the virgin soul of the child by their own narrow, sin-scorched 
natures. A more expansive and practical philosophy tells us 
that there is no conception which more easily assimilates itself 
to the infant soul than the idea of the Creator. The idea of 
God is directly manifested to us through His Spirit. The 
Spirit of God, where is it ? where is it not ? It pervades all 
matter and aU space ; but it specially manifests itself in the 
sanctified human soul, in the form of the third person of the 
glorious Trinity ; and we are told by Christ that the kingdom 
of heaven will be especially composed of little children. 

U, The teacher should, above aU things, cuUmUe the sentimenU 
ofveneraiion (md faith. 

Children instinctively venerate what is great and holy ; and 
that teacher is guilty of the grossest impiety who does not foster 
and develop, on all fitting occasions, the devotional affections 
of his pupiK There is scarcely any subject of instruction 
without having its religious bearing. Besides the direct and 
I)ositive religious instruction usually given in our schools, the 
good teacher will avail himself of every incidental opportunity 
for inculcating moral and religious duties. The wisdom and 
goodness of God, as manifested in the works of His hands. 



VENERATION AND FAITH, 343 

afford one of the best means for cultivating the devotional sen- 
timents of children ; the adaptation of the structare of animals 
to their instinct and to their habits of life ; the relations of the 
great physical laws to each other and to the essential purposes 
of vegetable and animal life ; the intimate connection between 
the laws of the physical and moral world— all th^ and many 
other evidences of divine wisdom and goodness are highly cal- 
culated to foster and develop the devotional sentiments of 
children. 

The love and fear of €k)d should be made the mainspring of 
all their actions. Children should be taught to do good be- 
cause it pleases their Father which is in heaven, and to avoid 
what is evil because it offends Him. There is no sure anchor 
for the human soul but that infantine faith in the love and 
goodness of God, which exhibits itself in the following forms : 
faith in Gkxl's providence ; faith in His promises, as revealed in 
His holy word ; faith in His Son Jesus Christ for salvation ; faith 
in the moral government of God, and. that under this govern- 
ment society is advancing towards the millennium period when 
humanity will have achieved for itself that intellectual and 
moral emancipation from the thraldom of ignorance and from 
the slavery of sin which prophets have foretold and of which 
inspired poets have sung. 

Teachers, instruct your children how to pray. Wonderful 
arrangements of divine mercy I the tones of that feeble child's 
voice ascend from earth to heaven, and, rising far beyond the 
visible universe, they reverberate through the mansions of the 
blessed and reach the ear of Divinity ; and God, well pleased 
with that little child, deigns to answer the prayer \ — that prayer 
descends to the lowest depths of hell, and makes the danmed to 
gnash their teeth. Teachers, a poor, guilty child of earth tells 
you to teach yoiir children to pray ; but the admonition should 
not come witli less force on account of the unworthiness of the 
being that gives it, inasmuch as you may regard it, should you 
think proper, as the tribute which an unauthorized layman 
pays to religion. 



244 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

m. Teachers should eonttanHy eultiwUe the henewlerU affeo-^ 
tioM of chUdren, 

The exercise of the benevolent affections affords us one of the 
purest and highest sources of pleasure. Children should be 
shown that it is their interest as well as their duty to love one 
another ; to be kind, forbearing, and forgiving in their tem- 
pers ; and to be ever seeking to promote the comfort and hap- 
piness of their companions in preference to their own gratifica- 
tion. Tell them that when we pray to €k)d (in our Lord's 
Prayer) to forgive us our trespasses, that same prayer bases the 
petition on the assumed fact that we forgive them that trespass 
against us. But goodness of heart should not only proceed 
from virtuous impulse— it should also be sanctified by proper 
motives : children should be taught to love one another, be- 
cause love is the fulfilling of the law — ^because €k)d is love — 
because He has manifested His love in their creation, in their 
preservation, and in their redemption. 

T%e schoolTOom should he a happy place. That school is little 
better than a pandemonium where the boys are allowed to quar- 
rel and fight with one another. Malice, cruelty, and all vin- 
dictiveness of character are a perpetual source of misery to 
their possessor, as well as to all with whom he comes in con- 
tact: on the contrary, gentleness, forbearance, and mercy 
diffuse Joy and gladness throughout the whole schooL 

** The quality of mercy Is not strained; 
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath: it is twice blessed; 
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes I 
*Ti8 mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes 
The thronfid monarch better than his crown; 
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 
The attribute to awe and majesty, 
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings. 
But mercy is above this sceptred sway. 
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings, 
It is an attribute to Qod Himself; 
And earthly power doth then show llkest Gk)d*8 
When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, 



THE BENEVOLENT AFFECTIONS, 245 

Though justice be thy plea, consider this— 
That in the course of justice none of us 
Should see salvation 1 We do pray for mercy; 
And that same prayer doth teach us all to render 
The deeds of men^." 

Qood-naiured children are always cheerful and happy, and 
they become a source of happiness to all their companions ; but 
iU-natured spiteful children become the plague-spots of a school 
— ^they make everybody about them miserable. A happy, cheer- 
ful disposition is not only salutary as regards its moral influ- 
ence, but it is also one of the most indispensable conditions of 
intellectual progress. 

lY. The benevolent affections, as weU as aU the other moral 
faciUties, should be cultivated so as to become habits of action. 

We have already explained the importance of establishing 
right habits of thought as well as virtuous habits of action ; we 
have here only further to reiterate, that in order to establi^k 
habits of virtue and religion the teacher should constantly en- 
force the performance of all important duties at their proper 
time and in their fltting place ; for it should always be borne 
in mind that the neglecting to perform any duty at the time 
assigned for it tends to weaken the habit which we wish to es- 
tablish. 

y . The teacher must educate the moral faculties of his pupils 
by his example as weU as by his precepts. 

Example bears the same relation to moral science that experi- 
ment does to physical science : you cannot thoroughly teach 
abstract principles without giving them a tangible form — " a 
local habitation and a name." A teacher's life and conversa- 
tion should, in all respects, become the living form and em- 
bodiment of his precepts. 

But the discrepancy between our precepts and practice has 
assumed the form of a common adage, " Do as I say, and not 
as I do." The teacher, of all men in society, should be the 



248 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

most watchful. He necessarily impresses the leading features 
of his own moral character upon his pupils. What an awful 
responsibility this involves 1 What a moral power he wields 
for good or for evil 1 Each grain of truth or falsehood which 
he sows in the field of his labor will multiply itself indefinitely 
throughout eternity. 

No motion or dynamical action can be lost in the physical 
world ; so in like manner in moral dynamics the results of our 
actions will flow on through indefinite ages. What finite mind 
can investigate that moral formula which shall express the re- 
mote bearings of a single example of vicious conduct I Every 
moral precept given by a teacher to his class, and every act 
performed by him before his class, will live long after he is 
dead, and will perpetuate itself a thousand-fold in distant ages. 

How awful is the responsibility of the teacher ! Every wrong 
word uttered by him and every improper act done by him will, 
as regards its remote consequences, be recorded again and 
again in the doom-book of Gk)d, there to stand as damning 
blots against him till the great day of reckoning ! 

The thistledown from a single thistle, if left unchecked, will 
soon spread the weed over a whole district. A single plague- 
spot is sufficient to give rise to the contagion which may de- 
populate a city. In like manner one S3rmptom of moral corrup- 
tion in the personal character of a teacher may be the cause of 
a moral contagion which may spread far and wide, and influ- 
ence the destinies of future ages. 

The teacher should beware of acquiring any habits calculated 
to provoke censorious remarks. Children are keenly alive to 
any defects or imperfections in their teacher. It is almost im- 
possible for any teacher to appear what he really is not before 
his pupils : his weaknesses are sure to become a matter of ridi- 
cule, and his faults a subject of censure. And it would be well 
if the evil stopped here ; but it does not, for children insensibly, 
and even in spite of their better feelings, imitate the manners 
and conduct of their superiors in knowledge and station. To 
laugh at folly does not shield us from its attack, and to animad- 



INFLUENCE OF EXAMPLE, 247 

vert upon what is vicious is no guarantee that we are raised 
ahove its contamination.* 

Qui moral duties may be classed under three heads, viz. : (1) 
our duly to ourselves ; (2) our duty to our neighbor ; and (8) 
our duty to our Qod. To treat this subject adequately, or to 
give all the rules and maxims by which our moral faculties may 
be cultivated in relation to these duties, would more properly 
belong to a treatise on ethics, rather than to a work on school 
education. There are, however, three cardinal school virtues 



* We hove sometlnifls heard ooiiTeraatioDS like the followiiig going on 
amongst schoolboys: 

** I say, Tom, what a fine white choker teacher has gotr* 

" Do you think that he washed his tauce this morning?** 

" To be sure he did, but he has stuffed his nose into his snuff-boz.** 

** Don't you think, Jim, that you could give the lesson as well as mas- 
ter if you had that book of his?**. 

** How slow master speaks I** 

" Hold your tongue, man; don*t you see that he is thinking what he 
say next?** 

" I do beUeve that master was a-drinking last night, for he*s half asleep 
while he*s a-talldng.** 

" How yery polite I Why don't you return the nod of a gentleman?** 

** Do you think he could do that sum without the k^, which he always 
peeps into when he is puzzled?** 

** Don*t you think that master would give a better lesson without that 
bit of paper which he*s always a-looking at?** 

** I wonder where he copied his notes from.** 

** Do you see that there little book that is lying on his desk? Well, he 
took them from that, for I saw him while we were saying our tables.** 

" I don*t care about being late for school— teacher is often late him- 
self.** 

" What a raging passion master sometimes puts himself in ! I wonder 
if he would like to be struck with a stick as he sometimes strikes me.** 

** How awfully long teacher makes the prayers ! Do you think that he 
could pray without the bookf ** 

" I don*t understand the prayers; they seem to be written for men and 
women, and not for little boys like us.** 

" Teacher never called once upon me for all the time I was ill.** 

" Do you know where teacher goes to of a night ? He goes to the crick- 
eters* suppers; I saw him once myself coming out of the * White Hart * 
kite of anight.** 



348 PBILOSOPBY OF EDUCATION. 

which demand the special attention of every schoolmaster. 
These cardioal school virtues are (1) Truthfulness ; (2) Hon- 
esty ; and (3) Humility. 

ON THB OTTLTIVATION OF TBT7THFULNBS8. 

Truthfulness is said by Professor Moseley to be the great 
central pillar ol the schoolroom. All cases of falsehood and 
deceit should be promptly denounced, and even the slightest 
evidence of prevarication, cunning, or hypocrisy should be un- 
masked and exposed to reprobation. The concealment of truth 
is in many cases as great a crime as a direct falsehood. BoyB 
too readily fall into a habit of adhering to the truth as regards 
the letter, but violate it as regards the spirit and intention. In 
such cases the teacher should carefully explain to his pupils the 
true character of a lie : that they tell a lie whenever they say 
anything or do anything with the intention of deceiving others.* 



* Mr. A. entered his school one day and found what appeared to him to 
be a piece of cotton rag pinned to the coat-tail of one of the boys, but 
which was in reality a piece of flanneL " Who pinned that bit of rag to 
this boy^s coat-tail?" said he to his class. But no boy had moral courage 
enough to answer him. He looked round his class, and observed title eyl- 
denoes of guilt in the countenance of little Tommy Teaser, who was al- 
ways the ringleader in all sorts of spiteful pranks. " Now, Tonuny," said 
Mr. A., " tell me the truth: did you pin that cotton rag to this boy*s coat- 
tail?'* " Please, sir," answered Tonuny, " I did not pin any cotton rag to 
his coat-tail." Mr. A. was not satisfied— he felt confident that the boy 
had told a falsehood; but being always very careful in mAiring any direct 
charge of falsehood without a full evidence of the fact, he patiently and 
cautiously made further inquiries. ** Please, sir," at length said a little 
boy, **it is a bit of flannel; not a bit of cotton rag." " Oh, that is it," 
said Mr. A. ; " and Tonuny Teaser tried to deceive me by apparently ad- 
hering to the letter of the fact, while he lied in spirit and intention. Now, 
my boys, he has not only practised a piece of deception upon me, but he has 
also Ued to himself by attempting to silence his own conscience. Do al- 
ways remember, my children, that you tell a lie when you say or do any- 
thing with the Intention to deceive others. I propose, as a punishment 
for this great crime, that Tommy Teaser shall not be allowed to enter the 
play-ground for the next two days. Do you not consider that this pun> 
ishment is only fit and proper ?" ** Tes, sir," was the response of the 






THE CULTIVATION OF TRUTHFULNESS. 249 

We should endeavor to keep, as far as ix)ssible, all tempta- 
tions to lying and deceit out of a child's way. The fear of 
punishment, the love of gain, and the love of approbation, are 
the great causes of lying in the schoolroom. Whenever tempta- 
tions to lying are unavoidably incurred, the teacher should be 
more than usually careful and watchful. When a boy, for ex- 
ample, is suspected of having committed a fault, it may not be 
wise to ask him the direct question, '* Did you do this?" for 
in such case a great majority of timid boys would most certainly 
tell a falsehood in order to shield themselves from punishment: 
lying is most frequently a cowardly act. Again, in the con- 
ducting of school-examinations great care and delicacy should 
be observed to prevent the boys from practising any deceit : 
here the love of approbation is the chief temptation to the prac- 
tice of falsehood or deceit, bs the case may be. The teacher 
should frequently illustrate the evil consequences of lying by 
stories and anecdotes : the fable of the '* Shepherd Boy and the 
Wolf " is an excellent example. 

The teacher should in all things be an example to his pupils 
in honesty and truthfulness. He should especially guard against 
disingenuous concealment of his own Ignorance, or that ridicu- 
lous pretension to universal knowledge which too often leads 
him to mystify what he cannot explain. The best apology for 
ignorance is the acknowledgment of it, and the highest practi- 
cal lesson of truthfulness is the candid confession of error. 
Nothing can be more beautiful than that reciprocal confidence 
and trust which subsist between the honest teacher and his 
truth-loving pupils. But if one link in the chain of confidence 
be broken, the whole is destroyed. '* When once a child de- 
tects you in equivocation," observes Miss Edgeworth, ** you lose 
his confidence ; his incredulity will then be as extravagant as 
his former belief was gratuitous. It is in vain to expect, by 
the most eloquent manifestoes, or by the most secret leagues 
offensive and defensive, to conceal your real views, sentiments, 
and actions from children. Their interest keeps their attention 
continually awake ; not a word, not a look, in which they are 



250 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

concerned, escapes them ; they see, hear, and combine, with 
sagacious rapidity : if falsehood be in the wind, detection hunts 
her to discovery. Honesty is the best policy, must be the 
maxim in education as well as in all the other affairs of life." 

It is almost impossible to conquer the hateful habit of lying 
and prevarication, after they have been confirmed by long 
practice. So remarkable is the habit amongst a large body of 
the laboring population in this countiy, that they reaUy feel a 
pleasure in deceiving people, and regard a well-told falsehood 
as the very highest evidence of superior intellect.* 

Oppression and terror necessarily produce meanness and de- 
ceit in all climates and in aU ages ; and wherever fear is the 
governing motive in education we must expect to find in chil- 
dren a propensity to dissimulation, if not confirmed habits of 
falsehood. Look at the true-bom Briton under the government 



«The following graphic description of the character of the Irish 
laborer may be regarded as the type of cunning and deceit which exists 
amongst the mieducated classes of all countries: 

" All who are governed by any species of fear are disposed to equivo- 
cation. Amongst the lower class of Irish laborers, and under-tenants^ a 
class of people who are much oppressed, you can scarcely meet with 
any man who will give you a direct answer to the most indifferent ques- 
tion; their whole ingenuity— and they have a great deal of ingenuity— is 
upon the qui vive with you the instant you begin to speak: they either 
pretend not to hear, that they may gain time to think whUst you repeat 
your question, or they reply to you with a fresh question to draw out 
your remote meaning; for they, judging by their own habits, always 
think you have a remote meaning, and they never can believe that your 
words have no intention to ensnare; simplicity puzzles them much more 
than wit. For instance, if you were to ask the most direct and harmless 
question, as, "Did it rain yesterday?" the first answer would probably 
be, " Is it yesterday you mean?" ** Tes, yesterday.'* " No, please your 
honor, I was not at the bog at all yesterday— wasn't I after setting 
my potatoes?'* "Hy good friend, I don't know what you mean 
about the bog : I only asked you whether it rained yesterdi^." ** Please 
your honor, I couldn't get a car and horse anyway, to draw home 
my little straw, or I'd have the house thatched long ago. " " Cannot you 
give me a plain answer to this plain question— Did it rain yesterday?" 
** Oh sure, I wouldn't go tell your honor a lie about the matter. Sorrah 
much it rained yesterday after twelve o'clock, barring a few showers." 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF HONESTY, 351 

of a tyrannical pedago^e, and listen to the language of inborn 
truth ; in the whining tone, in the pitiful evasions, in the stub- 
born falsehoods which you hear from the schoolboy, can you 
discover any of that innate dignity of soul which is the boasted 
national characteristic? Look again — look at the same boy, in 
the company of those who inspire no terror ; in the company 
of his school-fellows, of his friends, of his parents: would 
you know him to be the same being ? His countenance is 
open, his attitude erect, his voice firm, his language free and 
fluent, his thoughts are upon his lips ; he speaks truth without 
effort, without fear. Where individuals are oppressed, or 
where they believe that they are oppressed, they combine 
against their oppressors, and oppose cunning and falsehood to 
power and force ; they think themselves released from the com- 
pact of truth with their masters, and bind themselves in a strict 
league with each other ; thus schoolboys hold no faith with 
their schoolmasters, though they would think it shameful to be 
dishonorable amongst one another." 

ON THE CULTIVATION OF HONBSTY. 

Picking and stealing is peculiarly the besetting sin of the 
children of the poor. When a boy has once acquired this odious 
habit, it is almost impossible to cure him of it. The slightest 
evidences of dishonesty should be promptly checked. The 
teacher should frequently show by examples how petty acts of 
pilfering lead to the gallows. He should promptly and care- 
fully check all the incipient forms of dishonesty, such as the 
improper use of the proi)erty of others, the disposition to de- 
fraud others of their just claim, and so on. While the teacher 
should never allow his boys to think that he suspects them 
capable of dishonesty, at the same time he should not throw 
temptations unnecessarily in their way. The adage, '* Suspect 
a man, and you make him a rogue ; trust him, and you make 
him honest," should be acted upon with caution. The tempta- 
tions to dishonesty in the schoolroom chiefly originate in an 
undue love of property, in the love of luxuries, in the want of 



253 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

the necessaries of existence, and in maleyolenoe of disposition. 
In trying to keep children honest, the teachei' should look well 
to the motives which may be operating to lead them into the 
commission of crime, and they should be dealt with accordingly. 

HUMTLITT AND OBEDIENOB. 

The virtues of himiility and docility form the brightest and 
most lovely ornaments in the infant character. They not only 
tend to promote the order and discipline of a school, but they 
at the same time induce that happy condition of mind which is 
most favorable for the acquisition of knowledge. On the con- 
trary, superciliousness and conceit are not only the most prolific 
sources of disorder and disorganization in a school, but they at 
the same time not unfrequently entail upon their possessors the 
irremediable doom of stationary ignorance. Conceit is the 
most enfeebling of all our passions, and little hope can be en- 
tertained of that boy's future career in life who indulges him- 
self with the fallacious idea that he has arrived at the Tie phis 
ultra of knowledge. 

I. In order to foster a spirit of humility/, the teacher should 
show his pupils some of the mighty results which men of 
science have achieved ; he should show what inscrutable mys- 
teries there are still in nature, which have hitherto baffled the 
comprehension of the greatest intellects ; he should show them 
that the greatest philosophers have always been the most re- 
markable for humility of character — Newton, for example, 
who compared himself to a little child picking up pebbles up- 
on the sea-shore ; he should tell them of the humility of Jesus, 
who left His seat on the throne of the universe to take upon 
Himself our nature, and closed a life of sorrow by a death of 
agony, that He might restore a guilty world to the favor of its 
offended Gk>d. 

H, ff ihe habit of obedience be properly cultivated, ihe chUd 
wiU prompUy and cheerfully perform all the exerdees amd dun- 
charge all duties assigned to htm by his teacher. A due atten- 



HUMILITY AND OBEDIENCE. 253 

tion to home exercises, a punctual attendance at school, and a 
prompt attention to all the class arrangements should be con- 
stantly and strictly enforced by the teacher. Children should 
never be allowed to follow their own whims in preference to 
the commands of their master, nor should they be permitted to 
depart from the general rules of the school under any specious 
pretence, without the direct sanction of their master. The 
spoiled child is always seeking to escape from control ; and the 
teacher should be very careful how he allows himself to be 
swayed by the caprices of the little tyrant. The little world of 
the schoolroom may be regarded as a type of the great world, 
where there must be a supreme ruler, and a proper subordina- 
tion of one authority to another, and where the duty of all is 
obedience to the claims of the ruler. Taking this aspect of 
the matter, a properly organized school, therefore, may tend to 
foster that spirit of obedience and contentment, which is so in 
timately connected with national peace, order, and prosperity. 
If children have not been vitiated by bad examples or by im- 
proper training, they will have an instinctive faith in the judg- 
ment and good intentions of their teacher ; and, as a necessary 
consequence, they will eagerly receive his instructions and im- 
plicitly obey his commands. But if the teacher once deceives 
them, by practising upon their credulity, or if he once treats 
them with harshness or injustice, then his power over them is 
lost forever. Thus the disobedience of children is often the 
result of the improper management of the teacher. No good 
teacher will require his pupils to perform any important duty 
without showing them the reasonableness of that duty ; at the 
same time it must be observed, that the highest evidence of 
docility of character is manifested where the pupils promptly 
and implicitly obey the commands of their master. 



254 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS OF mSTBUCTION IN BELATION 
TO THE CULTIVATION OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND MOBAL 
FACULTIES. 

Rblioion constitutes the great fundamental basis upon 
which all the intellectual and moral faculties should be culti- 
vated. 

Wbttino and Drawino cultivate the perceptive and imita- 
tive faculties ; and if properly taught tend especially to culti- 
vate the taste and foster a love of the beautiful. 

Mental Abithmbtic cultivates the memory and the powers 
of conception and reasoning. It also especially fosters the 
habit of promptitude, presence of mind, and mental activity. 

Abithmbtic cultivates the reasoning powers, and induces 
habits of exactness and order. 

Gbammab cultivates the faculties of abstraction and reason. 

Geogbapht specially cultivates the memory and the concep- 
tive faculties. 

Mathematics and Natubal Philosophy cultivate Uie 
reasoning powers chiefly in relation to Uie acquisition of nec- 
essary truths ; they also cultivate habits of abstraction. 

The Phtsical Sciences exercise the observing and percep- 
tive faculties, cultivate all the reasoning powers in the highest 
degree, and lead us to appreciate the force of moral evidence. 
If properly taught, they also foster the sentiment of devotion. 

PoETBY AND WoBKS OF FicTiON Specially cultivate the im- 
agination, the taste, and the moral feelings. 

BiooBAFHT, HisTOBY, AND Nabbatives Specially awaken 
the faculty of attention, and cultivate the memory. They 
also exercise the moral affections, and lead to the formation of 
habits of reflection and self- inquiry. 

Music cultivates the taste, and refines and elevates the moral 
feelings. 

Intellectual and Mobal Philosophy cultivate aU the 
higher faculties of our nature, and induce habiis of abstraction 
and self-examination. 



SYSTEMS OF INSTRUCTION, 265 



pabt m. 

ON THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES OF 
DIFFERENT METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF 
INSTRUCTION. 

The systems of instruction at present in use are— the indi- 
vidual system ; the collective system ; the monitorial, or pupil- 
teacher system ; and the system of home instruction. 

These systems may be carried out on any of the plans or 
methods of giving instruction which we have described. The 
most important of these methods are as follows : The synthetic 
and analytic methods, which may be either demonstrative or 
dogmatic; the interrogative, or catechetical method; the 
simultaneous method, which may be employed in the ordinary 
form of questioning, or in connection with the elliptical 
method ; the lecturing method. 

SYSTEMS OF INSTRUCTION 

I. Thb Individual and Collbctivb Ststemb. 

The individual system may be used with advantage in small 
schools, especially if it be occasionally associated with collec- 
tive teaching, and in constant co-operation with the system of 
home instruction. By the individual system of teaching, the 
master is more fully able to adapt his instruction to the pecu- 
liar capabilities of his pupils ; at the same time it is not so 
much calculated to engage their sympathies or to arouse the 
principle of emulation as collective teaching. Individual 



256 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

teaching may be conducted after any of the leading methods 
or forms of communicating knowledge ; that is to say, it may 
be either synthetic or analytic, demonstrative or dogmatic, 
lecturing or catechetical, etc. If the upper classes of a school 
are well supplied with good text-books, individual instruction 
becomes very effective when it is associated with ae^f'tnginiC' 
turn. In this case the master has merely to give an occasional 
glance at the work of each pupil, and to give him time after 
time such hints as may be required to stimulate him in pro- 
ceeding with his work. Individual instruction, as it is prac- 
tised in most of our Scottish schools, is merely supplemental 
to the system of home education. Here the parents are the 
real instructors, and the master merely directs, controls, or 
tests the progress of his pupils, who are to get up their lessons, 
tasks, etc., imder the parental authority. 

But whatever may be the advantages of individual instruc- 
tion, it is utterly impracticable, as a general system in the 
common-schools of this country. An easy process of arith- 
metic will show that a master of a school containing one hun- 
dred and twenty children could not give more than five min- 
utes individual attention to each boy in the course of a day I So 
that, after all, we have not to consider the abstract question 
whether the individual or the collective system is the best ; but 
which of the two systems, under existing circumstancies, is best 
calculated to give the greatest amount of instrijction 

TO THE GREATEST NUMBER IN A LIMITED TIME. A modem 

teacher shows his tact and skill by multiplying and subdivid- 
ing his power, and by acting on numbers at once. The great 
point to be considered in the management of a large school is, 
not how you may rapidly advance a few scholars, but how you 
should classify, arrange, and instruct a large number of boys, 
differing in age, knowledge, and capacity, so as to give the 
greatest amount of instruction to them, as a whole. A master 
who is skilful in the management of numb&rs, and who has 
practised the collective system, may teach a hundred boys at 
one time on certain subjects, adapted for gallery lessons, as 



SYSTEMS OF INSTRUCTION. 267 

effldently as lie could teach one boy ; and with a proper ar- 
rangement of classes, and a large black board, he Could give 
more efficient instruction to a class of twenty or thirty boys, on 
almost any subject of education, than he could give in the same 
time to a single pupU. A good teacher always seeks to employ 
his energies to the greatest advantage : he rarely if ever wastes 
his strength upon one or two boys ; what he does for the benefit 
of one boy, he does it in such a way as to conduce to the benefit 
of his whole class. While he teaches his own class, he at the 
same time directs the movements of half a dozen contiguous 
classes, placed under the management of his monitors or pupil- 
teachers. The motive-power of the master is everywhere per- 
forming available work : amid the wear and tear of his various 
avocations, he economizes the expenditure of his labor by con 
stantly keeping in view the principle of acting with the greatest 
efficiency on the greatest possible number. Like the machine, 
which drives a hundred spindles, weaves cloth, blows furnaces, 
etc., he never departs from the great end of his labor or for one 
moment relaxes his directing and all-controlling power. But 
all this requires great skill, energy, decision, and conscientious 
perseverance. The modem schoolmaster holds no sinecure's 
place. 

The collective system of teaching should never be employed 
in schools where the pupils are not properly classified. The 
pupils to whom a collective lesson is given should be nearly 
about the same stage of mental culture. 

n. Home Education. 

We have already shown that the master of a family is God*a 
vicegerent, in relation to the education of all the members of 
his household ; and that every good teacher will act in co- 
operation with a proper system of home instruction.* The 



* " The circle of knowledge through which every man in his own place 
becomes blessed, begins immediately around him, from his own being 
and from his closest relations."— P&STiLLOzzi. 
17 



258 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

school subjects most eligible for home study are— religious 
knowledge, writing, drawing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, 
and reading lessons. Those subjects are best adapted for home 
exercises which admit of being exactly defined, and of being 
readily tested : boys work the most industriously when they 
can see the results of their labor. Hence it is that drawing 
and arithmetic are the best of all subjects for home study. 
Drawing-cards should be given to the pupils to be copied at 
home ; and exercises on arithmetic, grammar, geography, etc., 
should be given them out of text-books, which they should be 
allowed to take home with them. The master should always 
have a certain time set apart for reviewing and correcting these 
home exercises : with a proper system of management, a few 
minutes every morning would suffice : and occasional hints 
should be time after time given to the parents relative to their 
duties in carrying out the system of home instruction. Such a 
course would not be without its influence on the character of 
the parents themselves. 

We suggest the following as a routine of homo lessons for 
the upper classes in an elementary school : 

Monday Evening Drawing and Practical Geometry. 

Tuesday " Definitions of Grammar, Grammatical 

Exercises, and Map-Drawing. 

Wednesday " ... .Arithmetic or Algebra, and Tables. 

Thursday " ... .Texts of Scripture and Writing. 

Friday " Arithmetic, Drawing, and Reading Les- 

sons. 

ni. The Pupil-tbachbb System. 

We regard the pupil-teacher system as one of the greatest im- 
provements which have taken place in modem education. 
No school, whatever may be its character, should be without 
pupil-teachers. The advantages of the system are twofold ; 
(1) It constitutes the best nursery for schoolmasters. (2) It 
forms the great element of the order and organization of a large 



'^. 



SYSTEMS OF INSTRUCTION. 259 

school, and gives power and efficiency to the whole system of 
instruction.* 

The pupil-teacher should be adequately paid, and the master 
should always set apart a certain time for their special instruc- 
tion, not only in the ordinary subjects of technical learning, 
but also on the subject of method as applied to education. 
The master should register the progress which they make in the 
different subjects of instruction, and he should especially note 
down the manner in which they teach their classes, in order 
that he maybe able to correct their faults, and to stimulate and 
improve their teaching powers. The master should always 
base his opinion of the teaching power of pupil-teachers upon 
the results of their teaching, and not upon any preconceived 
theory. The master should keep a register for recording these 
results. This registration of the results of different methods of 
teaching will not only advance his own knowledge of method, 
but will also form the proper basis of his criticisms upon the 
lessons given by his pupil-teachers. 

The pupil- teachers should prepare all their lessons, and the 
master should inspect their notes, before the lessons are given 
to the children, 

rV. The Mixed System. 

Our best schools are conducted on a mixed system of instruc- 
tion, comprehending all the leading features of the particular 
systems just described. The peculiar combination of the sys- 
tems must always be determined by the nature of the school, 
and the peculiar circumstances connected with it. In very 
large primary schools, where the pupils can never reach a high 
standard of technical attainment, the system of instruction 
must necessarily consist, almost exclusively, of a combination 



* A system which supplied no better means for preparing trained 
teachers could not continue at the present day. The Normal schools, 
with their theoretical and practical departments, undertake to perform 
this^ work in a far more philosophical and efficient manner.— E. S. 



260 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

of the collective and pupil-teacher sTstems ; but iu a small 
school, or where the school is provid^ with a good staff of 
pupil-teachers or assistant masters, the individual and home 
systems of instruction should have a greater degree of promi- 
nence given to them. The individual and home systems should, 
if possible, be frequently employed in the instruction of the ad- 
vanced classes. 

METHODS OF INSTRUCTION. 

I. Synthetic and Analytic Mbthodb. 

As a general rule, the synthetic method is best adapted for 
elementary instruction. In order to employ this method with 
efficiency, the teacher should first analyze the subject which he 
is about to teach, that is to say, he should separate it, or sub- 
divide it into its elements or parts, and then he should put these 
elements or parts together, in such a manner as to conduct the 
minds of his pupils, step by step, to the general principles 
which he wishes to inculcate or establish. After the teacher 
has given a synthetic development of a subject, he may fre- 
quently show with advantage how the same subject may be 
treated analytically. Demonstrative geometry affords us some 
of the best illustrations of these two methods of teaching. 

The analytic method of teaching is best used in connection 
with text-books and reading-books. After the pupils have read 
a certain portion of a book, the teacher may proceed to analyze 
the subject-matter by the usual method of interrogation. At 
the same time we cannot help observing that a really good mas- 
ter will never allow himself to be fettered with text-books, 
however good they may be in themselves. A crutch is only 
useful to 2ie lame and halting ; so, in like manner, a text-book 
is only useful to him who is too feeble to depend upon his own 
resources. 

These methods may be frequently used with advantage in 
combination with each other. The most general rules of edu- 
cation have their exceptions and therefore no teacher should 
blindly adhere to any general rule. 



METHODS OF INSTRUCTION, 261 

HBampleg of the Synthetic wnd AncUj/tie Methods of Teach- 
ing. — ^Let us suppose, for example, that the teacher wishes to 
explain to his pupils the law of descending bodies ; then he 
would proceea in the following manner : (1) By the synthetic 
method. If a stone be let fall from the top of a hi^h tower, 
you will find that it will move more and more rapidly as it 
falls. During the first second of its descent it will fall through 
the space of sixteen feet. At the end of the second second of 
its descent it will have fallen through four times sixteen feet*: 
here the time is two seconds, and the number of feet is found 
by squaring the 2, and multiplying by 16 ; that is, the space in 
feet IS eciual to 2^ X 16. At the end of the third second of its* 
descent it will have fallen through nine times sixteen feet : here 
the time is three seconds, and the number of feet is found by 
squaring the 8 and multiplying by 16, that is. the space in feet 
is equal to S' X 16. And so on to any number of seconds. 
You sec, then, that the number of feet passed over by a falling 
body in any given number of seconds is found by squaring the 
number of seconds and multiplying that result by 16 ; thus, 
the number of feet passed over by a falling body in three se- 
conds is equal to nine times sixteen feet, or one hundred and 
fourteen feet. (2) By the analytic method. The space passed 
over by a falling body increases with the square of the time ; 
that is to say, the space in feet is equal to the square of the 
number of seconds of the body's fall, multiplied by 16. Thus, 
in two seconds, the number of feet through which the body 
will fall is equal to 2 squared multiplied by 16, or 64 feet ; and 
so on to any other number of seconds. 

Gknerall^ speaking, the analytic form is more concise than 
the synthetic. 

n. Intebbogattve OB Catbghetigal Method. 

The interrogative or catechetical method of teaching may be 
used for two distinct purposes : (1) For the purpose of exam- 
ination, or for simply testing the progress of the pupils. (2) 
For the purpose of conveying instruction : when interrogation 
is employed in this form, we have called it the method of sug- 
gestive interrogation. This method may be used either for in- 
dividual teaching or for collective teaching : the observations 
which we have to give on this method are especially applied to 
the latter. 



263 PHILOSOPHY OF EDVCATtON. 

The rules to be observed in using the method of interrogation 
in these two forms are in some respects very different. But 
the following rules are common to both forms : 

Principles and Rules common to the two Forms of Inter- 
rogation. — 1. The answers may be simultaneous or individual, 
according to circumstances. 

The teacher should always tell his pupils when he requires 
them to answer simultaneously, or when individually. When 
individual answers are required, all the pupils who are pre- 
pared to answer the question should hold up Uieir hands, and 
then the master should name the boy whom he wishes to give 
the answer : if the boy's answer be incorrect, then the master 
must call upon another boy ; and so on. 

2. The language used by the teacher should be as simple and 

concise as possible. Every question put by the teacher should 

admit of a definite answer. 

The questions should be adapted to the capabilities of the 
pupils, l)oth as to the matter and language, if a question is 
not at once understood by the pupils, then the master must 
change the form of langua^, or he must subdivide the ques- 
tion, until he is understood. Long answers should never be 
expected from young children ; on the other hand, the more 
advanced boys should be accustomed to express their ideas in 
good language. The teacher should not be satisfied with in- 
definite or incomplete answers. 

8. Never put questions which simply require a Yes or No 
for the answer.* 

4. The questions should be given in such an order as to form 
a systematic and progressive development of the subject. Ram- 
bling questions should never be put until the whole subject has 
been gone over. 

5. Random answering should always be checked; at the 
same time a due amount of quickness in answering should be 
cultivated. 



* This, of course, cannot always be avoided ; but at least the scholar 
should then give the entire answer : ** Tes, I met Mr. X. on the street." 

_ZlUiEB. 

But the rule is a most valuable one.~E. S. 



SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATION. 268 

6. Children should be accustomed to answer questions in 
their own language. 

7. The subject-matter of a question should be sometimes 

varied in form, so as to require a different form of language in 

the answer. 

As the same facts may be viewed in different aspects and re- 
lations, the teacher should vary the form of his questions so as 
to embrace these different aspects or relations ; and he should 
always put those questions first which take in the most striking 
or important of these facts or relations. 

8. The pupils should be sometimes called upon to question 
each other. 

9. The teacher should express his approbation when a good 
answer has been given to a question of more than ordinary dif- 
ficulty. 

10. The eye of the teacher should be constantly upon all the 
pupils in his class, and whenever he detects the slightest sym- 
toms of inattention on the part of any of them he should at 
once put a question to the individual on the matter that had 
just been explained. 

11. Questions should be put at the three following stages of 
instruction : (1) at ^ commencement of the lesson, in order to 
determine the knowledge of the class on the subject upon which 
the lesson is to be given, to excite the curiosity of the pupils, 
and to enable the teacher to adapt his instruction to their know- 
ledge and capabilities ; (2) during the lesson, in order to secure 
the attention of the pupils, and to make them more thoroughly 
acquainted with the subject of the lesson ; (3) after the lesson, in 
order to give a general view of the whole subject, and to make 
the pupils fully master of it. 

Special Rules for Examination Questions. — 1. The ques- 
tions should be restricted to the subject of examination. The 
questions should form a strict analysis of the subject-matter. 

2. The question should not contain any hint or clew to the 
answer. 

8. Simultaneous answers should never be taken as decided 
tests of progress. 



264 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

» 4. Not the slightest assistance should be given to the pupil in 
framing his answer. 

5. In order to give the pupils a requisite amount of confidence, 
the questions should be short and easy at first, and then, as the 
examination advances, they should be gradually increased in 
difficulty. Herein lies the secret tact of a first-rate examiner. 

Special Principles and Rules relative to Suggestive 

Interrogation. — 1. The questions and observations of the 

master, and the answers given by the pupils, should together 

form a sort of conversational lecture. 

In order to sustain the continuity of the lecture, the grada- 
tions or steps should be easy and natural. The teacher uiould 
endeavor to make the pupils take an equal share of the lec- 
ture. Every question, taken in connection with the explana- 
tory remarks which may accompany it, should lead to or sug- 
gest the answer. The teacher should tell his pupils so much 
of a thing, and leave them to find out the remainder. The 
question and its answer should be logicall}^ connected with each 
other : (1) the question may contain the premises ; the answer, 
the conclusion ; (2) the question may contain the facts ; the an- 
swer, the generalization or deduction ; (3) the question may con- 
tain the ideas ; the answer, those ideas differently arranged or 
expressed in another form of language. 

2. The teacher should frequently preface his questions with 
an exposition of facts and principles ; but the questions them- 
selves should always be so fmmed as to reproduce the facts and 
principles in the pupil's own language. 

3. The method of suggestive interrogation being essentially 
synthetic, the system of questions should proceed according to 
a systematic and progressive order of development : that is to 
say, facts should precede general principles, expositions should 
go before abstract rules ; the concrete should lead to the knowl- 
edge of the abstract, the simple to the complex, the familiar 
to the unknown ; and so on. 

4. The teacher should never pass over a question until it has 
been fully answered. If one boy does not answer it, then it 
should be put to another boy, and so on ; and if the pupils fail 
in giving a satisfactory answer, then the teacher should go over 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS, 265 

all the previous steps again, adding some fresh explanations, so 

as to lead them to the proper answer. 

The teacher should never directlv tell them the answer : he 
should rather show them how to nnd it out. If the answer 
given by the pupils is incomplete or in anv way defective, and 
yet as good as the teacher might reasonably expect from them, 
then he should supply them with the complete answer, taking 
care not to ^ter the language of the pupils, excepting where it 
is absolutely necessary. 

5. The questions requiring simultaneous answers should be 
few and exceedingly simple. 

6. The teacher should put the most difficult questions to the 
more advanced boys in the class ; and thus make them become 
the instructors of those who have made less progress. 

Examples of Qood and Bad Examination Questions^ — 
Suppose the pupils of the class to have read the last seven verses 
of the twenty-sixth chapter of St. Matthew's Gk)spel ; the master 
proceeds to give the following examination question : 

1. Where was Peter when the first damsel spoke to him ? 

2. What did she say to him ? 

8. What was his answer to her ? 

4. Did he deny Jesus before all the people ? 

6. Where was Peter when the second damsel spoke to him ? 

6. Did he deny Jesus again ? 

7. How did he deny Jesus the second time ? 

8. Who next charged Peter ? 

9. What reason did they give him for believing that he was 
one of the followers of Christ ? 

10. How did Peter answer them ? 

11. What took place immediately after Peter had denied his 
Lord for the third tune ? 

12. Of what did the crowing of the cock remind Peter ? 
18. Why did Peter deny our Lord ? 

14. What sin did Peter commit, and what aggravated this 
sin? 

16. What did Peter do when he remembered the words of 
Jesus? 



206 PHtLOSOPRY OF EDUCATION. 

16. What caused him to weep bitterly ? 

17. Good people are veiy sorrowful when they find that they 
have been led into sin. What made Peter so sorrowful ? 

Bemao'ks on the Qtiestiona, — ^Nos. 4 and 6 are bad questions, 
for they simply require yes or no for the answer. No. 10 is 
not a good question, for it is not exact enough, and the proper 
answer to it is too long. Nos. 18 and 16 would require some 
explanations to be given by the teacher. No. 16 should be 
given in two distinct questions. No. 17 is rather too sugges- 
tive for an examination question. 

No. 4 should be put in the following form : Before whom 
did Peter this time deny Jesus ? And No. 6 would be better 
put as follows : What did Peter say to the maid ? No. 18 
might be preceded by a question something like the following : 
What would they have done to Peter if they had known that 
he was a follower of Jesus ? And No. 16 might be preceded 
by the question, What reminded Peter of the falsehood he 
had told ? How should people feel when they find that they 
have committed a great sin ? or. What do people do when they 
feel very sorrowful ? What made Peter so veiy sorrowful ? 

Questions on any given portion of the Scriptures may be put 
in a great variety of forms, more or less eligible : thus the text 
upon which Question 15 is given may be broken into the fol- 
lowing forms of questions : When did Peter go out ? What 
did he do after he went out ? What were the words of Jesus 
which Peter remembered ? How many times did Peter deny 
his Lord before the cock crew ? And so on. 

Examples of Suggestive Interrogations. On Peter^s Denial 
of our Lord, — Supposing the same portion of Scripture to have 
been read, then the following suggestive questions may be given : 

1. While Peter sat without in the palace of the high-priest, a 
damsel came unto him. (1) Who came unto Peter? (2) Where 
was Peter when the damsel came to him ? And so on. 

2. This damsel had no good intentions towards Peter. She 
wanted him to be condemned and put to death with Jesus. 
What did she say to Peter ? 

8. Peter had not the boldness to tell the truth. He was 



SXaMpL^S of 8V00BSTitS tifTERROGATION. 26'}' 

afraid to die for his Lord. What answer did he give to the 
damsel ? 

4. Wishing, perhaps, to escape further notice, he went out 
into the pordb ; but here he met with another tormentor, for an- 
other maid saw him, and said to the people that thronged the 
porch of the temple, ** T\i\R fellow was also with Jesus of Naza- 
reth." (1) To whom did she say this ? (2) Where was Peter 
when this second charge was made ? (8) What low name did 
she call Peter ? 

5. Peter got more alarmed. He lost all command of himself, 
and added sin unto sin : he not only again denied his Lord, but 
denied Him with an oalh, and spoke SighUnglyoi Him. (1) In 
what manner did Peter this time deny Jesus ? (2) What words 
did he use in referring to Jesus ? (3) What sin did Peter here 
commit, besides falsehood ? 

And so on throughout the remaining verses. , 

On the DivmcU Motion of the Earth. — Suppose the pupils to 
have read some simple book on this subject, then the teacher 
might question them in the following manner : 

Teacher. If I hold an orange before a candle at n{ght (this 
should actually be done), how much of the surface of the 
orange will be enlightened ? 

Teacher. How much of the surface will be in the shade ? 

TeacTier. Now, if I turn the orange round, the parts in the 
shade will be brought within the light. After I have turned 
the orange completely round, how much of its surface will have 
been brought within the light of the candle ? 

T. How much of the ecuth's surface does the sun enlighten 
at one time ? 

T. By what means is every part of the earth's surface brought 
within the light and heat of the sun ? 

P, The earth is made to turn round upon its axis in the course 
of every day. 

T. (Turning a globe round.) Now where is the axis in this 
revolting globe ? Is there a real axis, or only an imaginary 
one? 

P, The axis is only imaginary, and it is the line about which 
the globe appears to turn. 

T. What have you now to say respecting the axis of the 
earth? 

P. That it is the line about which the earth appears to turn. 

T. What are the poles upon the earth ? 

P. The two points where this imaginary axis meets the earth's 
surface. 



268 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

T. On what point is my finger now placed ? 

P. On the North pole. 

71 (Tracing the equator with his pointer.) What is this line 
called, and how is it placed with respect to the poles ? 

P. It is called the equator, and lies at the same distance from 
either of the poles. 

T, How does the equator divide the globe ? 

P, Into two equal parts. One is called the northern hemis- 
phere and the other the southern hemisphere. 

T. Upon what hemisphere is my hand now placed ? 

P. The northern henusphere. 

T, Is there any other way in which the changes of day and 
nijri^t might be produced ? 

P. Tes ; the sun might turn round the earth in the course of 
a day. 

r. If a poor woman wanted to roast a Joint of mutton before 
the fire, what would she do in order to have every part equally 
roasted ? 

P, She would tie a piece of string to the mutton, and make 
it ^in round before the fire. 

T, Is there any other way in which this might be done? Now 
think. 

P. The fire might be made to turn round the meat. 

T. But which of these methods is the better ? 

P. The first method, certainly; because it must be far less 
trouble to make the meat turn round before the fire, than to make 
a machine for turning the fire round the meat. 

T, What should you say if a man proposed to do this ? 

P. That, alQiough he might show some ingenuity, yet he 
would be a very foolish person. 

T. Now it is equally ridiculous to suppose that the sun turns 
round the earth. It is too monstrous for us to conceive it pos- 
sible that Almighty God, who is the fountain of all wisaom 
and goodness, could effect any of His purposes by the agency 
of means which it would appear unsuitable, even on the part of 
His creatures, to employ. 

m. Thb SiMULTAinBons Mbthod. 

In this method all the pupils in the class are allowed to speak 
at once.* Here, in order to secure a uniformity in the responses. 



* Class drill is particularly valuable in impressine^ on the mind the re- 
sults of the instructions— the rules, principles, etc., which have been 
found, and which must be remembered.— E. S. 



THE SIMULTANEOUS METHOD. 269 

the questions put to the class should be very short and simple. 
One great object to be served by this form of teaching is to giye 
vitality and a tone of sympathy to the class. It also economizes 
the time of the master, by enabling him to direct his energies 
to large numbers at once. Its great defect is, that it creates noise 
and confusion in the school, and thereby interferes with the in- 
struction that may be going on in the other classes. It is best 
practised, as a means of instruction, in connection with the 
elliptical method of teaching, and when gallery lesions are given 
to four or more classes combined. 

The teacher must guard against the following evils connected 
with the practice of this method : 

1. Some eager vain boys will answer before the others. 

2. Some boys will defer their answer until they catch the an- 
swer of the leading boys in the class. 

8. Some boys will remain silent. 

4. There will sometimes be a confusion in the answers, espe- 
cially when the answers are too long. 

By a little tact on the part of the teacher, all these evils may 
be guarded against. 

This method may be advantageously used in the examination 
of large classes, when it is requisite that the examiner should 
economize his time. We shall afterwards have occasion to notice 
this form of its application. 

The plan of answering questions simultaneouslv is also an 
excellent way of fixing simple and important facts in the mem- 
ory. The name of a great man, for example, is recited aloud 
by all the boys in the class ; they then spell the name aloud ; 
and lastly, the master writes it upon the black-board. Thus 
all their senses are brought to bear on the thing to be remem- 
bered: how can they ever forget it ? There are few subjects 
which may not be taught, with tolerable efficiency, in the 
largest schools, by a well-organized method of simultaneous an- 
swering. 

The best course for a teacher to follow is to vary his methods 
of instruction. After teaching for a sufficient length of time by 
the method of suggestive interrogation, he should indulge his 



270 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

pupils with a few simultaneous answers ; and then he may doee 

his lesson with catechizing two or three boys singly before the 

whole class, so that all the boys, if they are disposed to listen, 

may derive some benefit from the Uidividual instruction. 

Example of Simultaneous Teaching after the Catechetical 

Method. — Peter's denial of our Lord. 

Teacher, Who came to Peter as he sat without in the palace ? 
Pupils, A damsel. T, With whom did she say Peter was ? 
P. With Jesus. T, Jesus is said to be of a certain place — what 
place did the damsel name? P. Galilee. T, Where is Galilee ? 
P, In Palestine. T, Point your fingers to it on the map. And 
soon. 

The Elliptical Form of Teaching.— The adyantages of the 

elliptical form of teaching are as follow : 

1. The ellipsis does not break upon the continuity of the lesson 
or narrative. 

2. It is generally more concise than the usual forms of ques- 
tion and answer. 

8. It gives a variety of form to the lesson, and to a certain 
extent relieves that censorious-like character of catechetical 
lessons. 

4. It engages the sympathies of the children, and more com- 
pletely gives to the lesson the character of a common lecture, in 
which the pupils take a part. 

The following principles and rules should be observed in 
practising this method of instruction : 

1. The word or words to be supplied by the pupils should be 
short and easy. At the same time, the word to be supplied 
should awaken some intelligence on the part of the pupils. 

2. Ellipses should be associated with direct questions. 

8. The word or words to be supplied should not be doubtful 
or ambiguous. 

In comparing 6 and 9, if a teacher should not say " 9 is greater 
than —," the word to be supplied might be any number less 
than nine; and besides, the boys would most likely say six, 
without ever thinking about the matter. In this case it would 
be better to ask the question, '' Whether is 6 or 9 the greater V* 



ELLIPTICAL FORM OF TEACHING. 371 

4. The ellipses should be single words or simple phrases. 

5. Arithmetic, and other subjects of this kind, should be 
rarely taught by the elliptical method. 

6. As a general rule, an ellipsis should be equivalent to a 
good question. (See the rules given in relation to the sugges- 
tive method of interrogation.)* 

(1) ** The color of common ink is ." Here this is equi- 
valent to the question, ** What is the color of common ink ? 

(2) "Ink is ." Here the word to be supplied by the 

pupils is doubtful, for it might be red, or liquid, or any other 
property of the ink. 

(3) '' When the flame of a candle is applied to hj^drogengas, 

it will ." Here this is equivalent to the question, "What 

will take place when the flame of a candle is applied to hydro- 
gen gas?" "It will bum." Now, in the place of hum some 
boys might say ignite ; but this variation in the form of the 
response would be rather an advantage than otherwise, pro- 
vided the teacher embraces the opportunity of explaining to 
his pupils how different words may be properly employed to 
express the same idea or thing. 

Examples of the Elliptical Method of Teaching. — Subject 
of the lesson. Peter's denial of our Lord. Matthew, cliap. 

xxvi. verse 69. " Now Peter sat without in the : and a 

damsel came unto , saying. Thou also wast with of 

Gktlilee. But Peter, being afraid to tell the truth, before 

them , saying, I know not what thou . And when he 

was gone into the , another saw him, and said 

unto the people collected in the porch, this was also with 

of Nazareth. And Peter, still more afraid, again 

with an , I do not know the , that is, he wickedly pre- 
tended not to know ." And so on. 



* The eUiptical form of teaching is what Ziller characterized as the 
worst possible form. The answer is involved in the question suggested 
by the question. Thinking becomes almost unnecessary. At the end 
of half a dozen or more questions a result may be reached, but the child 
has no distinct notion of how it ever came to such a result.— E. S. 
[The words intended to be supplied by the pupils are omitted.] 



272 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 



rv. Thb CoiffSTBUonvB Mbthod. 

This is perhaps the best form of the synthetic method of 
teaching : its fundamental idea is that of progressive develop- 
ment ; it, in fact, embodies the essential features of all our 
most approved modes of primaiy instruction. The first ele- 
ments of Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Mechanism, Geogra- 
phy, and Grammar may be efficiently taught by this method. 

Y. lLLnBTRA.TIVE METHOD.* 

By this method we convey instruction to the minds of chil- 
dren by means of pictorial representations, diagrams, models, 
and experimental illustrations, addressed to the senses, or by 
pictures addressed to the imagination. 

Pictures may be either descriptive or historical, that is, they 
may depict objects, animals, persons, etc., or they may repre- 
sent scenes and events. A child reads a picture as we do a 
book. Good pictures of animals not only give the shape, 
color, and relative size of the animals, but they also represent 
the peculiar habits of the animals. A good picture of a tiger, 
for example, shows a child at a glance what are its structure 
and habits, how it lives, on what it lives, and in what region 
of the earth it lives. The child reads the history of great 
events in a good picture ; the ^rand features of the events, ^e 
scenes amid which they transpired, the characters of the differ- 
ent actors, and so on, all readily fix themselves in the child's 
mind. Picture lessons constitute one of our most important 
means of primary education. On the subject of pictures, as 
addressed to the imagination, see pages 157 and 203. 

In teaching (such subjects as geography and mechanism), 
models, and other materkl aids of instruction, are most inval- 
uable. 

Experimental illustrations give the matter-of-fact form of 
abstract laws and principles. 



* By " iUustrattve method" Tate means nothing else but the employ- 
ment of all such aids as maps, charts, pictures, objects from museums, 
which are at present employed to convey clear conceptions.— Drawing 
on the black-board belongs in the same cat^ory.— E. S, 



THE LECTURING AND THE MIXED METHODS. 278 



YI. The Lbctxtbiko Method. 

Strictly speaking, a continuous style of lecturing is not 
teaching. But when lecturing is accompanied with or fol- 
lowed by a close course of questioning, it becomes an efficient 
form of instruction, as applied to adults or to an educated class 
of boys. Simple conversational lectures on the science of com- 
mon and useful things, illustrated by easy and familiar experi- 
ments, have contributed very much to raise the standard of 
intelligence in our elementary schools. The experimental ap- 
paratus employed in these lectures should be of the most sim- 
ple kind, and for the most part constructed out of the com- 
mon articles of household use. Expensive instruments should 
never be placed in the hands of ordinary teachers, for the skill 
requisite for using an instrument is, generally speaking, in pro- 
portion to the delicacy of its construction. It is not desirable, 
nor would it be expedient if even it were desirable, that 
teachers should become finished manipulators : the great facts 
and laws of physical science may always be demonstrated to 
children by the aid of apparatus which is within the reach of 
almost every respectable householder. 

Vn. Mixed Method. 

In order to sustain the interest of children, the teacher should 
vary his methods of instruction. The very best methods, when 
imiformly followed for any length of time, become dull and 
monotonous, and, as a necessary consequence, the pupils cease 
to feel any interest in the lesson. Variety in method, as well 
as variety in the subject-matter, should form an essential fea- 
ture in all school instruction. When the pupils get tired with 
questions, the master must try ellipses ; and when they get 
tired with ellipses, he must have recourse to pictorial represen- 
tations or experimental illustrations, accompanied with a sort 
of tSte-d-tite lecture ; after having changed the methods in this 
manner, he may return to his first method, for it will then 
18 



274 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

Lave regained its original freshness. The intelligent teacher 
should modify, arrange, and combine his methods so as to 
form a harmonious whole suited to the peculiar circumstances 
of his school.* 

Vm. On the Repbodxtgtiok op Lbbsokb m Writino. 

The advanced boys in a school should be frequently re- 
quired to reproduce the lessons given to them by the master. 
This plan gives efficiency to all the methods of instruction or- 
dinarily used in our schools ; it forms an almost necessary ad- 
junct to the method of lecturing. 

We have already fully explained the advantages to be de- 
rived from this exercise (see page 129) : it is, therefore, only 
necessary in this place that we should make a few remarks re- 
specting the duties of the master in relation to these written 
exercises, and point out certain artifices whereby the amount 
of his labor may be lessened, without materially Infringing up- 
on the efficiency of the plan. 

After the time allottea to the reproduction of the lesson has 
expired the master should first ascertain the number of boys 
that have completed the exercise. He should then call upon 
about half a dozen of these boys, taken at random, to give 
their exercises. He then assumes that these exercises may be 
taken as average specimens of the work of the class,, and that 
the en'ors found in them will give him a tolerably goo<l idea of 
the errors contained in all the others. He rapidly corrects the 
errors, and notes down the imperfections in these specimens. 
He then writes the corrected passage on the black-bcMu-d, and 
explains to the whole class the nature of the errors and blun- 
ders which have been committed. 

We shall now consider more fully some of those artifices 
which tend to economize the time and labor of the master. 



* '* The evidenclzig of truth to children lays a heavy and continuous 
tax upon the teacher ^s inventive faculties; for the same lesson, involving 
precisely similar principle, however oft repeated, needs the dress of new 
language, must come with new illustration evoked by the various indica- 
tions of the taught; and as nothing so tends to clarify and intensify one^s 
views as looking at them through varied and harmonizing media, so 
nothing will lead to such just and clear apprehension as placing the same 
truth rei>eatedly before the young, in language and with fliustration as if 
spontaneously called forth at the moment "^^nQator^s Instruments, 



PLAyS FOR ECONOMIZING TIME. 2^6 



IX. On gbbtain Plans ob Abtificbs fob EcoNOiaziNa 

THE TlHB OF THB MASTEB IN THE EXAMINATION OF 

Classes, ob it may be in extending and thoboughlt 
gbounding the knowledge which the pupils may haye 

ACQUIBED. 

These plans or artifices should, of course, be altered or modi- 
fied to suit the peculiar tastes and capabilities of the master. 
The following^ examples are given as illustrations of the main 
features which ought to characterize all such plans or artifices. 
These main features are : 

(1) The master should act upon the whole of the pupils of his 
class at once, rather than on indmdiuUs. 

(2) He should get all his pupils to act perfectly in concert, or 
exactly together. 

1. An Examination Lesson on Spelling, 

After requesting in a cheerful tone of voice all the boys in the 
class to prepare their slates and pencils for writing down the 
words which he is about to ^ive them, he recites the words slow- 
ly and distinctly. As he dictates word after word, the pupils 
write them on Uieir slates in the same order. When the words 
have been all written, he calls upon the whole class to spell the 
words simultaneously, exactly as they are written on their 
slates, leaving a moment's pause between every two consecutive 
words, to allow those who are wrong an opportunity of placing 
a mark at each misspelled word. The teacher then requests the 
boys to count the number of their errors, and to report the same 
to him. He next gives a rapid glance at the slates, to see that 
all is right, looking with more care at the slates of those boys 
in whose honesty he has not the fullest trust. The master will 
now be able to register the average attainments of the class. 
But, if instruction be specially his object, he will write upon 
the black-board all those words which have been misspelled, giv- 
iuff at the same time such remarks as he may deem necessary 
relative to the rules of spelling or the quality of the writing. 

2. An Examination Lesson on Arithmetic. 

The teacher or examiner recites, in a distinct tone of voice, 
the arithmetical problem which he requires the class to solve, 



278 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

After a sufficient time has been allowed them for working out 
the question, he calls upon those boys who have finidied it to 
hold up their hands, or, it may be, to stand. He then savs, 
" Let all those boys hold up their hand who have got the fol- 
lowing answer." He then reads out the answer, and at once 
sees the number of boys who have done the question correctly. 
He then desires the boys who have not worked the question 
correctl V to mark the erroneous figures in their answers. A 
rapid glance at a few slates will generally be sufficient to act as 
a check upon any unfair dealing on the part of the boys. In 
some cases it mav be advisable to inspect the slates of those 
boys who had not nnished the qua<?tion. But the teadier should 
be careful how he gives an^ countenance to idleness, or how he 
wastes his energies on individuals. If instruction be a special 
object, the problem should be done upon the black-boaid, ac- 
companied with an exposition of principles, etc. The teacher 
should frequently call upon the more advanced boys to give 
tills exposition. 

Bespectwe Advantages of ths three great Methods of Examination, 
There are three great methods of examination, viz., the sim- 
uftaneous, the individual, and the method of written answers. 

1 . The simultaneous method of examination awakens a general 
interest and takes up little time ; but we cannot easily arrive 
a correct estimate of the attainments of the class by the ex- 
clusive use of this meChod. 

2. Ths individual method of examination is more rigid and 
more to be relied on than the simultaneous method ; but it 
takes up more time, and leaves the great body of the class com- 
paratively unemployed while each individual is being exam- 
ined. 

3. The method of written answers is the most exact and search- 
ing of all the methods, while at the same time it keei)s all the 
pupils engaged ; but it is long and tedious as regards both the 
writing of the papers and the inspection of them. 

A judicious examiner will not fail to avail himself o' all the 
advantages arising out of the use of the three methods. 



PREPARATION OF LESSONS, 277 

X. On the Preparation op Lessons. 

No teacher should give a lesson until he has made himself 
thoroughly master of the subject. He should also fix in his 
own mind how he should treat it, both as to arrangement and 
method. He should, generally, draw out a sketch of the lesson 
in the form of notes, but he ediould never refer to these notes 
while he is giving the lesson ; he ought rather to have these 
notes fi&ed in his mind before he begins the lesson. His notes 
should be concise and methodical ; they should form leading 
points in the lesson, with which he should associate the leading 
train of ideas which are to constitute the real knowledge to be 
given to the pupils. He should not confine himself to any set 
form of language ; and his questions, as a general rule, should 
be framed at the time of asking them. No teacher should be- 
come a slave to books or notes while he is giving a lesson ; 
books and notes should be the passive tools of the master— not 
he the subservient slave of them. 

The master should carefully revise the notes of his pupil- 
teachers ; and he should never allow the pupil-teachers to give 
a lesson without they are fully prepared to give it with effi- 
ciency. He should always place before them a high standard of 
teaching power. Every pupil teacher should be provided with 
a book for entering down his notes of lessons. 

The form of the notes of lessons must necessarily vary with 
the nature of the subject and the age of the boys to whom the 
lesson is to be given. But there are, no doubt, certain general 
principles of arrangement which are common to all subjects. 
The following are the notes of a lesson on ink, supposed to be 
given to the upper class : 

I^otes of a Lesson, 

Sub ject— Common Ink. 

Properties.— liquid^ black, and slightly adhesive. 

Uae.—TJged for writing on white paper. The use depends upon the prop- 
erties—why liquid -why black— why slightly adhesive. What do we 
write upon the black-board with ? Why we cannot write upon white 
paper with white chalk, etc. 



278 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

How JfoKle.^Ezpeiimeiit. To a solutioii of sulphate of iron (green oop- 
peraa) add a solution of nutgalls: a black precipitate is formed. The 
addition of some gum h^ps to keep this black substance from falling 
to the bottom^ and also to make the ink adhere to the paper. 

How to take ink- stains ou^.— Experiment. To the black liquid formed 
in the last experiment add a few drops of oxalic acid. The color is 
at once destroyed. 

Words to be explained^ and their meanings iUtutrated. — ^Adhesive— 
mention some thiogs that are adhesive. Sulphate of iron— what it 
Is like— what it is composed of— where it Is found— and what It is 
used for. Nutgalls— what are their properties— where they are got. 
Precipitate— its meaning. Oxalic acid— what it is, etc. Found in 
plants, etc. 

When a teacher is about to give a lesson on any proposed 
subject his first inquiry should be, "Am I sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the subject?" His next inquiry should be, ** How 
should I treat the subject?" If he is not sufficiently acquainted 
with the subject he diould at once study it and seek informa- 
tion upon it. If he does not know how to treat the subject, he 
should at once seek information from those who are properly 
qualified to give it. 

When the subject of the lesson requires experiments or prac- 
tical illustrations, he should not spare a little trouble or expense 
to render himself fully qualified for the performance of his 
work. Experimental illustrations should be repeated again and 
again, imtQ he finds that he can perform them with peiiect 
certainty and succesa 

XI. On THE PEBIODIGAIi EXAMINATION OF CLASSES AND 

TdE Reoistbation OF Pboobess. 

The whole school should be examined at stated intervals, 
with the view of registering the progress of the pupils, and also 
for the purpose of remodelling the classes. These intervals 
will of course vary according to the circumstances and peculiar 
relations of the school, but the interval should in no case ex- 
ceed a quarter of a year. Whatever may be the period fixed 
for these general examinations, it should be strictly adhered to, 
and the examinations and registrations should be thoroughly 
carried out. When any boy is found qualified to enter a higher 



QUALIFICATIONS OF THE SCHOOLMASTER. 279 

class, or, on the other hand, when any boy has not kept pace 
with the progress of his class, no feelings of delicacy i^ould 
prevent the master from making the necessary transfer. We 
shall afterwards have occasion to treat of the different forms of 
school registers. 

Xn. On thb Qualifigatiokb of the Bchoolmasteb in 

BBLATION TO HIB PbOFBSBIONAL DuTIES. 

The qualifications of the schoolmaster may be viewed in the 
three following aspects : With respect to his attainments, 4o his 
capabilities ; and to his character. 

The Teacher's Attainments, considered in relation to his 
Office.— The following attainments may be considered essential 
to his success as a teacher, whatever may be the nature or 
peculiar character of his school. 

1. He should be thoroughly acquainted with the following 
subjects : The leading doctrines and narratives of Scripture ; 
mental and common arithmetic ; reading, writing, and spelling ; 
English history ; and the principles of teaching. 

2. He should have a fair knowledge of the following subjects: 
Drawing, mensuration, and practical geometry; geography 
and astronomy ; elementary granmiar, composition, and general 
history ; elementary algebra, to the end of quadratic equations, 
together with a little demonstrative geometry ; industrial me- 
chanics, and some simple course of experimental phiioBopby. 

It is highly desirable that his mind should be well stored with 
general knowledge, that he should have a ready command of 
language, and that he should be able to express his ideas with 
fluency, clearness, and precision upon any subject within the 
range of his knowled&re. Profouna attainments in any techni- 
cal subject of knowledge are scarcely of any value to him as an 
elementary teacher. His knowledge should be varied rather 
than profound. An acquaintance with Latin or Greek, or the 
higher branches of mathematics and natural philosophy, would 
rather interfere with his usefulness as an elementary teacher. 
At the same time it is necessary to bear in mind that a school- 
master should know a good deal more than he has to teach. 
Whatever he has to teach, he should know thoroughly — at least 
as far as he may have to teach it. Thus, to teach little boys draw- 



280 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

ing, it is not necessary that he should beoome an artist ; to teach 
English, that he should know French ; to teach simple equa- 
tions, that he should know surds ; or to teach some of the most 
important principles of geometry, that he should Imowthe fifth 
book of Euclid. 

All that technical knowledge which leads the mind of the 
teacher away from the subjects of elementary education tends 
most undoubtedly to compromise his usefulness as an element- 
ary teaclier. It is true people talk much about the disdpllne 
which such subjects ^ive to his mind — ^as if the knowledge 
which is essentia] to his duties as a teacher did not sum- 
ciently exercise, discipline, and task his intellectual energies. 
Would it not be better to raise our standard of his knowledge 
in physical science, and in the principles and art of education, 
than to exact from him such an amount of knowledge in those 
technical subjects of learning which haye no direct bearing 
upon the duties of his profession ? But we suppose that inspec- 
tors of schools and masters of training institutions will always 
regard their own course of collegiate education aa the proper 
type of the system which should be pursued in the training of 
schoolmasters. 

The Teacher's Oapabilities and Character considered in 
relation to hia Office. —A teacher should be a pious, conscien- 
tious man ; his talents should be at least respectable ; and he 
should haye a decided predilection and aptitude for teaching. 

Aptitude for Te€tcMng.— The most essential of all qualifica- 
tions for teaching is that peculiar faculty which we call, for the 
want of a better name, aptitude for teaching. Aptitude for 
teaching I what is it ? There is no mistaking it when we see it. 
Eyerybody recognizes it when it is presented to his notice. Is 
it a quality of the head or the heart, or does it belong to both ? 
Is it a natural or an acquired gift ? Is it an instinct, or a habit 
acquired by efforts, repeated from the earliest dawn of reason ? 
Does it grow spontaneously by imperceptible gradations of de- 
yelopment, or is it a faculty dependent upon the growth of cer- 
tain intellectual and moral powers ? 

We witness certain teaching effects, and too readily rest satis- 
fled with attributing them to what we call aptitude for teaching, 
as if it were some original and mysterious faculty, without at 
all seeking to discoyer the chain of circumstances and the 



QUALIFICATIONS OF THE SCHOOLMASTER. 281 

qualities of mind and character which have contributed to form 
this aptitude. But we cannot allow the subject to remain in 
this unphilosophical condition of mysticism. The aptitude for 
teaching must undoubtedly be a qualification resulting from the 
development of certain intellectual and moral faculties of our 
nature. Let us endeavor to analyze this remarkable qualifica- 
tion ; that is to say, let us endeavor to discover those qualities, 
intellectual and moral, with which it is invariably associated, 
or rather with which it is connected by the constant relation 
of cause and effect.* 

It will be instructive not only to ascertain what such a man 
MUST be, but also what he mat not be. 

I. What a man hating cm ojptUvde for teaching mat not be, 
(i) He may not be a man of great technical attainments. (2) 
He may not be a man of comprehensive mind, or possessing 
great reasoning powers. (3) He may not be a man of robust 
frame. 

2 WTuxt a man ha/cing a great aptitude for teaching must be, 
(1) He must have a love for children and a knowledge of their 
tastes, habits, and capabilities. (2) He must be a man of a 
kind and benevolent cUsposition. (8) He must love knowledge, 
and feel a pleasure in communicating it. (4) He must be a 
man of fervid imagination, and of great enthusiasm, decision, 
and force of character. (5) He must be a man of respectable 
general attainments. (6) He must have considerable fluency 
of speech, and powers of illustration and exposition. (7) He 
must have faith in the efficacy of instruction as a means of 
ameliorating the condition of society. (8) He must be a man of 
quick and observing habits, and must be in the constant habit 



* " We can have little hesitation in asserting that the pretensions to be 
able to teach without even knowing what teaching means, without mas- 
tering its processes and methods as an art, without gaining some ac- 
quaintahce with its doctrines as a scienoe, without studying what has 
been said and done by its most eminent practitioners, is an unwarrant- 
able pretension which is so near akin to empiricism and quackexy that 
it is difficult to make the distinction."— Josxph Patne. 



282 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

of reflecting and lessoning upon the yarious methods by 
which knowledge may he communicated to children. 

Now as all those qualities, essential to great aptitude for 
teaching, admit of cultivation, it necessarily follows that the 
aptitude for teaching also admits of cultivation in the same 
degree. This aptitude for teaching, therefore, is no more in- 
stinctive or innate than any of the intellectual or moral faculties 
of our nature can be said to be. 

Xm. On School Rbgibtebs fob RscoBDiNa thb Rbsultb 

OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OB METHODS OF InSTBUCTION, AND 
ALSO FOB TESTING THE CAPABILITIES OF TeACHEBS IN BB- 
LATION TO THESE METHODS. 

These registers should be regularly and faithfully filled up by 
the bead schoolmaster, who is supposed to be acquainted with 
all the circumstances and facts necessary for doing so, and who 
is supposed to test the results of the various lessons given by 
the pupil-teacher or by the assistant teacher, as the case may be. 
The teacher who gives the lesson is supposed to adhere strictly 
to some de^ite method or combination of methods throughout 
the lesson — whether it be given accordingto the interrogative 
method or any other particular method, or according to a com- 
bination of two or more methods. 

No doubt all intelligent teachers have, more or less, formed 
certain general views, based on their experience, respecting the 
relative merits of different methods of education. But these 
views are too frequency based upon a. few incidental facts, and 
are very rarely the result of a cautious, candid, and systematic 
induction of facts which have been carefully observed and faith- 
fully recorded, and which are so comprehensive and determi- 
nate as to embrace all the circumstances which may in any way 
affect the question. 

The relative merit of any two methods will in general be 
tested by the progress of the same class of pupils when taught 
by the aifferent methods under the same circumstances. But as 
the efficiency of a particular method may depend not only upon 
the age, character, and attainments of the pupils, but also upon 
the peculiar adaptation of the method itself to the mind and 
capabilities of the teacher, it is necessary that these conditions 
should be fully recorded in the register. If sufficient data of 
this kind were collected we should then be able to arrive at the 
following generalizations with considerable certainty : 



SCHOOL REGISTERS, 288 

1. Under a certain range of capabilities of the teacher, and 
under a certain average condition of intelligence on the part of 
the pupils, what method or combination of methods is best 
adapted for teaching certain given subjects. 

2. What method or combination of methods is best adapted, 
under ordinary circumstances, to a teacher of given qualifications 
and capabilities. 

3. What method or combination of methods is most suit- 
able, under ordinary circumstances, for the instruction of boys 
of a given age, chai*acter. and attainments. 

4. What qualifications and capabilities are best calculated to 
form a good teacher. 

The follows ing are some of the systems and methods most 
eligible for being tested in this way : 

1. The comparative advantages of the individual and collec- 
tive methods of teaching. To what extent should individual 
instruction be carried when combined with the method of col- 
lective teaching ? and in what sulnects may the respective 
methods be most efficiently employed ? 

2. The comparative advantages of the synthetic and analytic 
methods, applied to the teaching of different subjects. 

8. The method of suggestive mterrogation compared with the 
do^nnatic method, or with the purely elliptical form of giving 
collective lessons. 

4. The familiar style of lecturing, on the best recognized form, 
compared with the plan of using reading-books or text-books. 
Or the comparative efficiency of a system which adopts certain 
advantages belonging to each. 

5. The advantages arising from home instruction when asso- 
ciated with certain forms of teaching. 

6. Comparison of different modes of teaching children to read, 
or to write, or to spell. 

I have used this plan of registration in connection with the 
model lessons which I have had occasion to superintend ; and it 
has* led me to several important generalizations relative to 
methods of instruction, to their adaptation to the minds of dif- 
ferent masters, and to their suitableness to different classes of 
pupils ; and also with respect to those qualifications, etc., on the 
part of the master which are most likely to form the superior 
teacher. It is not improbable that some of these generalizations 
may not have been based upon a sufficient num&r of facts, or 
that they may not have embraced some hidden* circumstances 
which might vitiate the deductions. Be this as it may, they 
constitute the chief results of the experience of my life as a prac- 
tical educator. 



284 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

General Conclusions dbbiyed fboh thb Wbtteb's Rbg- 
istbation of thb results of methods, etc. 

1. Relative to Systems of Teaehing, 

1. Ck>mparatiyel7 few men teach well upon the elliptical plan 
of giving lessons. The efficiency of this plan is much increased 
by being associated with direct interrogation. Bible lessons 
are peculiarly adapted to the elliptical form of teaching. 

2. It is much more easy to lecture than it is to teach. Lectur- 
ing, especially in an elementary school, should always be acoom- 
I>anied with a close system of questioning. 

8. Collective teaching is most efficient when it is followed by 
individual instruction, by individual examination, or by the 
reproduction of the subject-matter of the lesson in writing by 
the pupils'. 

4. Oral instruction, given in the form of familiar lectures, by 
a superior teacher, is in general a much more efficient mode of 
instruction than the plan of teaching from reading-books or 
text-books, even when accompanied with an analysis of the sub- 
ject-matter which has been read by the class. 

5. Suggestive modes of interrogation should never be employed 
as tests of progress. The questions which we use for the pur- 
pose should not contain the slightest clew to the answer. 

7. As a general rule, having some important exceptions, the 
progress of the pupils is in proportion to the apparent amount 
of attention which they give to the lesson or lessons. 

2. BdaMw to the Qualifications of Vie Master. 

1. Teachers of limited capacity, or whose conmiand of Ian" 
guage is limited, invariably teach best with text-books, or by the 
individual system of instruction. 

2. Men of fervid imaginations, having a great command of 
language and enthusiasm of character, almost invariably become 
superior teachers. 

8. Decision of character almost invariably forms an dement 
in the qualifications of a superior teacher. 



REGISTRATION OF RESULTS. 285 

4. Men who are deficient in general knowledge and in enthu- 
siasm of character are generally had teachers, even though they 
may possess great technical acquirements. 

6. An earnest man, imhued with the lore of children, is rarely 
a had teacher. 

6. The love of teaching is generally associated with the 
capahility for it ; hut the converse does not so frequently hold 
true. 

7. A man of superior teaching power teaches well hy any 
rational method. But he will always teach hest hy that method 
which is suited to his peculiar capabilities. 

8. Men generally teach badly when they attempt to teach too 
much, or when they do not duly prepare their lessons. 

9. Presence of mind, and that self-confidence which is based 
on self-knowledge, are essential elements in a good teacher's 
character. 

10. Success in teaching is more dependent upon the capabili- 
ties of the master for teaching than upon his technical acquire- 
ments. Teaching-power is not always associated with superior 
talents or great acquirements. 

11. A teacher must practise a new method until he is fuUy 
master of it before he can come to any conclusion as to its effi- 
ciency. Teachers are too prone to attribute their failures to the 
method they employ, rather than to the improper way in which 
they use it. 

12. The best methods are the worst instruments which can be 
put into the hands of incompetent teachers. The best and most 
intellectual methods require a corresponding skill on the part of 
the teacher to use them with efliciency. 

8. Bdative to the PupHa. 

1. The more exciting modes of instruction are best suited to 
phlegmatic children, or to the children of the poor. Children 
of precocious minds do not require exciting modes of teaching. 

2. Collective teaching associated with individual questioning, 
etc., should invariably be used in teaching boys from six to 



286 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

twelve years of age. The advanced boys should have a hrger 
amount of individual teaching. 

8. Evening exercises, when the parents are able and willing 
to ooK>perate with the teacher, add greatly to the efficiency of 
school instruction. 

4. Children in manufacturing and mechanical districts evince 
considerable aptitude for acquiring a knowledge of geometry, 
mechanism, and construction. Indeed, as a general rule, the 
predilections of children have a leaning towards the pursuits 
of their parents. School routines should always have a due re- 
gard to the tastes, wants, and capabilities of the pupils. 

Ibrms qf Entry in ths Begister, 

Where there are a great many entries to be made in the colunms 
of a school register, it becomes desirable that we should have 
some concise and graphic mode of symbolizing the results 
which are to be recorded. The symbol which I have adopted 
to express any word is simply the first letter of the word, and 
where ambiguity may arise, the first two or the first three let- 
ters of the woid. The numerals 1, 2, 8, are used to exprei«s 
the amount of any qualification, or the extent to which any 
plan or method may be carried. These numerals, affixed to 
any symbol expressing a particular qualification, indicate the 
amount or degree of that qualification— that is to say, whether 
it is moderate, fair, or excellent. Teachers, of course, will 
modify or extend these symbols to suit their convenience, or 
they may perhaps find it most convenient to adhere to the oi-di- 
nary form of registration. These symbols, it will readily be 
understood, do not form an essential feature of the proposed 
plan of registration. 



' IP 



lip.. 

3 asj 



fP" 



II 



iJL 



H-" 






288 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



Part IV. 

ON THE APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SYS- 
TEMS AND METHODS TO THE VARIOUS 
BRANCHES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCA- 
TION. 

The Scriptures, History, eto^^-Bible lessons should always 
be given, in an elementary school, on the collective system of 
teaching. The following rules may be advantageously observed 
in giving these lessons : 

1. The passage on which the lesson is given should be read by the 
class. In the course of the reading, the meaning of the words 
should be famUiarly explained to the children, and the general 
purport of ihe lesson should be constantly kept before them. 

2. The teacher should picture out the subject-matter of the 
lesson, after the manner described in connection with the cul- 
tivation of memory (see p. 202). This will, generally, be "best 
done by the method of ellipses, occasionally varied by individ- 
ual or collective interrogation. 

3. The subject should be elucidated by the method of con- 
trasts and resemblances (explained in connection with the cul- 
tivation of the memory, see p. 192). 

4. The progress of the class should be tested by the individ- 
ual method or examination. 

5. The duties to be learned from the lesson should be fully 
explained. This will generally be most efficiently earned out 
by ^e method of suggestive interrogation, or by the method of 
ellipses. 

6. Notes of the lesson should be written, with conciseness 
and distinctness, upon the black-board. 

Sketch of a Bible Xc«aw.— Subject : Trial of Abraham's faith. 
Genesis, chap. 22, verses 1 to 18. Mixed method : interroga- 
tive, elliptical, illustrative, etc. 

1. The reading lesson, — ^Words and phrases to be explained 
in the course of the reading : The land of Moriah, burnt offer- 
ing, worship, etc. 



APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS AND METHODS. 289 

2. The picture. — [The words to be supplied by the pupils are 
printed in italics.] 

Abraham was a very good man, and had great faith or trust 
in his God : Abraham hSd one aan called Isaac, one darling boy, 
that he loved more than anything in the loorld : Abraham was 
very happy with his son Isaac : * God was about to put Abra- 
ham's faitn and obedience to a very great trial: Let us see how 
€k>d tried Abraham's faith and obedience. Gknl told Abraham 
to take his son Isaac to a mountain a great way off, and offer 
him there for a burnt-offering. Oh I what a trial for Abraham's 
obedience this was, to slay his only son, as he did lambs and 
calves and rams, upon the altar as a burnt-offering. But Abra- 
ham loved and feared God so much, that he never doubted 
for one moment that whatever God commanded him to do 
would be for his goo^—he did not even ask why he was to slay 
his son, because he was sure that God had a good reason for 
what He required him to do. Abraham then got up early in 
the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of the young men 
with him, and Isaac his son, and cut some wood for a bumt- 
oHering, and started off towards the place where God had told 
him to go. After they had travelled for three days and three 
nights, the^ at last came in sight of the mountain : Abraham 
lifted up his eyes and saw the place afar off. And he told his 
young men to stop and take care of the ass, while he and his 
son went up the mountain. Behold Abraham and his son, as 
they climb the mountain ! — Isaac carries the heavy burthen of 
wood for the bumtoffering, and Abraham carries the fire to 
kindle the v)ood, and in his hand is the terrible knife with 
which he is to slay his only son as an offering to the Lord. 
How sorrowful Abraham looks I— God has commanded him to 
offer his son as a burnt-offering. Isaac seems at a loss to know 
what his father is about to do with him. When they came to 
the place which €k)dr had told Abraham of, Abraham laid the 
wood in order, and bound his son and laid him upon the alta^. 
His hand is stretched forth, and he is about to plunge the 
knife into his son, but the ansel of the Lord arrested the stroke, 
saying to Abraham out of fieaven, " Now I know that thou 
fearest God, seeing that thou hast not withheld thy son, thine 
onJ^ son, from Me." 

3. Contrasts and Besemblances. — Contrast Abraham's charac- 
ter with that of Bsdaam's or with that of Jonah's. Compare 



« If the pupils do not fill in the ellipses, the teacher should ask thQ 
question, 

** What was the name of Abraham's son?" 

19 



290 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Abraham's readiness to sacrifice his only son at the command 
of God, with the great sacrifice which Christ offered up upon 
the cross for the sins of the world. 

4. ExammaM(yii. — To what land did God command Abraham 
to go to offer up his son ? How was Isaac to be offered ? For 
how many days did they travel before they came in sight of 
the mountain ? Who went with Abraham to the place of sac- 
rifice ? What did he say to the young men before be left 
them ? etc., etc. 

5. Duties to be learned from the lesaan, — ^When we are sore 
beset with trials, what should we always do ? However hard 
our lot in this toorld may be, our duty is simply to obey Chd, 
who always knows what is best for us. If we simply follow 
the conunands of Ood, however strange they may appear to our 
corrupt nature. He will find a way of escape for vs, God 
often tries our faith as He did Abraham's of old, by requiring 
us to perform painful duties ; but we, like hm, should obisy God 
and leave the results in His hands, knowing that all things will 
at last work out for the good of them that fear Him. 

6. Notes written on the bUick-board.— God's command to 
Abraham — given to try his faith ; his journey to Moriah ; 
Abraham and his son went alone to the place of sacrifice ; the 
angel of the Lord prevented Abraham from slaying his son ; etc. 

History and Suljects of General Reading. — History and 
other subjects of general reading should be taught by the same 
method as that which we have just described in relation to the 
teaching of the Scriptures. 

ReacOng and Spelling; Etymology; Grammar. — These 
subjects should be taught in our elementary schools upon ^e 
collective system of instruction. While one boy reads or sxxjIIs, 
the other boys must listen. Important passages should be read 
simultaneously by the class, and sometimes words should be 
spelled, letter after letter, in the same manner. In the course of 
the reading the master will frequently have occasion to correct 
the pronunciation, indistinct utterance, the accent, and the in- 
tonations of the pupils. Whenever he does so, he ^ould 
always endeavor to put his reasons into the form of a general 
rule. Above all things, the pupils should be taught to read 
with intelligence. 

Very young children should be taught to read from large 
class-cards, having pictures of the leadmg subjects of each les- 
son. The look and say plan of teaching to read is certainly the 
best, especially when it is combined with some of the most 
striking principles of the phonic method. In like manner the 
best plan for teaching children to spell is to get ttiem to write 



APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS AND METHODS. 291 

out tlie lessons which they have read : the eye, In my opinion, 
is a better guide to correct spelling than the ear. The lessons 
for teaching little children to read should contain frequent repe- 
titions of £e same word in each leeson. Let us take an ex- 
ample: 

Specimen of a Beading lesunfcT litUe children 

Tom is a good boy. A good boy does what he is told. I 
told Tom to be good, John is a bad boy. A bad boy does 
not do what he is told. And so on. 

When the child is able to read words of three letters, he 
should then be taught to read words of four or more letters ; 
and after words of one syllable he should be taught to read 
words of two syllables ; and so on. 

In the course of these reading lessons the intelligent teacher 
will not fail occasionally to avail himself of some of the most 
prominent principles of the phonic si^stem of reading. Certain 
combinations of letters almost invariably represent certain ele- 
mentary sounds ; as, for example, the sound of ad in bad, lad, 
sad, mad, etc.; the sound of a^ in bay, lay, say, maj, etc.; 
the sound oi un in bun, sun, etc.; the sound of «^mshut, 
shark, shave, shall, etc. ; the sound of ch in child, chide, chick, 
etc. ; and so on. 

The ordinary box of reading letters should be used in show- 
ing the child how the elementary sounds go to form the sound 
of the word. Thus in showing the sound of the word shave, 
the teacher first gives the sound of the letters sh, next that of 
ave, and then putting the letters together he gives the com- 
pound sound shave. 

To follow out the phonic system of reading in all its details 
is neither practicable nor desirable. The fact is this system re- 
quires the pupils to make analyses of sounds, which we our- 
selves never do in the practice of reading. The rules of pronun- 
ciation in our language are so very complicated, that it seems 
to be almost ridiculous to attempt to teach reading on a strictly 
phonic plan. By the practice of reading on the look and say 
system (aided by occasional hints relative to the elementary 
sounds of the most common combinations of letters), the child 
^dually and insensibly acquires the pronunciation of words. 
On the teaching of the alphabet, see page 194. 

The etymology of technical words and philosophical terms 
(particularly those that are derived from the Greek and Latin) 
should be given in connection with reading lessons. But the 
teacher should bear in mind that the derivation of a technical 



2»2 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

term does not sapersede the necessity of giying the fall mean- 
ing of the term as it is used in our language ; the chief pur- 
pose which etymology serves in the elementary school is to aid 
the pupils in remembering the signification of tedmical terms. 
Important words and phrases which occur in the lesson should 
be written in large characters upon the black-board, widi their 
meanings and derivations. 

Grammar should also be taught in connection with the read- 
ing lessons. But besides such desultory exercises on Grammar, 
the definitions and principles should be systematically taught 
by collective lessons, and by simple text-books upon the subject 

Grammar more fiiUy con8idered.^[>rammar may be 
taught by a constructive method, or by a method of progressive 
development. A first course of instruction should comprehend 
all the simple parts of speech without their inflections, etc. ; 
the particular and most familiar form of each definition should 
be explained before the general or most abstract form ; and 
where the definition contains a comprehensive statement, it 
should be broken down into its component parts, and after each 
part has been successively explained, their relative connection 
or dependence should be distinctly pointed out. A second 
course of grammar should comprehend the inflections of 
words ; and a third course that of the analysis of sentences and 
the rules of syntax and composition. These rules should be 
based on the analysis of sentences ; for by so doing we follow 
one of our most certain general principles of meth(^, viz., Uiat 
of teaching the concrete before the abstract. We have too much 
parsingin our schools, and too little of the practice of composi- 
tion. Teachers should get their pupils to construct sentences 
as early as possible ; for it should be borne in mind that pars- 
ing is only a means for the attainment of an end — that is, to 
enable the pupils to write and speak with accuracy and facility. 
All oiu* exercises in composition should have some actual ob- 
ject ; they should express familiar ideas, or describe things and 
events which actually exist (see page 159). The old plan of 
teaching syntax (that is, by giving b^ English to correct under 
each nde) has not yet been superseded. In grammar, as in 
many things else, we seem to know what is right by seeing 
what is wrong ; and we are the better able to follow what is 
right by constantly endeavoring to avoid what is wrong, 

A lesson on Gramma/r. Subject — The noun. Mixed method, 
interrogation, ellipses, etc. 

Now, my children, I am going to show you what a noun is. 
Listen I 

A NOUN is the name of an object or thing ; as book, apple, 
table, etc. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 298 

Hat is the name of a thing — what kind of word is hat ? 
Writ« tlie following sentence on your slates : " Pears and ap- 
ples grow on trees. Now put a line below all Uiose words 
wMch are nouns. ' 

A NOUN is the name of an animal ; as dog, cat, horse, etc. 

Cow is the name of an animal; therefore the word cow is a 
noun. And so on to other examples. 

A NOUN is the name of a person ; as John, Thomas, Milton, 
etc. 

Andrew is the name of a person; therefore the word Andrew 
is a noun. And so on to oilier examples. 

A NOUN is the name of a place ; as London, York, Leeds, 
etc. 

Hounslow is the name of a place ; therefore the word Houns- 
low is a noun, 

A NOUN is the name of anything which we can speak of as 
existing ; as chair, whiteness, darkness, etc. 

I can speak of table as a ^ing which exists ; therefore the 
word table is a noun, I can speak of the soul as existing ; 
therefore the word soul is a noun. And so on. 

Now let us collect together all that has been said about a noun. 

A NOUN IS THE NAME OP AN OBJECT, AN ANIMAL, A PER- 
SON, A PLACE, OR ANYTHING WE CAN SPEAK OP AS EXISTING. 

Give me as many words as you can think of which are nouns. 

Why is the word book a noun ? Why is the word heaven a 
noun ? And so on. Put a mark beneath all the nouns in the 
following sentences : Thomas has got a dog. London is a 
large city ; etc. 

A lesion on Qrannmar. Subject— The adjective. Mixed 
method. 

An ADJECTIVE is a word which points out the quality of a 
noun ; as large, good, black, etc. 

I havjB a «/wtrp knife. Now what word here points out the 
quality of the knife ? Sharp, then, is an adjective, for it points 
out or expresses the quality of the knife. 

He gave me some apples. Now all the words which 

I put before the word apples to make sense are adjectives ; 
find out as many of these as you can. SmaU, la/rge, round, 
ripe, unripe, sour, red, sweet, etc. 

All ADJECTIVE LIMITS the meaning of a noun ; this, many, 
fourth, etc. And so on. 

Now let us collect together all that has been said about an 
adjective. 

An adjective is a word which points out the qual- 
ity OP A NOUN OR LIMITB ITS MEANING. 



2d4 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Put a mark beneath all the adjectives in the following sen- 
tences : 

A horse is a noble animal. The cow gives fine milk. 

Why is the word tlie an adjective ? Why is the word noble 
an adjective ? And so on to other examples. 

Lessons on composition omd the analysis of sentences. 

1. To enlarge the subject. Simple sentence— ** The dog is 
ill."* 

What is the subject of this sentence ? What is the predicate ? 

Now I shall enlarge the subject of this sentence, that is to 

say, I shall add something which shall tell us all about the dog. 

'* The dog is ill." 

1. The la/rge dog is ill. 

2. The dog Pompey is ill. 
8. The carrier's dog is ill. 

4. The dog of four yea/rs old is ill. 

5. The dog, being very fat, is ill. 

And putting all these enlargements of the subject in one sen- 
tence, we have — 

The earner's la/rge dog Pompey, of fowr yea/rs old, being fiery 
fat, is ill. 

What purpose is served by these enlarg.'ements of the sub- 
ject ? What do thejr tell us ? First, that the dog is large ; sec- 
ond, that his name is Pompey ; third, that he belongs to the 
carrier ; fourth, that he is four years old ; and fifth, that he is 
very fat. What kind of word have I used to enlarge the sub- 
ject in Ko. 1 ? The adjective large. And so on to the others. 

Enlarge the subject of the following sentence ; first by an ad- 
jective, second by a noun in apposition ; and so on : ** The 
boy reads." 

2. To extend the predicate. Simple sentence—" The boy 
reads." 

The predicate may be extended in the following different 
ways: 

"The boy reads." 

1, The boy reads ^t^w%. 

2. The boy reads /«?r information, 
(b) The boy reads at home. 

8. The boy reads every day, 
4. The boy reads standing. 

* Here we suppose this to be really n fi\'^^ 



ARITHMETIC. 295 

In (1) the predicate is extended by an cidverb ; in (2) by a 'pre- 
position or by a prepositional phrase ; in (3) by a noun in the 
objective case ; in (4) by a participle used adverbially. 

In (1) and (4) we use an adjunct of manner ; in (2) an adjunct 
of cause ; in (b) an fidjunct of place ; in (3) an adjunct of Ume. 

Show the different ways in which the predicate in the fol- 
lowing sentence may be extended : " The boy runs." 

Point out the subject, predicate, and object of the following 
sentence : *' A bad boy caUed Thomson hurt liMe William very 
severely." What words enlarge the subject ? What word 
qualifies the object ? What words extend the predicate ? 

Observation. — Proceeding in this way, the pupil will be 
taught the art of composition. But in all this there is compar- 
atively little knowledge of parsing required. 

Arithmetic. — All the junior classes in an elementary school 
should be taught arithmetic on the collective system. The syn- 
thetic method of demonstration — first explained, at least in this 
country, in the writer's treatise on the Principles of Arithmetic 
— ^is certainly the best adapted for elementary instruction. The 
suggestive method of interrogation is most generally applicable 
to the teaching of demonstrative arithmetic. 

In teaching common or slate arithmetic the following 
general rules should be observed : 

1. AH the demonstrations should be given distinctly upon 
the black board. 

2. The essential data of the question (not the whole question) 
should be written, in a proper order, on the black-board, es- 
pecially when the question contains three or more data. 

8. The teacher should fully explain every step of the process 
as he writes it down. It is a bad plan to work out tiie whole 
question, and then to proceed with the explanation. 

4. The pupils should take a part in the investigation. The 
master should require them, time after time, to tell him what 
quantities he must write down, at the different steps of the in- 
vestigation. 

Let us take a few examples of this method of teaching arith- 
metic. 

1. Lesson on the Addition of Fractions, 

Let it be required to add one half and three fourths together. 

Here, before we can add these fractions together, we must 
bring them to the same part of unity, or, to speak more simply, 
we must bring them to bits of the same size. Let us suppose 
that we have to find how much the half of a loaf added to the 
three quarters of a l(mf will make. AYhat do I take as the unit 



296 PHILOSOPBY OF EDUCATION. 

here ? (Ans. A loaf.) Now, how do we get the half of a loaf ? 
(Ans. By cutting it into two equal parts.) How do we get 
the three fourths of the loaf ? (Ans. By cutting the loaf into 
four equal parts, and taking three of them.) Now, how should 
YOU i)ut the half bits into quarter bits ? (Ans. By cutting each 
half into two equal bits, for then we should have ihe whole 
loaf cut into four equal bits.) Very well. Now, how many 
fourths will there be in one half ? (Ans. Two fourths.) So 
that YOU have to put together, or add, two fourths and three 
fourths. What will they make ? (Ans. Five fourths.) But 
I want you to give me the sum in mixed numbers. How 
many whole loaves would you have in five quarter loaves ? 
(Ans. One and a quarter more.) That is to say, the sum of 
one half and three quarters will be equal to one and a gua/rter, 

I am going to show you how to do this question in another 
way. 



«orl. 

Ill' 



\ 



B 

jorl. 



Let a stick or a line (A B) be divided on the upper side into 
two equal parts, and the bottom side into four equal parts. 
What will each of the upper parts be called ? What will each 
of the bottom parts be called ? Look at the figure, and tell me 
how many fourths there are in each half. And so on, as before. 

The teacher should also do the same thing by the division 
of a space. 

2. A Lesson on Rule of Three, 

Let it be required to find the cost of 9 books when the cost 
of a dozen is 88. Id. 

Let us first write the essential data of the question on the 
black-board. 

DATA. 

Ck)st of 12 is 8«. Id.— the cost of Ss required. 

SOLIinON TO BB WBITTBN ON THE BLACK-BOABD. 

Cost 12 books = 8«. Id. 
.'. Cost 86 books = 8 times Ss. Id. = 24«. 8d. 

248. 8d. 
.*. Ooat 9 books = one fourth part of 24s. 8d. = — '- — '- = fla. Old. 

4 

After the teacher has written down the language, "Cost 13 
books =" he asks the class, ** What shall I put this equal to?" 
After he has received the answer he fills it in, and then asks, 



GEOGRAPHY, 297 

" Why is it equal to 8«. \d. V " How many books have we to 
find the cost of ?" " Now if we can get the cost of 86 books 
we may readily get the cost of 9, as you will see when we pro- 
ceed with the solution." After writmg down " Cost 36 books 
=" he asks, 'Will the cost of 86 books be more or less than 
the cost of 12 books r "Why?" " You are (^uite right : three 
times the' number of books will cost three tmies as much." 
" Now, having got the cost of 86 books, how are we to get the 
cost of 9 ?" ** Exactly so: one fourth the number will of course 
cost one fourth the price." And so on. 

The more advanced boys should be sometimes called upon to 
give a demonstration on the black-board. 

Mental Arithmetio* — This subject should be taught on the 
collective system in connection with the method of interroga- 
tion. The boys prepared with an answer to the question pro- 
posed by the master should hold up their hands, and the mas- 
ter must then call upon some boy to give the answer ; and so 
on to the other artifices described in connection with tiie subject 
of collective teaching. Young children should be practised for 
some time in mental calculation before they are taught anything 
relative to the symbols and notation of numbers. Strokes, 
counters, balls, etc., should be taken as the representatives 
of numbers, and all the leading properties and operations of 
arithmetic should be demonstrated by the use of these objects 
before any technical modes of calculation are attempted. All 
the processes should be thoroughly demonstrative, and no rules 
should be laid down indei)endently of the investigations. All 
tricks and clap-traps of mental calculation should be conscien- 
tiously avoided. The boy called upon to give the answer should 
give the process of investigation. 

Oeography. — Geography maybe thoroughly taught to large 
classes on the collective system. The method of suggestive in- 
terrogation, followed by or accompanied with catechetical ex- 
amination, seems well adapted for teaching this subject to all 
classes in an elementary school. No brandi of geography 
should be taught without the aid of a map. Every couective 
lesson on geography should be given in connection with a large 
map, which should be suspended directly before the class. 
When any country, or city, or river, or mountain is spoken of, 
its place upon the map should be pointed out, and its relative 
bearings, boundaries, or extent should be fully explained. 
Physical geography and history should always be taught in 
connection with descriptive geography. (See p. 201.) 

If a teacher can sketch well he should draw bis own maps 
upon the black-board. First, tracing the outline of the country. 



298 PHXLO80PBT OF EDUCATION. 

he mentions the various kin^oms or seas whose houndaries his 
chalk is tracing ; second, with a few jottings of his chalk he 
marks out the principal mountain-ranges forming the ^reat 
ridges or apexes of the water-sheds ; thira, he traces the nvers 
winding their way from their mountain source or sources to the 
great reservoirs of the waters of the glohe. He pauses for a 
moment to review his work. He has sketched out the works 
of nature as the hand of the Creator has left them ; now he has 
to begin to sketch the works of art and civilization — ^he has to 
people the wilderness and to trace the progressive steps of civi- 
lization ; upon the banks of the tidal nvers he marks the site of 
the great mercantile cities; on the shores of the mountain 
streams he plants the names of the oldest industrial cities ; on 
the coal-fields he places those mighty manufacturing cities 
which have almost sprung into existence since the discovery of 
the steam-engine— that mightiest monarch of civilization and 
power, which seems to control the destinies of the world ; last 
of all, he marks the sites of those large towns which form the 
market-places of the rural population. We said that the work 
was progressive : every fresh touch of the chalk is associated 
with some new idea, and every fresh idea has its appropriate 
association with some line or mark upon the board. The sketch 
goes on ; it becomes more and more finished ; the skeleton be- 
comes lined with sinews, then clothed with flesh and blood ; 
every fresh step towards completion excites new interest in the 
minas of the boys ; they wonder how a few jottings can call up 
the idea of a mountain-range, or how a winding line can call 
up the idea of the course of a sparkling river, or how the little 
mark put for the mountain city should awaken in their imagina- 
tions the sound of the flip-flap, flap-flip of water-mills and the 
busy hum of industry ; Uiey wonder, but they know not, that 
the visible picture which their master has drawn with his chalk 
would be dull and lifeless without the living moral picture with 
which it is associated. Such a lesson is complete in its parts 
and perfect as a whole. It is a complete exemplification of 
what has been called the constructive method of teaching. 

Mapndrawing is an excellent means of teaching geography. 
This exercise, as we before observed, should be set apart for 
home lessons. 

Drawing. — Collective teaching, combined with the system of 
home studies, is best adapted for giving lessons on this impor- 
tant branch of school education. As this truly useful branch 
of knowledge does not appear to have received that amount of 
attention in our schools generally which its utility demands. 



DBAwma. 299 

we shall enter more fully into the details of the method by 
which it should be taught in our elementary schools. 

1 . The teoicher should first explain the elements cfform. — Draw- 
ing, like all other branches of instruction, has its simple ele- 
mentary principles ; these principles should be learned by the 
pupil before he can be expected to make any satisfactory prog- 
ress. 

All drawing must be based upon a knowledge of the elements 
of form. Before a boy can draw a line correctly he should know 
something about the nature of that line. 

All forms, whether in nature or art, may be reduced to a few 
geometrical elements. 

Straight likeb should be copied of various lengths and 
positions, and next in order should follow the various geometri- 
cal figures formed by straight lines. 

The CIRCLE is the simplest and most perfect of all cuRVin) 
UKEB ; it, in fact, forms the standard by which we judge of the 
relative degree of curvature of the various portions of any other 
curved line. To draw a circle by the hand requires some ^11 ; 
and the acquisition is well deserving the trouble. Curves of 
contrary flexure, that is, curves which are convex at one part and 
concave at another, have been called the lines of beauty. Ex- 
amples relating to the circle, with various curved figures more 
or less depending upon it, should be given to the pupils. 

These elements of form constitute the alphabet of draw- 
ing. No satisfactory progress can be made in drawing until 
the pupil has become thoroughly acquainted with these forms. 
You may as well attempt to teach a boy to read before he is ac- 
quainted with his alphabet, as give him an axe, or any such 
object, to draw before he is made acquainted with the different 
kinds of lines found in its outline. 

In this way drawing is made a useful instrument of a higher 
kind of instruction ; for the pupil is insensibly, and at the same 
time pleasantl V, made acquainted with the names and properties 
of geometrical figures. Why should the boy, who is supposed 
to & skilful enough to draw a chair or a looking-glass, remain 
ignorant of the names of the geometrical elements of form ? A 
child of five years of age readily learns the names and under- 
stands the construction of the most useful geometrical figures ; 
and not only so, but he really feels a pleasure in learning them. 
Now the best way of learning the names and definitions of 
geometrical figures is actually to draw them. Children fert as 
much pleasure in drawing beautiful geometrical forms as they 
do in imitating the drawings of natural objects, more especially 
if they are taught to draw these geometrical forms by method. 



800 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION 

The teaching of the first facts of geometry ought to be con- 
sidered as one of the most important ends which is to be attained 
by an elementary course of drawing lessons. It is not prac- 
ticable, and indeed it is not desirable if it were practicable, to 
teach drawing witliout embracing a certain amount of geomet- 
rical knowledge. 

The pleasure of success is the best incentive to the pupil in 
learning to draw ; but if the exercises are too difficult for him 
he will give up in despair, believing that he has no genius for 
drawing. A teacher gives a boy, as a first lesson, a drawing of 
an Ass to copy: the boy labors earnestly at his task, for he 
really would like to draw a donkey ; but notwithstanding his 
repeated efforts, he cannot decidedly say whether his drawmg is 
more like a horse than it is like a donkey. That boy should 
first learn the alphabet of drawing— the leading elements of 
forms— before he attempts to copy such difficult pictures. 

2. The teacher should explain tlie va/Hous lines of eonstrucUon 
necessary for drawing a figure, — In these lines of construction 
we bring principles to aid the eye and the hand. The facility 
and accuracy with which an artist will copy any drawing de- 
pends not more upon his skilful conmiand of the pencil, than 
upon the method which he adopts, unconsciously it may be, in 
determining the leading points of the outline of the drawing. 
The figure or model to be drawn should be first examined as a 
whole, and then the leading points as well as the general out- 
line of the drawing should be laid down, before any of the mi- 
nute or subordinate parts are attempted. All beautiful figures 
have symmetry ; and therefore, in constructing such figures, 
there may always be found some geometrical forms which will 
aid us in the construction. The nabit of constructing figures 
in this way, besides serving the end for which it is directly in- 
tended, tends very much to improve the observing and reason- 
ing powers of the pupil ; it insensibly and gradually instils into 
the younff mind a knowledge of geometrical principles, and lays 
the foundation of a more demonstrative course of geometry. 
Let us take a few illustrations. 

A pupil having to draw an octagon for the first time would 
scarcely know how to begin it ; but a glance at the teacher's 
lines of construction should give him the idea of a method 
which will enable him to draw the figure with facility and 
precision. 

Few persons, even amongst artists, can draw a perfect ellipse 
by the hand ; but by attending to a few simple principles of 
construction it becomes easy even to a pupil. 

All points and lines of construction should be drawn faintly 



DRAWINO. 301 

in order that they may be readily erased, and that they may be 
easily distlDguished from the real lines of the drawmg. For 
various illustrations of the methods of construction, the reader 
may consult the writer's work on Drawing. 

8. The teacher should explain the manrier of using the pencil or 
crayon, — The drawing-pencil, or crayon, as the case may be, 
should be held in the same manner as the common writing-pen. 
In order to give freedom of motion to the hand, the pupil should 
be accustomed to hold the pencil loosely, with the first two 
fingers and the thumb at some distance from the point. Every 
line should be seen as it is being drawn, and, in order to secure 
this, all lines should be drawn n-om left to right, and from the 
top to the bottom of the paper. As a general rule, lines should 
be fijrat sketched out faintly, and then any inaccuracies can be 
corrected as the line is being finished off. The beginning and 
the end of a line idiould l^ fixed before the pupil commences 
to draw it. Certain intermediate points should also be fixed 
before the whole line is attempted to be drawn. Great precision 
cannot be expected from young persons at first, nor should they 
be required to dwell too long upon any particular drawing at 
this early stage of their instruction ; the patience of a child 
should never be worn out by a fastidious regard to what is called 
accuracy of finish. The fact is, there is a want of flexibility in 
the muscles of the hand of young children which time and na- 
ture only can fully remedy. 

4. Proper drawing instruments and materials should be 
provided for the pupUs, — ^The pupils should be provided with 
slates, drawingbooks or drawing-paper. If slates are used, the 
pupil should draw with a long, soit slate-pencil. Black-lead 
pencils, as well as common slate-pencils, if used in drawing, 
should be well pointed, and of sufficient length to be used with 
freedom. If crayons are adopted, they should be of different 
degrees of hardness, and fixed in a port-crayon, one at each end. 
Some teachers ma^ prefer pen-and-ink drawings ; this mode of 
drawing is exceedingly useful and convenient for schools; in this 
case the drawings may be first traced with black-lead pencil, 
and then afterwiSds completed with the pen and ink. Each 
pupil should be provided with a copy of some drawing exercises, 
so that he may at certain periods go on with his work without 
the constant supervision of the master. 

5. The pupils should then draw the o^iUines of familiar objects, — 
After the pupil has been made acquainted with the leadmg ele- 
ments of form, he will find much interest in tracing the outlines 
of familiar objects. Outline drawings, it will be observed, are 
not really representations of the objects, for they want the 



303 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

touches of light and shade, as well as some other artistic arti- 
fices, requisite for forminj^ a true picture. Notwithstanding 
this, the drawings are sufficiently like the ohjecte which they are 
intended to represent, so as to interest the child in the resem- 
blance. The pupil should first copy from the drawing of the 
object, and then he should have the object itself placed directly 
before him to be drawn in outline. The master should carefully 
explain to his pupils the different geometrical forms to which 
the various parts of the outline drawing may be referred. 

6. T/i£ teacher shovM explain the method of dramng a figure an 
the black-board,— ThG teadier should construct the figure (which 
his pupils are about to draw) on the black-board, on an en- 
larged SCALE. All the lines of construction should be ex- 
plained by him as he draws them, and all the pupils should go 
along with hun, drawing line after line as their master pro- 
ceeds with his exposition. After such explanations, the master 
may leave his pupils for a time to copy the drawing from their 
sheets with more care and exactness. The impetus which the 
master thus gives to his class will be sufficient to render it self- 
acting for the time which he may require to bestow to the other 
classes in the school. 

When a model is to be drawn, it should be placed before the 
pupils in a position similar to that in which it is given in the 
drawing copy; the master should then show the pupils 7iow and 
why he draws the different lines in his representation. 

There are a few important points upon which children require 
to be especially guidea. In drawing vertical lines, they are very 
liable to make the lines lean in the same direction as the lines 
of ordinary writing. Children should constantly have their at- 
tention directed to the proportion of the parts of a figure ; as, 
for example, a line in a drawing may be exactly the same length 
as another line, or it may be twice or thrice the length. The 
position of lines should be carefully noted : as, for example, 
one line may be perpendicular to another line ; or a line may be 
drawn exactly between the vertical and the horizontal ; or a line 
may rise to the left of the horizontal ; and so on. They are very 
apt to draw a line before its exact position has been realized in 
their own minds. Children, if left to themselves, will often 
begin with some unimportant detail, and thus go on drawing 
without method ; here the master should show the child what 
lines to begin with, how to get a good general outline, and then 
how the minute parts should be finished off. 

7. The teacher should carefully inspect the work done by tJie 
pupils, — While the pupils are at work, the master should move 
rapidly amongst them, giving hints to some, correcting the 



DRAWING. 303 

errors of others, and in all cases showing fhem how they should 
do it, rather than actually doing it for them. A few minutes 
at the close of each lesson should he devoted to the examina- 
tion of the slates or books of the pupils. The drawings done at 
home should also be carefully examined by the master. 

8. The master should give his pupils drawing copies far home 
exercises. — Our present systems or elementary education seem to 
make too little provision for home instruction. Drawing at 
home is admirably adapted for supplying the place of evening 
tasks, which were once given in the form of columns of spell- 
ings or paragraphs of geo^phy. Drawing is rather an amuse- 
ment than a task, and children need ver^ little persuasion to 
induce them to devote some portion of theu* leisure time to this 
delightfiU studv. In home studies especially, children like to 
show some evidence of their application, with the view of com- 
paring the work of one week with that of another. Exercises 
on drawing, as we have already observed, are well calculated to 
effect this end. 

9. The more advanced pupils sJumld draw the figures upon an 
enlarged scale. — Young persons can draw small figures much 
more easily than they can draw large ones. Their eye more 
readily catches the proportions of small figures than of large 
ones ; and their hand is better able to draw short lines than long 
ones. Children have a more perfect perception of an object of 
moderate size than they have of a large object ; the eye takes 
in all the parts of the object more readily in the former case 
than in the latter case, and thus a more perfect picture is 
formed upon the retina. Hence it is in accordance with nature 
that a young person should first copy moderate-sized drawings, 
such as those given at page 308 of this book, before he at- 
tempts to draw upon a large scale. But after he has drawn the 
figures upon a small scale, he should then draw them upon a 
scale of twice, thrice, or even four times the size. The draw- 
ing of figures on a large scale gives freedom and power to the 
hand and precision to the judgment. But, besides tliis, the 
drawing of figures on different scales forms one of the most 
useful lessons in practical mathematics. If a child is required 
to draw a figure on double the scale of any given figure, he 
sees that if he takes the base of his drawing double the length 
of the base of the original figure, then all the parts of his figure 
will be respectively double the corresponding parts of the ori- 
ginal figure; and so on to other cases: in this way he will draw 
a figure of the same form as the original, the only difference 
between the two figures being that one is drawn upon a larger 
scale than tJie other. 



304 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

10. After drawing from copy, the pupils sfiouid draw from 
fcmiUiar o^eete.— Copyiiig is the first step in drawing. It is one 
of the easiest acts of imitation. When a papil makes a copy of 
a drawing, he merelv transfers the lines on one sheet of pax)er 
to another ; but in this exercise of the faculty of imitation some 
reasoning and judgment are involved, especiall}^ if the pupil is 
called upon to use certain artifices of construction. To give a 
representation of a natural object just as it appears to us is 
much more difficult than to make a copy of a oniwiDg already 
made of the object. The lines which we draw in this case are 
not the exact counterparts of the corresponding lines in the 
object, but merely representations of them, drawn so as to con- 
vey to the organs or perception an impression of the object. 
In order to understand how this effect is produced, we must be 
acquainted witib the laws of vision, -with ttie effects of light and 
shade, and with certain principles of perspective relating to the 
foreshortening of lines, etc. In a course of elementary instruc- 
tion in drawing, therefore, the pupil should first exercise his 
eve and hand in the copying of certain geometrical forms and 
simple drawings of natural objects, before he commences draw- 
ing from actual objects. It is, moreover, necessary^ that the 
pupil should first copy the drawing of a natural obiect before 
he proceeds to give a representation of it as it would appear to 
him when placed before him. While the pupil is thus acquir- 
ing steadiness of hand and accuracy of eye, he is at the same 
time gradually becoming acquainted with the art of perspective, 
or the true mode of representing solid figures on a flat surface. 
In order Uiat tiie drawing may be of service to the pupil, the 
object should be placed before him nearly in the same position 
as that in which it is represented in the drawing. A further 
change of view will sufficiently task the skill of the pupil. 
The master should be at some pains to show the coincidence of 
the lines of the representation with the actual appearance. He 
should show tiiem, for example, why all the vertical lines in 
the object are also drawn vertical in the picture ; why certain 
horizontal lines in the object are drawn rising or falling, as the 
case may be, from the horizontal line in the picture ; why cer- 
tain lines in the object are drawn much shorter in the picture 
than they really arc in the object ; and so on, as explained in 
tiie writer's work on " Drawing for Schools." 

The best stand for the drawing models is a common table. 
They may be raised, if necessary, by placing them on a box or 
any rectangular object. 

11. Advantage of smaU drawings for children. — Some teach- 
ers suspend large orawings before their class to be copied. This 



DRAWING. 805 

plan is in many respects highly eligible for simultaneous in- 
struction when the pupils can be placed directly in front of the 
drawing ; but when this cannot be done the figure will app^ 
foreshortened and distorted to those pupils on each side of it. 
It should also be observed. that drawing from a large figure is 
not strictly an act of imitation, for the copy made by the pupil 
is what the figure would appear to be, supposing it placed at 
the same distance from the eye as the copy. Besides, these very 
large figures are not adapted for home instruction. Now, when 
cadi pupil is provided with a drawing, he is able to place it 
Erectly before him at the same distance from his eye as the 
copy which he is about to make ; hence he finds it more easy 
to copy a small drawing so {)]aced than to copy a large drawing 
suspended at a distance from his eye. But tiie greatest advan- 
tage of small drawings is that they may be taken home by the 
pupils and copied in their leisure hours. 

Chalk dkawings, bxboutbd howbvbb boughlt by the 
HASTBB ON THE BLAGK-BOABD, are really much more efficient 
means of instruction than the suspending of large drawing 
sheets before the class. 

12. The pupils should he taught to dra/w from Models, after 
the method of Dupuis. — A boy may be able to make excellent 
copies of drawings or pictures without bein^ able to give any- 
thing like a tolerable representation of the simplest natural ob- 
ject : this requires distinct cultivation. Model-drawing is the 
best wav of teaching begmners to draw from nature. 

The following are some of the advantages of teadiing draw- 
ing from models : 

(1) Natural objects are generally too difficult for the learner 
to begin with, whereas the models can be constructed accord- 
ing to a progressive order of difficulty. 

(2) The models are always under our control ; they may be 
readily placed at any distance from the pupil or in any desira- 
ble position. 

($ They ma^ be made to represent various geometrical 
forms, and owing to this imiformity of shape, the drawings 
taken from one set of models may be compared with those ts^en 
from another set. 

(4) The models may be used in combination with one an- 
other, and thus the dincrent parts of a complex figure may be 
first drawn separately before they are drawn in combination. 

(5) The system of model-drawing is especially calculated to 
exercise and develop the powers of observation and comparison, 
and forms the best introduction to a system of mathematical 
perspective. 

20 



306 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

The models which the pupfls are required to draw are made 
of wood or some other light material, and they are placed in a 
proper position before the pupil, in order to be drawn by him 
on paper or on a common slate. He is taught certain easy pro- 
cesses, by which he is enabled to find out the apparent size and 
shape of the various parts of the model, so as to give its true 
re^esentation on paper. 

The method of drawing from models was invented by M. 
Dupuis. Its grand feature consists in making perspective draw- 
ing a matter of observation on the part of the pupil, rather than 
a subject of mathematical reasoning. The prmciples, practice, 
and advantages of the method are fully explained in the author's 
work on "Drawing for Schools." . 

The following simple apparatus has been used by the author 
to render the pnnciples of model-drawing more apparent. The 
construction is so very simple that it may be made for a few 
pence. 

A B c D is a block of wood about 9 inches long, 3 inches broad, 
and li inches thick ; a saw-cut a l is made square across for 
receiving the pane of glass g l i k, upon which the representa- 
tions of the objects are to be drawn ; e b is a small pin of wood, 
having a hole at the top to which the eye is applied, fixed at 
the distance of about 6 inches from the glass pane ; the surface 
of the pane is covered with a thin coating of gum, for the 
purpose of retaining the chalk-lines tiaced upon it. When any 
drawing is to be rubbed off, it is only necessary to warm the 
surface of the gum before the fire, so as to make it perfectly free 
from moisture, then lightly rub off the chalk-marks with a silk 
handkerchief. Let the advanced pupils occasionally practise 
drawing from simple objects, with this simple apparatus, and 
they wfll insensibly acquire a knowledge of the principles and 
practice of perspective representations. 

Model Lessons on Drawing. — (1) On the drawing of a Oirde, 
I am going to show you how to draw a circle wifli the hand. 
Draw the straight line b d equal to the length of the diameter 
of the circle which you wish to make, find the middle or 
centre c of this line. Do you think that I have got the middle 
exactly ? James Carter says that I have taken the point too 
much to the left. I think that he is right, therefore I shall 
place it a little further to the right. I must now look at your 
slates to see that you are all going along with me. 

Through the centre c draw the straight line e c f, perpen- 
dicular to B D. Now to which side does e f lean? Please, sir 
(we may suppose the pupil to answer), it leans neither to the one 
side nor the other ; that is to say, e f is at right angles to b j>. 



DBAWING. 



307 




308 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 



Teacher. How many right angles have wo got here ? 
PupU. Four right angles. 

Tea^cher, Now I am going to cut these right angles through 
their middles by two straight lines : thus we have a h and i J. 




Mark off c o, c b, g i, g h, and c j, each equal to c d or c b. 
What will these distances be called ? Trace the circle lightly 
through these points. Having done this, I must mend some 
portions before I attempt to draw the full line. I now proceed 




A 8P1RAU 



to finish off the circumference. We may now rub out the lines 
of construction, just as a builder takes away his scaffolding af- 
ter he has completed the house. 

The teacher may now put a few questions relative to the va- 
rious lines connected with the circle. 



WRITING. 309 

(2) On the drawing of a Spired. — I am going to show you 
how to draw a spiral. Draw the dotted lines o d and o e at 
right angles to each other. With o as the centre, draw the 
concentric quadrants s f and a b of any convenient size ; — 
(what do you mean by concentric ?) — mark off p k, k i, and i d, 
each equal to b f ; then draw the semicircles b c d, f g i, d y k, 
and K I ; which will be the spiral required to be drawn. 

Tecbdi^, Of what parts is the exterior spiral a b c d y y r 
composed? 

PapU, It is composed of one quadrant and three semicircles. 

Tea4:her, What is the size of the semicircle b c d as compared 
with the semicircle d y k ? 

PupU, The diameter b d of the first is double the diameter 
K D of the second. 

Writing. — ^This branch of education may be thoroughly 
taught, in a common-school, on the collective system. In con- 
ducting such lessons as writing, it is desirable that the master 
should exercise his classes, in all their movements, in habits of 
military precision and promptitude. In order to follow out the 
collective system in relation to this subject, the writing to be 
copied should be written b^ the master on the black-board, or 
large sheets containing copies should be suspended in front of 
the class. After the copy-books and pens have been distribut- 
ed, the master gives the order, ** Open copy-books ;" then all 
the pupils in the class must obey the order at the same moment 
the master may next say, " Take up pens •" then all the pupils 
must, in like manner, promptly and exactly obey the order : 
he may next say, " Prepare to write ;" every boy, in this case, 
must place his copy-book and his own body in fiie proper posi- 
tion for writing, tiiis position having been previously explained 
by the master : he may now say, "Begin writing;" and all 
the class commence their work at the same moment. Similar 
orders may be given when the pupils have finished the first line. 
The master must then rapidly inspect the copy-books, giving a 
hint to each pupil as he passes him, and afterwards he will 
make some more enlarged remarks upon the writing, addressed 
to the whole class, as it generally happens that the ntults of one 
boy are common to the whole class. We do not mean to say 
that an intelligent teacher will slavishly follow this plan, or in- 
deed any other plan that might be proposed ; at the same time 
it should be observed, that the plan here given must contain 
the leading elements of every efficient plan which mij^ht be 
devised. Every teacher will, of course, adapt the details of a 
plan to suit his peculiar tastes and habits of thought. 

Mulhauser's method of writing seems to be well adapted for 



810 PniLOSOPBY OF EDUCATION. 

giving the firsl elementary lessons in writing ; but tbe meOiod 
ahoul<l not be carried beyond its legitimate limila. In order to 
give a finish 1« writing, no method can supersede that of care- 
fully prepared copy-heads, such as Uiose given by Butterworlh, 
Foster, Story, and others. 

Practical Geometry and Mknsukation. — The pupils 
should be taught these subjects after the collective system of 
teaching, followed up b^ individual exercises. Each pupil in 



. e Bide, and a protractor on the other, and a little triangular 
squaro(Rco the author's Qeotnetry and Mensuration). The master 
should be provided with a large pair of wooden compasses, 
having a chalk-holder at the estremity of one of its legs ; a long 



actly made ; and a lart^ T square. He should construct bis 
figures without the aid of any other instruments. 

The master should draw the geometrical problem on the 
black-board on a'large scale, taking core to excite the attention 
of the jiupils in the class, lime after time, by putting varioas 
Buggestive questions to them, such aa we have given in connec- 
tion with the teaching of drawing, etc. 

Familiar and common. sense expositions (without aspiring to 
strictness of demonstration) should be given relative to tha 
methods of construction. In the same manner, tbe leading 
problems of mensuration should be taught. 

A leeton on Geometry. Subject — A perpendicular, a right 
angle, — illustrative method, — from the concrete to the abstract. 

When a man stands upright, be %taii6a perpendifnila/r to Qie 
floor. The floor of this room is level or horieontai; the wall 



GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 



811 



of the room is vertical y and stands perpendicular to the level 
floor. The surface of still water is level or harieontal; a plum- 
met line hangs vertically ; the plummet line is perpendicular to 
the surface of the water. It will be seen that the plummet lir^ 
neither inclines to the one side nor to the other ; that is to say, 
the openings or angles, which it forms with the horizontal Ime, 
on each side, are egfual to each other. 




B 



B 



B 



Is the line c d perpendicular to A b ? To which side does it 
incline ? On which side does it form the greater angle or open- 
ing ? To which side does c e incline ? On which side does 
c B make the greater angle ? Whether does c d or c e ap- 
proach nearer to the perpendicular position ? To which side 
does the line c f incline ? To neither the one side nor the other. 
Then the angles on each side are eqttal to each other, and they 
are called i*ight angles. 

A lesson on Practical Oeometry. Subject — To erect a perpen- 
dicular. Mixed method. Illustrative, constructive, etc. 

I want to show you how to draw one line perpendicular to 
another. From the given point, or mark, d, in the straight 
line A B, I want to erect a perpendicular y that is, a line which 
will neither incline to the one side nor to the other. 

On each side of d, I take d f, of the same length as d e. 
(The teacher is supposed to construct the figure as he describes 




it.) I open the legs of my compasses so that the opening be- 
tween ih& points shall be greater than d b or d f ; I place one 
point of my compasses on tiie mark or point s, ana sweep a 
portion of s. circle; I now place the point of the compasses on 
the mark or point f, and sweep a portion of another circle, 
cutting the former in a point which we shall call c ; I join d 
and c, and the line d c will be perpendimla/r to the line A b. 



313 PBILOSOPHT OF EDUCATION, 

I shall now explain to you why this mode of construction 
causes e d to be perpendicular to a b. 

There are two thin^ in the construction which cause the 
line D c to be perpendicular to a b ; first, d e is of the same 
length as D F ; second, the two circles were swept with the 
same radius or opening of the eompcums. These two things 
cause the point c to lie directljr over, or perpendicularly over 
the paint d. If the second radms or opening of the compasses 




be taken less than the first opening (here the teacher must de- 
scribe the figure), how will the line c d be inclined ? It will be 
inclined towards the side p. Why ? For the point where the 
two circles cut each other must lie nearer to f than to e. But 
when the openings of the compasses are the same, the point 
where the circles cut each other lies neither more towards f than 
towa/rds b, and therefore the line d c is equally inclined to a b ; 
that is to say, d c is perpendiculctr to ab. 

Olwervations. Although this may not be what is called a 
logical demonstration, yet it most certainly gives the pupil a 
sufficient beason for concluding that the line c d is perpen- 
dicular to A B. It is further worthy of observation, that such 
familiar expositions prepare the mind of the pupil for following 
more strictly logical demonstrations. I am well aware that 
some persons are disposed to say that the shortest course is to 
carry the pupil through Euclicrs Elements ; but, after the ex- 
perience or a quarter of a century as a mathematical lecturer, I 
have no hesitation in saying that it is quite impracticable to 
teach young persons the elements of Euclid until they have gone 
over some initiatory course of demonstrative geometry, by 
which the mind of the pupil is led to pass from the concrete to 
the abstract. It is true that this initiatory process of demon- 
stration is always lengthy ; but it acts like a mechanical power, 
for what Vie hee tn time we gain m force. 

Algebra. — This subject should be taught by a demonstrative 
method, — proceeding from the concrete to the abstract. The 
leading simple elementary operations of quantities should be 
first taught in connection with the solution of problems. 



ALGEBRA, 818 

A Usson on Algebra, Subject— -Equations, etc. 

Problem. A man bought a cow and a horse for 28^. ; now the 
horse cost twice as much as the cow and 41, more ; what did he 
pay for the cow ? 

Here the problem tells us that the value of the cow and the 
horse ec^^o^^twerUy-eight pounds, I may then write this down 
in the form of an equation ; thus— 

1 cow -h 1 horse = 28/. 

Now I must put the horse into cows. What does the ques- 
tion tell us about the value of the horse ? That a horse is 
woith two cows and 41, more. Then I may write down— 

1 horse = 2 cows + 45. 

We shall now write down, or stibstituie, this value of the hone 
in the first equation ; thus 

lcow+2cows + 4/.= 2a. 

What have I here substituted for one horse ? 
Putting the cows together, we have 

8cows+4/.= 2a. 

If I take away the 41. from the left side of this equation what 
must I take away from the other side to keep up t£e equality ? 
Let us do this; then 

8 cows = 24/. 
.-. lcow = iof 24/.= 8/., 

that is to say, the value of the cow is 8/. 
Or thus more sifmboHcaUy : Proceeding as before, we have 

1 cow + 1 horse = 28/. 

Let us, for the sake of convenience, put x for the value of the 
cow in pounds, that is, let 

1 cow = X, 

but 1 horse = 2 cows -f- 41, 

.', one horse = 2aj+ 41, 

Why do I put 2aj for the value of "2 cows"? Because ic 
pounds is the value of one cow, and therefore 2x pounds will be 
the value of tioo cows. 

Now let us put these values for ike cow and the horse in our 
first equation. First writing x for the eow snd 2a; 4~ 4/. for the 
horse, we get 

aj + 2«+4/. = 28/. 
.-. So? -1-4/.= 28/., 



314 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

What have I done here? Exactly, an x added to 2x will 
make 8a;, in the same manner as one cow added to ttoo cows will 
make ^ree cows. 

In order to leave nothing but x*^ on the leftside of this equa- 
tion, what must I do? 

.-. a» = 24?. 

.-. a; = iof24;.= «., 

that is to say, the value of the cow is 8^. 

Mechanical and Physical Science. — All our instructions in 
these sciences should be based on observation and experiment. 
The methods of interrogation and ellipses are best adapted for 
givins familiar lectures on these subjects. 

A lesson on Chemistry, Subject — To distinguish iron from 
copper. Mixed method — ^Experimental, Interrogative, Ellipti- 
cal, etc. 

Propbrtikb debtved from observation. What are the 
names of these metals? The one is called iron, the other copper. 
The color of the copper is reddish-fellow , that of the iron dark 
gray. They have some properties m common. They both have 
a peculiar glitter or lustre, called the metaUie lustre, or the lustre 
common to all metals. Polished wood has a lustre, but it is not 
the metallic lusPre, I can readily scratch the c^per with my 
knife, but I cannot so easily scratch the iron. What inference 
do you draw from this? Copper is softer than iron. They 
may be both hammered out ; they are both malleable. It takes 
a verv intense heat to melt them — ^they are not easily melted or 
fused. They are both drawn out into wires — ^they are both 
ductile. 

Uses. Name the uses of iron. Name the uses of copper. 
On what properties do these uses depend? 

Ores op iron and copper. This a specimen of iron ore, 
that of copper ore; the one is called iron pyrites, the other cop- 
per pyrites; the one is called sulphuretof iron, being composed 
of sulphur and iron ; the other is called sulphuret of copper, 
being composed of sulphur and copper. Compare their colors ! 
The copper ore has the deeper yellow color, I can scratch the 
copper ore with my knife, but I cannot scratch the iron ore — 
the copper ore is softer than the iron ore. 

Chemical properties or tests. Here is a solution of 
sulphate of copper. What is its color ? what is its composi- 
tion ? Here is a solution of sulphate of iron. What is its 
color, etc.? 

Here are two glasses : to the first I add a little of the solution 
of the sulphate of iron, and to the other a little of the sulphate 



CHEMICALS.'^NATURAL HISTORY, 815 

of copper. To these I add a few drops of the tincture of nutgaUs : 
the first becomes black, the second is slightly discolored. 

Here are two glasses containing pure water : to the first I add 
a few drops of sulphate of iron, and to the second a few drops 
of sulphate of copper. To these I first add a drop of ammonia 
— a light precipitate is formed m both glasses. What are these 
precipitates ? Now so far we have not arrived at any decided 
test as to the nature of the two substances ; but I now add to each 
a larger quantity of ammonia : in the first glass the precipitate 
is redissolved, and a beautiful deep blue color is formed ; in the 
second glass the precipitate remains unchanged. And so on. 

Natural History.*— Natural Histoiy, as a branch of Educa- 
tion, has been almost entirely neglected in our schools, although 
it treats of objects with which we come daily and hourly into 
contact tliroughout the whole course of our lives. Much time 
is devoted to subjects which have but a remote and indirect 
bearing on the pupil's future career ; yet how few there are who 
come out of the Elementary, or even Grammar School, with a 
knowledge of the name and histoiy of the little plant which 
grows at the side of the playground, or of the/ock whidi ap- 
pears in the neighboring valley. 

For the neglect of Natural History in our schools training 
Colleges are not a little to blame, for they have rarely given it 
an adequate place in their curriculum: and the consequence has 
been tbaX few teachers have acquired a knowledge of the sub- 
ject, or become imbued with a love of Natural Hfitory pursuits. 
The technicalities of the science have proved a stumbling-block 
to many who have not enjoyed the advantages of special col- 
legiate instruction. But an intelligent teacher need not be 
scared away by such difficulties, for they may be as easily sur- 
mounted as the preliminary obstacles which bar the entrance 
into mathematics or classics. Indeed we know no class of men 
for whom Natural History studies are more fitted than for 
teachers. Most of them have sufficient leisure for these pur- 
suits, which have this peculiar advantage, that while ^ey im- 
prove the mind they give health to the body. What more bene- 
ficial to the teacher than to escape from the crowded school- 
room, and to wander over green fields and wild moors, through 
shady forests, or along Uie solitary shore, and to examine, as he 
passes, the lovely flower blushing beneath the hedge, the rock 
forming the picturesque cliff, the insects flitting in the air, or 
the finny tribes sporting in the waters I 



* Ctommnnfciated by the Author^s brother, Mr. George Tate, F.G.S. 



316 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

The introduction of Natural History as a prominent subject 
of school instruction would, we are persuaded, not only impart 
valuable knowledge, but also improve the taste of the pupils, 
and furnish them with healthful sources of enjoyment. It would 
be an efficient means of mental training, well suited to children, 
for it would teach how to observe, to note qualities and forms, 
to mark agreements and differences, and how to describe natural 
objects in precise and distinctive language. The higher facul- 
ties of the mind are also called into exercise in discovering the 
lelations which the varied productions of nature have to each 
other, and in groping and classifying them according to these 
relations. 

There is probably no occupation which mi^ht not be more or 
less benefited by a knowledge of Natural History ; it has a di- 
rect bearing on medicine, agriculture, gardening, mining, and, 
indeed, most mechanical employments ; but to the emigrant — 
and in these days many of our fellow-countrymen seek in dis- 
tant colonies a more profitable field of labor than they can find 
in their native land— it is of incalculable value. Through ig- 
norance of minerals, quantities of iron pyrites, which have the 
yellow glittering aspect of the noble metal, but which are com- 
paratively worthless, have been sent from distant lands to Eng- 
land under the belief that they contained gold. Not long ago a 
Calif ornian adventurer picked up a bright tran8i)arent crystal, 
which he imagined was a diamond, and for which he refused 
£200 ; he brought it to England and learned that it was worth- 
less. A little knowledge of Mineraloey, which might have been 
given in any elementary school, would have taught him that this 
crystal, which he priz^ so highly, was onlv a six-sided prism 
of quartz, and l^at it could not be a diamond, since this valuable 
gem never assumes that form. 

It is no slight recommendation of Natural History that the 
materials for its study are inexhaustible, and that they he in every 
man's path. Hence it is, that he who has received elementary 
instruction in this department of science is ever brought into 
connection with tiie beautiful, the wonderful, and the pei^ect ; 
he can interrogate Nature and understand her responses ; he is 
surrounded with familiar friends — though solitary, he is never 
alone — rocks, plants, and animals are to him ministering spirits, 
full of hidden meanings, and ready to contribute to his improve- 
ment and happiness. 

To childr^ Natural History can be most efficiently taught 
out of doors. Here, if anywhere, pleasure may be combined 
with instruction. For this purpose rambles should be taken 
into the country pretty frequently when the weather is favor- 



NATURAL HISTORY. 317 

able. Let Botanjr, for example, be the subject studied: the 
teacher should visit with his pupils some pleasant spot where 
the wild -flowers grow in profusion ; the pupils should gather 
these plants, and the teacher, seated, it may be, on a grassy hil- 
lock or on a jutting rock, should, making use of the materials 
collected, ex:i)]ain their character, structure, and relations. Nor 
will the intelligent teacher neglect to link with direct instruction 
the legends and the historical or remarkable events of the dis- 
trict, so as to Invest the natural objects with local associations, 
giving a deeper interest to his subject. The rector of an acad- 
emy m Scotland, who is an accomplished entomologist, acts the 
peripatetic philosopher with his pupils, and from bis school 
several good naturalists have gone forth : and wc read not long 
ago an account of a national school in the South of England, 
"vdiere the children had made no inconsiderable p:*ogress in Bot- 
any. We are persuaded that Natural History could be taught 
to children even from an early age without materially intener- 
ing with the time devoted to other branches ; and we may here 
after enter into more practical details on the subject. In the 
mean time we would ask any intelligent teacher^ Would not the 
adoption of some such plan as we propose have a healthful in- 
fluence both on himself and his pupils ? Would it not relieve 
the tedium of the ordinary school routine, carried out as it is 
for the most part in confined apartments ; and while opening 
out new sources of instruction and enjo^ent, would it not lay 
the foundation of much future happiness? Let him fairly 
attempt to work out our suggestion, and we are sure of a satis- 
factory result 



318 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 



Paet v. 

ON SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND DISCI- 
PLINE. 

SCHOOL ORaANIZATION. 

School oTganization has respect to all those mechanical ar- 
rangements, appliances, and artifices whereby the business of 
instruction may be facilitated and promoted. The following 
subjects deserve especial attention : 

I. School-buildings and Fittings. — The best form of a 
schoolroom is that of an oblong. It should be fitted up with 
parallel rows of desks, in the form of a gallery, for the differ- 
ent classes ; and a raised platform should be erected at one end, 
from which the master can overlook the whole school. The 
desks should be arranged into five or six divisions, to suit the 
number of classes in the school. The room should contain at 
least 7 square feet of an area for each pupil to be acconuno- 
dated ; and the space of 18 inches should be allowed for each 
boy on the forms. The class divisions should be about 9 feet 
in length, and may contain from three to five rows of parallel 
desks. Every good school should have a separate room called 
a classroom, fitted up with a gallery having parallel desks, for 
the purpose of enabling the master to give instruction to his 
pupil-teachers, and occasional special lessons or lectures to the 
advanced pupils of the school. This class-room should be fitted 
up with an open fire-place, a large black-board, a lecture table, 
and cases for holding experimental and other kinds of school 
apparatus. 

The schoolroom should be well warmed and thoroughly 
ventilated. The most economical and efllcient means of warm- 
ing and ventilating schoolrooms are those stoves which attain 
both of these objects at the same time. There have been some 



SCHOOL APPARATUS. 319 

excellent stoves of this kind introduced into some of our large 
workshops, but we are not aware that they have as yet heen 
sufficiently employed in our schools. 

Some schoolrooms are divided into three equal portions, the 
first containing space for the children to stand in semicircular 
drafts ; the second, seats with desks for writing ; and the third, 
a gallery for simultaneous instruction. But it appears to us 
that this triple division interferes very much witii the order, 
quiet, and discipline of tlie school. A series of parallel desks, 
arranged in the gallery form, and subdivided for the accommo- 
dation of the different classes, under proper management, not 
only answers all the desirable purposes of this tri^e division, 
but also secures the imiform and continuous action of all the 
classes, without any of that noise and confusion necessarily at- 
tendant upon the cnanges of position, etc., connected with Ihe 
standing drafts. 

The schoolroom should be constructed so as to deaden as 
much as possible the echo of the teachers' or the children's 
voices; and the school should be in a quiet, cheerful, and 
healthy neighborhood. The ground should be thoroughly 
drained, and complete water-closets should be provided for the 
use of the children. A playground should be attached to the 
schools, where the children may amuse themselves with games 
and gymnastic exercises, at the times set apart for that pur- 
pose ; and where also the boys should be daily exercised at 
drill. 

The best plans of schools have been given by Sir James Kay 
Shuttleworth, in the Minutes of Council for the years 1839, 
1840, 1844, and 1847-8. Professor' Moseley's tripartite plan is 
admirably adapted to the hirfier class of elementary schools. 

n. School Apparatus. — The Black-board should be sup- 
ported on an easel in front of the class. It should be sufficiently 
large, with a smooth black surface capable of receiving chalk- 
mai'ks. All diagrams and expositions should be distinctly 
sketched upon the black-board with prepared chalk. The 
teacher should be provided with a pointer, and a duster, which 
should be in a damp state when used for rubbing out the chalk- 
marks. 

The Text-books, Maps, Diagrams, Models, and Picto- 
RL\L Illustrations should be in keeping with the master's 
peculiar system of instruction. 

The School Library should contain books suited to the 
attainments, capabilities, and future pursuits of the pupils in 
the school. 



820 



PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 



•»^ 



III;! 

*** S s 5 « 





1 








Signage 
of the 
Child. 


IWiiuipq^IAi 
JO ©mix ©m »V 








*oo|8B|tapY 
JO ooiix oq^ %Y 








1 


'aonvdnooQ 

pOBOdOJJ 








'ixosvoH 








-SBVIO 








'looips HI dmix 








•o»V 








'9V»a 








Date of the Child's 
Admission to each Class. 


»H 








« 








00 








^ 








aO 








e 








'no{)onj98ai 
Bno|A9jd J9pira ecDix 








'nononj)8tii snofAaij 








*89nare<i jo no^vdnooo 








'90IX9PI80H 








•aoi8B|mpv %v 99y 








'nofSBimpY jo e^vQ 








'joquiiiK Z9pni 










'VXYJH 









REGISTER OF DAILY ATTENDANCE. 



821 




833 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

The Expebimental Apparatus should, at first, be of the 
most simple and inexpensive description. It is better that a 
master should learn to use a little apparatus with smartness and 
precision, than to be constantly handling a great deal, with 
awkwardness and indecision, it is important to bear in mind, 
that reading alone will not give a man the power of manipula- 
tion. Let 5ie teacher begin with the simplest possible appara- 
tus, and then go on progressively until he is able to manipulate 
with perfect instruments. 

List of Apparatus for General Use, — Mm of the World, of 
Europe, of England, of Palestine, of the BritiBh Colonies, and 
a raised physical map of England. 

A terrestrial globe, black-boards for all the classes in the 
schcx)l, slate-pencils, black-lead pencils, penholders, pencil- 
holders, earthenware ink-wells, strings for slates, prepared 
chalk, admission-book, class-register books, attendance and 
absence register, routines of lessons, visitors' book, etc. 

Class register of daUy attendancey etc, — This form (R) is also 
recommended by Professor Moseley. Each class should be pro- 
vided with this register, and the teacher or pupil-teacher su- 
perintending the particular class should fill in the columns. 
It will be observed that the register extends over the whole 
quarter. This register should always be kept under lock and 
key when not in use. The time-table of each class should be 
entered in its register; a certain number of fly-leaves bdng left 
at the beginning for the purpose. 

Weekly summa/ry of attendance, etc., for ea>^ qua/rter, — Table 
C gives the form of this register. The averages, etc., to be en- 
tered in these columns should be filled in at the end of every 
week, and then the result^ found by adding together the num- 
bers in the colunms,, should be entered. 



WEEKLY SUMMARY OF ATTENDANCE, 



828 



C. WMly 8umma/ry of Attendance, etc. 


,foreaeh Q^tuiflrtef 


1 
• 


FIB6T QUABTBR. 






From Monday, the Day of , to Saturday, 






the Day of 


t? 


Clus. 






Averaee No. 
of Days 






1 




Avera^ 


No. 


No. on 
Register. 


Reoeived 


^ 




No. 


present 


attended by 


by School 


E 




present. 


at all. 


each ChUd 


Fees. 








present at all. 




















S 


1 












.a 

J8 














1 


8 












1 
§ 


• 1 • • 1 

III ■ i 


s 


1 




• 
1 


1 
• 


• 
• 


1 
• 


1 


RflSUlt. 






• 









(And so on to the Second, Third, and Fourth Quarters.) 

Qua/rierly 9vmma/ry of attendarice, etc, — The fonn of this reg- 
ister is dven in Table E. Each of the quarterly tables should 
be filled up at the end of each quarter. Nothing has to be done 
except to write in and add up the weekly results of the preced- 
ing register (C). 

Annual summa/ry of attendance, etc, — ^Table E gives the form 
of this register. In this case the quarterly results are filled in, 
and then added up to give the resists for the year. 



IIt- 

lii 

1 

i 
i 

I! 

I 1 
1 


PHILOSOPBT OF S 

ill' ^ 

■S 1 

f If 
1 it 

i 1 


DVCATIO^. 

II-' ^ 


14 


1 


111 


III 


1 



ma: table of Lxsaons. 



835 



S 



Irg 



c8 '-* 



60 " 



U 



I 



5 



I 



5 



O 



Iff I i I 



8 






I 






115111 1 «l5|a !- 






i<:« iff :« iff a« 

S sJsBS SSS S S 

$^^\ ^\ l^\ l^\ I^N 



aaO PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. 

Classifioation. — ^Without classification, the collective sys- 
tem of instruction would be worse tlian useless. The fijist 
bujEdness of the schoolmaster, therefore, is to throw his pupils 
into classes, where the boys in each class shall have the same, 
or as nearly as possible the same, attainments and capabiHties. 
The numl)er of classes in a school must depend upon its size 
as well as upon the differences of age and attainments of the 
pupils. A very minute division is neither desirable nor practi- 
cable. It is not at all requisite, to secure efficient instruction, 
that all the pupils in a class should have exactly the same at- 
tainments ; for a good teacher can always adapt nis instruction 
to suit boyB whose attainments do not differ widely from each 
other. Aa a general rule, a large school may contain about 
eight classes, and a school of an average size about fiye. The 
pupils in each class should continue there for eyery subject of 
study until promoted to the next class. Under a proper i^ 
tem of management, the subdivision of classes into drafts, for 
the purpose of attaining a more perfect classification, is rarely 
necessary, and, in my opinion, should only be resorted to m 
special cases. 

Basis of classification.— The proper basis of classifica- 
tion, as we have already explained (see p. 117), should be the 
mental power and capabilities of the pupils. The following 
method of classification is simple, practicable, and sufficiently 
exact for all ordinary cases : 

First, arrange the pupils into three great divisions; second, 
subdivide each division into two or more classes. Thus in a 
school of 120 bovs we should have on an average 40 boys in 
each division, and 20 boys in each class. 

Tests ob qualifications fob the thbbb divisionb. — 
Reading and general intelligence may be taken as the best tests 
for fixing the division to which any child may belonff. Read- 
ing words of one and two syllables may be taken as the qualifi- 
cation for the third or lowest division; reading words of two 
and three syllables, or reading simple sentences with intelli- 
gence, as the qualification for &e second division; and reading 
words of four or any higher number of syllables, or reading 
the higher class-books with tolerable intelhgence, as the qualT 
fication for the first or highest division. 

T^tb ob qualifications fob thb classes.— In this case 
arithmetic forms the best basis of classification. Here a knowl- 
edge of principles, not less than mechanical dexterity, should 
enter into our estimate of qualifications. 

If the third divmon contains two classes, the lower class may 
contain those children that have not commenced elate arith- 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE. 827 

metic, or who have only commenced the subject of mental cal- 
culation ; the higher class may contain those children who have 
commenced slate arithmetic, or who have made some progress 
in mental arithmetic. 

If the second dkision contains two classes, the lower class 
may contain those children that have not completed the four 
elementary rules ; theliigher class those that have commenced 
the subject of reduction. 

If ihe first division contains two classes, the lower class may 
contain those boys who are capable of working questions in 
the rule of three, without the use of fractions ; and the higher 
class those that are capable of understanding fractions and arith- 
metical problems generally. 

The Pupil Teachers.— The pupil-teachers should always be 
selected for their general intelligence, good conduct, and apti- 
tude for teaching. The number of pupil-teachers must, of 
course, depend upon the size of the school ; for a school of 120 
boys diere should be at least four pupil-teachers. It is also 
desirable that there should be a class of assistant pupil-teach- 
ers, who may be considered in a state of probation, or prepa- 
ration, for the office of pupil-teacher. These assistant pupil- 
teachers ma^ have a draft of a class given to them, for teaching 
certain subjects which may require a greater subdivision of 
labor. The master should constantly bear in mind that the or- 
ganization and efficiency of his school greatly depend upon the 
training of his pupfl-teachers. 

SCHOOL DISCrPLINB. 

School discipline includes all those means and appliances 
whereby the order and healthful action of a school are mamtained 
and promoted, 

L Order, etc. — Under this head may be classed obedience, 
punctuality, silence, cleanliness, politeness, and general good 
conduct. It is quite unnecessary to explain in detail how these 
matters of discipline should be carried out in a school. The 
following general principles are well deserving the teacher's 
notice: 

1. The teacher should endea/oor to establish a principle of limited 
self-ffovemment in his school. This will occasionally relieve him 
of some of his most onerous duties ; but even this is the least 
important end which will be ^ined by such a plan. The great 
end to be attained by it is to mterest the pupils in the manage- 
ment and proper discipline of the school — to identify them, as 
it were, with the good name of .the school, to have it said that 



828 PBIL080PHT OF EDUCATION. 

the order of the school is mainly due to their own good sense 
and self -eovemment One of the most ohvious plans for carry- 
ing out this plan is for the teacher to delegate (under super- 
vision) his authority, in relation to order, etc., to his pupil- 
teachers. But the principle should not stop here : he i^ould 
endeavor to enlist the co-operation of all the advanced pupils, 
and to govern the whole school by its public opinion. 

The following storv given by Jacob Abbott, about a hat-peg, 
affords us a graphic illustration of the principle which we should 
wish to see carried out. 

The preceptor of an academy was sitting at his desk, at the 
close of the school, while the pupils were putting up their 
books and leaving the room, when a boy came in with angrv 
looks, and, with his hat in his hand bruised and dusty, ad- 
vanced to Uie master's desk, and complained that one of his 
companions had thrown down his hat upon the floor, and had 
almost spoiled it. 

The teacher looked calmly at the mischief, and then asked 
how it happened. 

" I don't know, sir ; I hung it upon my naQ, and he pulled 
it down." 

" I wish you would ask him to come here," said the teacher); 
" ask him pleasantly." 

The accused soon came in, and the two boys stood together 
before Hie master. 

** There seems to be some difficulty between you two boys, 
about a nail to hang your hats upon. I suppose each of you 
think it is vour own nail." 

" Yes, su*," said both the boys. 

"It will be more convenient for me to talk with you about 
it to-morrow, than to-night, if you are willing to wait Be- 
sides, we can examine it more calmly then. But if we put it 
off till then, you must not talk about it in the mean time, blam- 
ing one another, and keeping up the irritation that you feel. 
Are you both wUling to leave it just where it is, till to-morrow, 
and try to forget all about it tOl then? I expect I shall find you 
both to blame." 

The boys reluctantly consented. The next day the master 
heard the case and settled it, so far as it related to the two 
boys. It was easily settled in tiie morning, for they had had 
time to get calm, and were, after sleeping away their anger, 
rather ashamed of the whole affair, and very desirous to have 
it forgotten. 

That day, when the hour for transaction of business came, 
the teacher stated to the school that it was necessary to take 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE, 829 

flome measures to proTide each boy with a nail for his hat. In 
order to show that it was necessary, he related the circum- 
stances of the quarrel which had occurred the day before. He 
did this, not with such an air and manner as to convey the im- 
pression that his object was to find fault with the boys, or to 
expose their misconduct, but to show the necessity of doing 
something to remedy the evil, which had been the cause of so 
unpleasant an occurrence. Still, though he said nothing in the 
way of reproach or reprehension, and did not name the boys, 
but merely gave a cool and impartial narrative of the facts — 
tiie effect, verv evidently, was to bring such quarrels into dis- 
credit. A caun review of misconduct, after the excitement has 
gone by, will do more to bring it into di^race, than the most 
violent invectives and reproaches, directed against individuals 
guilty of it. 

" Now, boys," continued the master, " will you assist me in 
making arrangements to prevent the recurrence of aU tempta- 
tions pi this kmd hereafter ? It is plain that every boy ou^ht 
to have a nail appropriated expressly to his use. The first thmg 
to be done is to ascertain whether there are enough for all. i 
should like, therefore, to have two committees appointed — one 
to count and report the number of nails in the entry, and also 
how much room there is for more. The other is to ascertain the 
number of scholars in school. They can count all who are here, 
and, by observing the vacant desks, they can ascertain the num- 
ber araent. When this investigation is made, I will tell you 
what to do next." 

The boys seemed pleased with the plan, and the committees 
were appointed, two members on each. The master took care 
to give the quarrellers some share in the work, apparently f or- 

fettmg, from this time, the unpleasant occurrence which had 
rought up the subject. 

When the boys came to tell him their results, he asked them 
to make a little memorandum, in writing, as he might forget, 
before the time came for reading them. They brought him 
presently a rough scrap of paper, with the figures marked upon 
it. He told them he should forget which was the number of 
the nails, and which the number of the scholars unless they 
wrote it down. 

" It is the custom among men," said he, " to make out their 

report in such a case fully, so that it would explain itself ; and 

I &ould like you, if you are willing, to make out yours a little 

more distinctly." 

Accordingly, after a little additional explanation, the boys 



330 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 

made another attempt, and presently returned, with aomethfng 
like the following: 

" The QomnMeefcT eounUng the nails report cufotkftM: 
" Jy umber of naOe - - 85 
''Boom for - - - 15" 

The other report was very similar, though somewhat rudely 
written and expressed, and both were satisfactory to the pre- 
ceptor, as he plainly showed by the manner in which he re- 
ceived them. 

I need not finish the description of this case, by narrating 
particularly the reading of the reports, the appointment of a 
committee to assign the nails, and to paste up the names of the 
scholars, one to each. The work m such a case might be 
done in recesses and out of school hours, and though at first 
the teacher will find that it is as much trouble to accomplish 
business in this way as it would be to attend to it directly nim- 
self, yet after a very little experience he will find that his 
pupils will acquire dexterity and readiness, and will be able to 
render him very material assistance in the accomplishment of 
his plans. 

2. As far as possible, the diseipline of the school should be 
mamtainiBd wOhmt the aid cf direct punishments; and its health- 
ful tone and action should be rarely promoted by &e appHcaOon of 
such powerful stimulants as revfords orflaJttering eommendaiions. 

We have already explained pretty fully our views relative to 
the subject of rewards and punishments (see p. 135, etc.). We 
have therefore only further to add, that when the teacher 
really finds it necessary that he should have recourse to punish- 
ments in order to maintain the discipline of his school, he 
should act upon some graduated system of secondary punish- 
ments before he inflicts the severest of them. Sometimes a 
look from the teacher will be sufficient to make a bov sensible 
of his fault ; a reproof may supersede the ncoessitv of any fur- 
ther punishment ; the withdrawal of some privilege may do 
more in correcting a boy of his error Ihan the use of the rod ; 
and a moderate infliction of some corporal punishment may 
be more efficacious in counteracting crime than a higher degree 
of degrading torture. 

Whenever rewards are bestowed on boys of superior merit 
and character, they should be given as mementoes of good con- 
duct, and not as possessing any value apart from the object for 
which they are given. 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE. 831 

8. DriU exercises a/re highly calculated to promote the order and 
healthfid action of a school. 

Besides the usaal drill exercises in the playground, the 
teacher should frequently relieve the monotony of his lessons 
by requiring his pupils, tune after, time, to go through certain 
simple gsrmnastic movements, such as *' arms folded, " hands 
on desks," " stand," " sit," " hands up," *' down," " shoulders 
up," '• right hand up," " left up," " turn," " front," etc. 

Before a teacher commences a lesson, he should drill the 
children into good order; amongst other things they should be 
commanded to sit upright, or to sit exactly m front of their 
desks, or to place their feet in a proper position, or to sit at 
proper distances from each other, or to place their books or 
slates properly — and so on. 

They should be marched in and out of their classes in regular 
military order. Every gymnastic movement should be per- 
formed simultaneously, and with smartness and precision. All 
this tends very much to foster habits of order and prompt 
obedience. 



THB END. 



g. L. KELLOOO & CO., NEW YORK A CHICAGO. 9 

T^ayne's Lectures on the Science and 

Asx OF Eduoation. Beading CircU Edition. By Josbfb 
Patnb, the first Professor etf the Science and Art of Edu- 
cation in the CoUege of Preceptors, London, England. 
With portrait, ISmo, 350 pp English cloth, with gold 
back stamp. Price, tl.OO ; to teachers, 80 cente ; by mail, 
7 cente ea.tra. Elegant new edition from new plates. 

Teachers who are seeking tt 
know the principles of education 
will find them clearly set fi»th in 
this volume. It must be remem- 
bered that principlea are thebaaiB 
upon which all methods of teach- 
ing must be fonnded. So valu- 
aUe is this book that if a t«acher 
were to decide to own but tbree 
works on edncation, this would 
be one of them. This edition 
contains all of Hr. Parne's writ- 
ings that are in anr ower Ameri- 
can abridged editJon, and t« the 
only one with hieportmit. It is 
far superior to aoj other edititm 
publiBbed. 

JOSEPB TATtta, 

WHY THIS EDITION IS THE BEST. 

(1.) The side-titles. These give the contents of tlio page. 
(3.) The analysis of each lecture, with reference to the eaiica- 
tional points in it. (3.) The general analysis pointirig out the 
three great principtes found at the beginning, (i.) T^ index, 
where, under such heads as Teaching, Education, The Child, 
the important utterances of Mr, Payne are set forth. (6.) 
Its bandy shape, large type, fine paper, and press-work and 
tasteful binding. AQ of these features make this a most val- 
uable book. To obtain all these features in one edition, it 
was found necessary to get out this new edition. 

Ohio Xdnostloiikl Hontllly.— "Itdoee not deal with shadowy theorlM : 
it la Intensely prsctical." 

.fhllsdeliAia Edncational Kewi.~"Ocight to be !□ library of every 
progtoaaipe teacher." 

Banoatlciilal Conrant.— " To know how to teaoh, more tr needed tliaii 
a kDovledgeoIthebranobNtauKbt. This Is espedaUy vaiuable," 

P«nnivlTUii> Journal ti EdneatiDa.— "Will be of prautioft) vtilue to 
Normal'sohools and ir-"-^-'— " 



BBHII AUE* 09LDBB8 TO 

10 J^. L. KELLOGG 4: CO., NEW YORK db CHIC AGO. 

Watt Virginia Sehool Jovnal.—" Espeoially pleased with the appear- 
aDoe of this volume/' 

Sdiuational Oonrant.— " Deals with prinoiples rather than methods.*' 

Albany ETening Jovmal.— **Teaohen who are seeUnff the prinoiples 
of education will find them set forth here." 

American Jonmal of Ednoation.— '* Ought to be read by the school 
ofBoers of every dlstriotT* 

Philadelphia Teaoher.— ** By following which the teacher may become 
BuccessfuL" 

8apt. J. X. Greenwood, Kansas City.~*I regard Payne as the 
Horace Mann of England. I wish 200,000 copies could be put into tiie 
hands of teachers.** 

Col. F. W. Parker.—** One of the books I recommend all mypupils to 
buy, read, and study. I use it in my Professional Training Glass as a 
text-book." 

W. W. Spoer, Cook Co. Normal School, m.— "I was instrumental in 
distributing several hundred r^ these lectures while Supt of Mar- 
shall, County, Iowa. 

A. J. Bickoff. Lata Bnpt. of Tonkers Schools,— ** These lectures 
sguar^ advocara the best and most advanced doctrines of education. 
YOU have placed the teachers under obligation by publishing them.'* 

Jas. XoAllittar, Bnpt. Philadelphia PnbUo Schools.-**! consider it 
as one of the most valuable books on education." 

D. L. Xeihlo, Sunt, of Schools, Xinnoiota.— **One of the best books 
on the Science of Education.*' 

Tennessee Journal of Education.—** This firm is doing a grand thing 
in publishing this book." 

Canada Educational Xonthly.— **No teacher who alms to be pro- 
gressive should fail to master its contents.*' 

Normal Advocate.—** Should be in the hands of every one who pre- 
sumes to aid in shaping an immortal mind." 

Philadelphia Ledger.— ** A volume worth its weight in certiflcates to 
any teacher." 

Boston Journal of Education.—** Mr. Payne ranks among the best 
educators of modem times and the work should be in the library of 
every teacher.'* 

Boston Advertiser.—** Those who would Bke to see a change in our 
mechanical method, will welcome this book." 

Springfield Bepnhlioan.— ** Will prove a valuable addition to the 
library of progressive teachers." 

Independent.—** The new method is more clearly stated in this volume 
than in any other volume of equal compass." 



FOR READING CIRCLES. 

*• Payne's Lectures " is pre-eminently the book for Reading 
Circles. It has already been adopted by the New York, Ohio, 
Philadelphia, New Jersey, Illinois, Colorado, and Chautauqua 
Circles, besides many in counties and cities. Eemember thai 
Qur edition is far superior to any other jpublishecL 



13 E. L. KELLOaa it CO., NEW YORK A CHICAQO. 

Teachers' Manuals Series. 

£acb is printed In large, clear type, on good paper. Paper 
cover, price IS cents; to teaeh- 
en, 12 cents; by mail, 1 cent 

There is a need of small vol- 
umes — " Educational tracts," that 
teachere can carry easily and study 
as tbev have opportunity. The 
followmg numbers have been si' 
ready published. 
'' It should be noted that while 

our editions of such of these little 
bootu that are uol 'written specially 
for this series are as low In price 
as any other, the side-besds, top- 
ics, HDd analyses Inserted by the 
editor, as well as the eicellcut 

Saper and printing, make them 
ir superior in every way to any 
other edition. 
J. a. FrrcB, Inspector of the We wmld waggett Oial aty taper- 

Training Colleeea ot Eugiand. intmdtnit or amdueton cf ituUtvUs 
mipply each tf their teachers vrilA a/pia tjf thtat litUe boolot. Bpedal 
rates for guaalitiet. 

No. I . Fitch's Art of Questioning. 

By J. O. FiTca. M.A., aathor of " Lectures on Teaching." S8 pp. 
Alreadrnldeir known as die uioaEnHful and pncUcM enar on lUs most 
linponaat part ot the teaohen' l«saou-bearinK- 

hio. 2. Fitch's Art af Securing Attention. 

Bv J. a, Fttoh. H, A, sepp. 

No. 3. Sidgwick's On Stimulus in School. 

By AHTHUHSipawiotM.A. 48 pp. 

"Hon can Cbat dull, lazy scholar be preawd on to Tork an his l««ona 
vlth a vlU t" This bright eaaay will toll haw It can be dongL 

Wo. 4. Yonge's Practical IVork in School. 

By CHiBLom M. ToNna^aiichor of " Heir ot Bedclrffe," 3S m. 
All who baTB read Ulw Tooge'B hooka will be glad to read of ber tIcks 
on School Work. 

No. 5. Fitch's Improvement in the Art of Teaching. 

By .^ a. Fitch, H.A. SlSpp. 

tTiIh thoughtful, CHTDeet i-emy will bring comase aad help to raanj a 
t«acher who Is nrunlinz to do better work. It iBdadas a couns of studj^ 



la nriiggllnj to do bi 
I'Trainhig ClaBees, 



8KKO ALL ORDBR8 TO 

B. L. KELLOGG d GO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 18 

No. 6. Gladstone's Object Teaching. 

By J. H. Glaostonb, of the London (£n^.) School Boa):d. 85 pp. 
A abort manuAl full of practical suggestions on Object Teacmng. 

No. 7» Huntington's Unconscious Tuition. 

Bishop Huntington nas placed all teachers under profound obligations to 
him by writing wis work. The earnest teacher has felt its earnest spirit, 
due to its interesting discussion of the foundation principles of education. 
It is wonderfully suggestiTe. 

No. 8. Hughes' How to Keep Order. 

By Jambs L. Huokbs, author of '* Mistakes in Teaching.*' 
lur. Hughes is one of the few noen who know what to say to help a young 
teacher. Thousands are to-day asking, "How shall we keep order?" 
Thousands are saying, *' I can teach well enough, but I cannot keep order.'* 
To such we reoonunend this litUe book. 

No. Q. Quick's How to Train the Memory. 

By BeT. R. H. Quioe, author of " Educational Heformers.*' 
Tnis book comes from school-room experience, and is not a matter of 
theory. Much attention has been lately paid to increasing the power of 
memory. The teacher must make it part of his business to store the 
memory, hence he must know how to do it properly and according to the 
laws of tne mind. 

No. lo. Hoffman's Kindergarten Gifts. 

By HxiinucB Hofthan, a pupil of Proebel. 

Tne author sets forth very clearly the best methods of using them for 
training the child's senses and power of observation. 

No. II. Sutler's Argument for Manual Training. 

By Nicholas Muerat Butlbb, Pres. of N. Y. Ck>llege for TrSning of 
Teachers. 
A clear statement of the foundation principles of Industrial Education. 

No. 12. GrotTs School Hygiene. 

By Pres. O. Q. Qboff, of Buckneil university. Pa. 

we wish that eveiy teacher could read carefully and put in practice the 
olearly-stated prindplee of School Hygiene given in this little book. Care 
of the eyes, light, ventilation, wells, water-closets, etc., are fully treated, 
with several illustrations. 

THIS LIST IS CONSTANTLY BEING ADDED TO. 

NOTICES. 

Central School Jonnud (Iowa.—** The demand is for small books on great 
subjects." 

8. W. Journal of Zdvoatioa.— " Glad to see such valuable papers in such 
a cheap form." 

Ya. School Journal.^" Teachers* manuals in the broad sense.*' 

WlBCOiudB School JovmaL—" The series are deserving the highest com- 
mendation." 

Xdaoation (Boston).—'* Capital little books." 

Saenoo (N. T. City).—" Contain materials that will prove suggestive to 
teachers." 

FrogrifdTO Toad&er.— ** Valuable additions to a series already famous." 

School Herald (Chicago).^" We must commend the good Judgment in 
selecting these books." 

Xdaoational Seoord (Canada).—" Every progressive teacher owht to 
have them." 



U M. t. KBLLOGQ A CO., NEW YORK & 03ICAQ0. 

Welch's Teachers Psychology. 



L the latellectual Faculties, the Order of the 



Psychology, Iowa AKricultunl College, foimerly Prw. of 
the Mich. Nonual School. Qoth. 12mo, 300 pp., fl.85; to 
teaditfft, %\; by m&U, 12 cents extm. Special t«nns to 
Nomul Bchools and Reading Circlea. 
A mastery of the branches tA be taught was once thought to be 
all-suffldent preparation for teaching. But it ia now seen Ibat 
there must be a knowledge of the mind that la to be trained. 



Wei 



■ehology ia the foundation of intelligent pedagogy, iProf. 
'elch undertook to write a book that Bbould deal witli mind- 
unfolding, aa exhibited in the 
school-room. He shows what Is 
meant by attending, memorizing, 
judglag. Bbstiacting, Imagining, 
clasalfying, etc., as it Is done by 
the pupil over his text'books. First, 
there Is the eoneept; tiiea there Is 
(1) gathering concepts, <3) atoring 
i concepts, (8j dividing concepts. 
' (4) abstracting concepts, (5) build- 
'' Ing concepts, (8) gronping con- 
. cepts. (T) connecuag concepts, 
^ (8) deriv^g concepts. Each of 
> these is clearly explained and 11- 
luBttated ; the reader Instead of 
being bewildered orer strange 
terms comprehends that Imagina- 
tion meins a building up of con- 
cepts, and so of the other terms. 
A most valuable part of the book 
ta Its application lo practical education. How to train these 
powers Otat deal with the concept — that is the question. There 
must be exercises to train the mind to gather, itora, dividt, a/ntrael, 
btiild, grmtp, eonntet, and deriee concepts. The author shows 
what studies do this appropriately, and where there are mistakes 
made in the selection of studies. The book wilt prove a valuable 
one to the teacher who wishes to know ttie structnte of the mind 
and the way to minister to ila growth. It would seem that at 
last a psychology had been written that would be a real t^. In- 
stead of a hindrance, to clear knowledge. 



Da. A 8. WnoH. 



BftMD ALL ORDSltS ¥d 

B. L. KELLOGG d CO., NEW YORK db CHIGAGO. 17 

fVelcb's Talks on Psycholo gy. y^J^Hed to 

TiAOHiNO. By A. S. Wklch, LL.D.. £x-Pres. of the Iowa Agricnl- 
tmnl College at Ames, Iowa. Cloth, 16mo, 186 pp. Price, 50 
oents; to teaaten, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

This little book has been written for the purpose of helping the 
teacher in doing more effective work in the school-room. The instnio- 
tOTS in oar schools are familiar with the branches they teach, but de- 
ficient in knowledge of the mental powers whose development they seek 
to promote. But no proficiency that does not include the study of mind, 
can ever qualify for the work of teaching. The teacher must comprehend 
fully not only the o^^acte studied by the learner, but the effiorts put forth 
toid in studying them, the ^eet of these efforts on the faculty exerted, 
tiieir remits in me form of accurate knowledge. It is urged by eminent 
educators everywhere that a knowledge of the branches to be taught, 
and a knouiedffe qfths mind to be trained thereby, are equally essential 
to Bucoessf ul teaching. 

WHAT IT CONTAINS. 

Past L— Chapter 1. Mind Growth and its Helps. Chapter 2.— The Feel- 
ings. Chapterlt.— The Will and the Spontaneities. Chapter 4.— Sensation. 
Chapter 6.— Sense Perception, Gathering Concepts. Chapter 6.— Memory 
and Conception. Chapter 7.— Analysis and Abstraction. Chapter 8.~Im- 
ajrination and ClaaBlncatlon.~Chapter 9.— Judgment and Beaaoning, the 
Tninking Faculties. 

Past n.^He]ps to Mind Growth. Chapter 1.— Education and the Means 
of Attaining it. Chapter £.— Training of the Senses. Chapter 8.— Beading, 
Writing, and Spelling. Chapter 4.---Composition, Elementary Grammar, 
Abstract Arithmetic, etc. 

*«* This book, as will be seen from the contents, deals with the subject 
differently from Dr. Jerome Allen^s **Mind Studies for Young Teachers,** 
(same price) recently published by us. 

FROM THOSE WHO HAVE SEEN IT. 

Go. Imp. SMmMt, Lcmdon, Canada.—** Here find it the most lucid and 
practical introducuon to mental science I have ever seen." 

norida flehool Jonmal.— " Is certainly the best adapted and most de 
sirable for the mass of teachers.** 

Pann. Sohool Jonmal.— ** Earnest teachers will appreciate it.** 

Danville, Ind., Taaoher and Examiner.—" We feel certain this book has 
a mission among the primary teachers." 

Iowa Honnal Xonthly.— '' The best for the average teacher.** 

Brof. H. H. 8eel0j, Iowa State Normal School.— *' I feel that you hav^ 
done a very excellent thing for the teachers. Am inclined to thinic we will 
use it in some of our classes.** 

Soieaoo, H. T.— " Has been written from an educational point of Tiew.** 

Sdnoation, Boaton.— " Aims to help the teacher in the work of the school- 
room.** ' 

ProgreniTO Toadier.— "There is no better work.** 

Xt-Oot. I>7iart, Iowa.—" My first thought was, * What a pity it could not 
be in the hands of every teacher in Iowa.** 



18 E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & OBIQAGO. 

AUen's Mind Studies for Young Teacb- 

EBa. Bj Jbkoick Ilules, Ph.D.. Associate Editor of the 
School Jotjrnai,, Prof, of Pedagogy, Univ. of City of 
N. T. 16ino, large, clear type, 138 pp. Cloth, 60 cents ; (o 
teacJuttv, 40 cents ; by m&il, G cents extra. 

There are m&ny teachers who 
know little about psychology, 
and who desire to be Detter !»' 
formed concerning its princi- 
ples, especially its relation lo the 
work 01 teaching. For the aid 
of Buch, this book has been pre- 
pared. But it is not a psychol- 
ogy—only an introduclion to it, 
aiming to eive some fun(1a> 
mental principles, together witli 
something concerning the phi- 
losophy of education. Itsmeth- 
h od is subjective rather than ob- 
R jective, leading the student to 
t watch mental processes, and 
draw his own conclusions. It 
■ 1 language easy to 

■,Ph.D,.A89ocl»teEditor practical illustrations. It will 
Di Hie journal and intiitnte. aid the teacher In his daily work 
in dealing with mental facts and states. 

To most teacheiB psychology seems lo be dry. This book shows 
bow it may become the most interesting of all studies. It also 
shows how to begin the knowledge of s3f. " We cannot know 
in others what we do not first know in ouiaelves. " This is the 
key-note of this book. Students of elementary psychology will 
appreciate this feature of "Mind Studies." 
ITS CONTENTS. 

^I rrom the SubJeotlTe to the 
ConcepUra. 

XIII. The WilL 

XIV. DiBSBses nr the WUL 
IV, Kinds of Memorr. 

XVI. The SenBltillltff 
■ .tlon of th 

JLHII. 'iTaininjt otthe 

itlic Relation of the Bensibllltieg 

to Honli^. 
XX. The Imaginatlaii. 
XXI. ImattlDation In ICa Hatarity. 
XXU. Education of UMUoralSsnse. 



TralDing- of the Bensn. 



xvn. 1 



ttvi) azjL obdsbs to 
30 JB. L. KJSLLO0G <t, CO.. NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

Tere^s First Three Years of CbiJdbood. 

An Exhaustive Btudt of thb Fstcholoot or Childbbn. By 
Bbbmabd Pb&bz. Edited and translated by Aligb M. Chsistie, 
translator of *•* Child and Child Natore,'* with an introduction by 
Jaxbs Sullt, M.A., author of "Outlines of Psychology,'' etc. 
l^no, doth, ^SSA pp. Price, $1.50 ; to teachers^ $1.20 ; by mall, 10 
cents extra. 
This is a comprehensive treatise on the psychology of childhood, and 
is a practical study of the human mind, not full formed and equipped 
with knowledge, but as nearly as possible, ab origine— before habit, 
environment, and education have asserted their sway and made their 
permanent modifications. The writer looks into all the phases of child 
activitv. He treats exhaustively, and in bright Gallic style, of sensa^ 
tions, instincts, sentiments, intellectual tendencies, the will, the facul- 
ties of aMthetic and moral senses of young children. He shows how 
ideas of truth and falsehood arise in little minds, how natural is imita- 
tion and how deep is credulity. He illustrates the development of im- 
agination and the elaboration of new concepts through judgment, 
abstraction, reasoning, and other mental methods. It is a book that 
has been long wanted by all who are engaged in teaching, and esi)ecially 
by all who have to do with the education and training of children. 

This edition has a new index of special value, and the book is care- 
fully printed and elegantly and durably bound. Be sure to get our 
standard edition. 



CHJlF 

I. 



OUTLINE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAP. 
IX. 



n. 



m. 
rv. 

V. 
VI. 

VIL 



X. 



XI. 
XII. 



Facalties of Infant before Bf rth 
^First Impression of New- 
bom Child. 

Motor Activity- at the Begin- 
ning of Life— at Six Months— 
—at Fifteen Months. 

Instinctive and Emotional Sen- 
sations—First Perceptions. 

Qeneral and Special Instincts. 

The Sentiments. 

Intelleotual Tendencies— Ver- 
acity— Imitation— Credulity. 

The Will. 
Vin. Faculties of Intellectual Acqui- 
sition and Retention— Atten- 
tion— Memory. 

Col. Franoll W. Parker, Principal Cook County Normal and Training 
School, Chicago, says:—*' I am glad to see that you have published Pei^ez's 
wonderful work upon childhood. I shall do all I can to get everybody to read 
it. It is a grand work." 

John Batoom, Pres. Univ. of Wisconsin, says:—** A work of marked 
Interest." 

O. Stanley Hall, Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy, Johns Hopkins 
Univ., says:—'* I esteem the work a very valuable one for primarv and kin- 
dergarten teachers, and for all interested in the psychology of childhood." 

And many other tirong commendations. 



Association of Psychical States 
- Association— imagination. 

Elaboration of Ideas— Judg- 
ment — Abstraction — Com- 
parison — Generalization — 
Reasoning— Blrrors and Allu- 
sions—Errors and Allusions 
Owing to Moral Causes. 

Expression and Langua^. 

.^Isthetie Senses — Musical 
Sense — Sense of Material 
Beauty — Constructive In- 
stinct—Dramatic Instinct. 
Xni. Personalty— Reflection— Moral 
Sense. 



K L. KELLOaa A CO., NEW YORK dt CHTCAOO. 21 



Parker's Talks on Teacbinff. 



Notes of " lalka on Teaching" given by Coi» FbaNCIS W. 
Pabkek (formerlj 8apemit«naent of schools of Quincy, 
Ha88.)> before the Martha's Vmejard Instituie, Summer 
of 1882. Reported by Lkua E. Patridob. Bquara 16nio, 



The methode of teaching employed in the schools of Quincy, 
HasB., were seen to be the metnods of nature. Aa they were 
copied and eTplained, they awoke a great demre on the part 
<A those who could not Tisit the schools to know ttie underly- 
ing principles. In other worde, Colonel Parker was asked to 
expbin why he had his teachers teach thus. In the summer 
of 1883, in reaponse to requests, Colonel Parker gave a course 
of lectures before the Martha's Vineyard Institute, and these 
were i^Kirted by Hiss Patridge, and published in this book. 
The book became famous ; 
more copies were sold of it in 
the same time than of any 
other educational book what- 
ever. The daily papers, which 
nEually pass by such books 
with a mere mention, devoted 
oolumna to reviews of it. 

The following points will 
shon" why the teacher will 
want this book. 
' I. It explains the " New 
Methods." There is a wide 
gulf between the new and the 
old education. Even s^ool 
boards understand this. 

8, It gives the underiying 
principles of education. For it 
must be remembered that Col. Parker is not expoimding Ma 
methods, but the methods of nature. 

8. It gives the ideas of a man who is evidently an " educa- 
tional genius," a man bom to understand and expound educa- 
tion. We have few mich ; they are worth everything to Um 
human race. 

4. It gives a bii^raphy of Col. Parker, This wlU help the 
teacher of education to comprehend the man and his motiTes. 

5. It has beoi adopted bv nearly ev«cy Sl«te Beading Circle. 



8Un> AX<L Oltf^MiUI to 

E. L. KELLOGG dr CO., NEW YORK dr CHICAGO. 2: 

Ti&g Tractical Teacher . 

Writmgs of Francis W. Parkee, Principai of Cook Co. 
Normal School, HI., and other educators, among which la 
Joseph Payne's Visit to German Schools, etc 188 large 
8vo pages, 7KxlO>^ inches, doth. Price, #1.50; to 
teacherSf $1.20; b^ mail, 14 cents extra. New edition in 
paper cover. Price, 75 cents ; to teachers, 60 cents ; by 
mail, 8 cents extra. 

These articles contam manr things that the readers of the 
" Talks on Teaching" desired li^ht upon. The space occupied 
enabled CoL Parker to state himseli at the length needea for 
clearness. There is really here, from his pen (taking out the 
writings of others) a volume of H80 pages, each page about the 
size of those in "Talks on Teachmg." 

1. The writings in this volume are mainly those of CoL F. 
W. Parker, Principal of the Cook County Normal School. 

2. lake the " Talks on Teaching " so famous, they deal with 
the principles and practice of teaching. 

8. Those who own the '* Talks " will want the further ideas 
from CoL Parker. 

4. There are man^ things in this volume written in reply to 
inquiries suggested in *' Talks." 

6. There is here really 750 pages of the size of those in 
<< Talks." <* Talks "sells for $1.00. This for $1.30 and 14 cents 
for postage. 

6. Minute suggestions are made pertaining to Reading, 
Questions, G^graphy, Numbers, History, Psychology, Peda- 
gogics, Clay Modeling, Form, Color, etc. 

7. Joseph Payne's visit to the Qerman schools is given in 
full ; everything from his pen is valuable. 

8. The whole book has the breeze that is blowing from the 
New Education ideas ; it is filled with CoL Parker's spirit. 

PARTIAL LIST OF CONTENTS- 

Beginplngs. Beading— laws and principles ; Buling Slates : Number 
and Arlthmetio; G^graphy: Moulding: History; Psychology; Peda- 
gogics; Examinations; Elocution; Questioning on Pictures; on Flow- 
ers; on Leaves; Bules in Language: Answers to questions respecting 
the Spelling-Book; List of Cmldren's Books on History: The Child^ 
Voice; Ideas before Words; Description of Pictures; Teachingpf 1; 
of 9 ; of 3 : of 4 ; etc. ; Form and Color; Breathing Exercises ; Paper 
Folding ; verbatim report of lessons given in Ckx)k Go. Kormal SohooL 
Busy work; Answers to Questions in Arithmetic, etc.; Why teachers 
drag out a monotonous existence: Teaching of language to children; 

Letters 
Bdu- 




BBND ALL ORDERS TO 

24 E. L, KELLOGG <& CO., NEW YORK <& CHICAGO. 

Fitcb's Lectures on Teaching. 

Lectures on Teaching. By J. G. Fitch, M.A., one of Hei 
Majesty's Inspectors of Schools. England. Cloth, 16mo, 
895 pp. Price, $1.^ ; to teachers, $1.00 ; by mail, postpaid. 

Mr. Fitch takes as his topic the application of principles to 
the art of teaching in schools. Here are no< vague and gen- 
eral propositions, but on every page we find the problems of 
the school-room discitssed with definiteness of mental grip. 
No one who has read a single lecture by this eminent man 
but will desire to read another. The book is full of sugges- 
tions that lead to increased power. 

1. These lectures are highly prized in England. 

2. There is a valuable preface by Thos. Himter, President 
of N. Y. City Normal College. 

3. The volume has been at once adopted by several State 
Heading Circles. 

EXTRACT PROM AMERICAN PREFACE. 



Ul 



'Teachers everywhere amonff Engrllsh-speaklngr people have hailed 
Mr. Fitoh*s work as an invaluable aid for almost every kind of instruc- 
tion and school organization. It combines the theoretical and the prac- 
tical; It is based on psychology; it gives admirable advice on every- 
thing connected with teaching^from the furnishing of a school-room 
to the preparation of questions for ezaoQination. Its style is singularly 
clear, vigorous and harmonious." 

Chicago Intelligence.— " All of its discussions are based on sound 
psychological principles and give admirable advice." 

Virginia Edncational Jonmal.— "He tells what he thinks so as to 
be helpful to all who are striving to improve." 

Lynn Evening Item.— " He gives admirable advice/* 

Philadelphia Becord.— ** It is not easy to imagine a more useful vol- 
ume." 

Wilmington Every Evening.— "The teacher will find in it a wealth 
of help and suggestion." ^ 

Brooklyn Jonmal.— " His conception of the teacher is a worthy idea] 
for all to bear in mind.'* 

New England Jonmal of Education : " This is eminently the work ot 
a man of wisdom and experience. He takes a broad and comprehensive 
view of the work of the teacher, and his suggestions on all topics are 
worthy of the most careful consideration.'* 

Brooklyn Eagle: "An invaluable aid for almost every kind of in- 
struction and school organization. It combines the theoretical and the 
Sraotical ; it is based on psychology ; it gives admirable advice on everv- 
ling connected with teaching, from the furnishing of a school-room to 
the preparation of questions for examination.** 

Toledo Blade : " It Is safe to say, no teacher can lay claim to being 
well informed who has not read this admirable work. Its appreciation 
is shown by its adoption by several State Teachers* Beading CSirolea, as 
a work to be thoroughly read b y ltq. members.*' 



SBNO AliL OBDBBS 90 

E. L. KJSLLOGG dr CO., NEW YORK d CHICAGO. 25 



Currie's Early Education. 

" The Principles and Practice of Early and Infant School 
Education/' By Jambs Cubbib, A. M., Prin. Chuich of 
Scotland Trainin£ College, Edinbuxkh. Author of 
<' Common School fklucation/' etc. With an introduction 
by Clarence E. Meleney, A. M., Supt. Schools, Paterson, 
N. J. Bound in blue cloth, gold, 16mo, 290 pp. Price, 
#1.25 ; to teachers, |i.oo ; by mail, 8 cents extra. 

WHY THIS BOOK 18 VALUABLE. 

1. Pestalozzi ^ve New England its educational supremacy. 
The Pestalozzian wave struck this country more than forty 

▼ears ago, and produced a mighty shock. It set New Eng- 
land to thinking. Horace Mann became eloquent to help on 
the change, and went up and down Massachusetts, urging in 
earnest tones the chanige proposed by the Swiss educator. 
What gave New England its educational supremacy was its 
reception of Pestalozzi's doctrines. Page, Pfaubrick, Barnard 
were all his disciples. 

2. It is the work of one of the best expounders of Pes- 
talozzL 

Forty years ago there was an upheaval in education. Pes- 
talozzi^s words were acting like yeast upon educators ; thou- 
sands had been to visit his schools at iverdun, and on their 
return to their own lands had reported the wonderful scenes 
they had witnessed. Rev. James Currie comprehended the 
movement, and sought to introduce it. Grasping the ideas of 
this great teacher, he spread them in Scotland ; but that 
country was not elastic and receptive. Still, Mr. Currie's 
presentation of them wrought a great change, and he is to be 
reckoned as the most powerful exponent or the new ideas in 
Scotland. Hence this book, which contains them, must be 
considered as a treasure by the educator. 

8. This volume is really a Manual of Principles of Teaching. 

It exhibits enough of the principles to make the teacher 
intelligent in her practice. Most manuals give details, but no 
foundation principles. The first part lays a psychological 
basis — ^the only one there is for the teacher ; ana this is done 
in a simple and concise way. He declares emphatically that 
teaching cannot be learned empirically. That is, that one can- 
not wateh a teacher and see how he does it, and then, imitat- 
ing, claim to be a teacher. The principles must be learned. 

4. It is a Manual of Practicain Teactiing. 



E. L. KELLOeO * CO.. NEW YORK .£ CBIGAGO. 27 

Hughes' ^Mistakes in Teaching, 

Bt Jakes J. Euohbs, Inspec 
Cloth, 16mo, 116 pp. Pri( 
by mail, S cents extra. 

Tbousuids of copies of the old 
edition have been sold. The new 
edition is worth double the old; 
the material boa been increased, 
restated, and greattj improved. 
Two aew and important cWptei-a 
have been added ou "Mistakes in 
Aims." and " Mistakes in Moral 
Training." Hr. Hughes sa^ In his 
preface: "In issuing a revised edi- 
tion of this hook, it scetos iltting to 
acknowledge gratefullj the hearty 
appreciation that has been accorded 
- it by American teacheis. Realiz- 
ing as I do that its very large sale 
b indicates that it has been of service 
I to many of my fellow-teachers, I 
\ have recognized the duty of enlor^- 
inr and revising it Ho as to make it 
stSl more helpful in preventing 
JAMsa I* Hcans. Inspector of the common mistakes in teaching 
Bchoota, Toroaio. Cuuda. ^^ training. " 
This 1b one of the six books recommended by the N. Y. Stale 
Department to teachers preparing tor examination for State cer- 
tificates. 

CAUTION. 
Our n«ui AUTHORIZED cxtPYBiOHT KDITION, Mtitely rtmiUen ht/ 
Me avlior, ii tiu ^nfw one to bug. It ii btautifnUy printed ana 
handsomely Aound. Qei no other. 

CONTENTS OF OUR NEW EDITION. 
Chap. I. 7 Mistakes In Aim. 
Chap. II. 31 Mistakes in School Management. 
Cbaf. III. 24 Mistakes in Discipline. 
Chap. IV. 27 Mistakes in Method. 
Chaf. V. 18 Mistakes in Moral Training. 
IS" Chaip». I. auA V. are entiretj/ tww. 



BEND ALL OBDEBS TO 

JK L. KELLOGG <fc CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 29 

Hughes Securing and Retaining Atteth 

TioK. By Jambb L. Hughbb, Inspector Schools, Toronto, 
Canada, author of "Mistakes in Teaching." Cloth, 116. pp. 
Price, 50 cents; to tettehers, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

This valuable little book has already become widely known to 
American teachers. Our new edition has been almost entirely 
re-written, and several new important chapters added. It is the 
only AUTHOKizED coPYKiGHTT EDITION. Cautiou, — ^Buy no other. 

WHAT IT CONTAINS. 

I. General Principles; 11. Kinds of Attention; III. Characteristics of Good 
Attention; IV. Conditions of Attention; V. Essential Cliaraoteristics of the 
Teacher in Securing and Retaining Attention; VI. How to Control a Class; 
VII. Methods of Stimulating and Controlling a Desire for Knowledge; VHI. 
How to Gratify and Develop the Desire for Mental Activity; IX. Distracting 
Attention; X. Training the Power of Attention; XI. General Suggestions 
r^^arding Attention. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

8. P. Bobbins, Prea. McGill Normal School, Montreal, Can., writes to Mr. 
Hughes:—** It is quite superfluous for me to say that your little books are 
admirable. I was yesterday authorized to put the * Attention ' on the list 
of books to be used in the Normal School next year. Crisp and attractive 
in s^le, and mighty by reason of its good, sound common-sense, it is a 
book that every teacher should know." 

Popalar Educator (Boston):—" Mr. Hughes has embodied the best think- 
ing o£ Ms life in these pages." 

Gontral School Journal (la.).—" Though published four or five years 
since, this book has steadily advanced in popularity." 

Educational Courant (Ky.).— "It is intensely practical. There isn't a 
mystical, muddy expression in the book.'* 

Educational Times (England).—" On an important subject, and admir- 
ably executed." 

School Chiardian (England).—" We unhesitatingly recommend it." 

Eew England Journal of Education.—" The book is a guide and a 
manual of special viUue." 

New York School Journal.—" Every teacher would derive benefit from 
reading this volume." 

Chicago Educational Weekly.—" The teacher who aims at best suc- 
cess should study it." 

Phil. Teacher.—" Many who have spent months in the school-room would 
be benefited by it." 

Maz£land School Journal.—" Always clear, never tedious." 

Va. Ed. Journal.—" Excellent hints as to securing attention." 

Ohio Educational Montilily.— " we advise readers to send for a copy.' 

Pacific Home and School Journal.—" An excellent little manual." 

Prest. James H. Hoose, State Normal School, Cortland, N. T., says:— 

" The book must prove of great benefit to the profession." 
Supt. A. W. Edson. Jersey City, N. J., says:—" A good treatise has long 

been needed, and Mr. Hughes has supplied the want." 



f* 



80 E. L. KELLOQO & CO.. NEW YORK & CHIOAOO. 

Calkins' Ear and yoke Training by 

Means of Elbmentari Sousds or Lanouagk. By N. A. 
.Calkiks, AastBtant Superintendent N. Y, City Schools; 
author of "Primftry Ooject LesHons," "Manual of Object 
Teaching," " Phonic Charts," etc. Cloth, 16mo, about 100 
pp. Price, 60 cents; (olmcA^n, 40cents; by mail, GcenlsextTa. 
An idea of the cjiarocler of this woric may be had by the fol- 
lowing extracts from Its Pr^aee : 

" The common eslWenoe of abnormal sense pefceptlon among school 
cbildren In a aerions obstacle In teaching. This condition is most 
obyiouB in the defective perceptions 
of sonnds and forms. It may be 
seen In the faulty axtlcnlations in 
nieaklDg and reading ; In the Ina- 
bUltv- to disUngalsh mnslcal sonnds 
readilr ; also In the common mis- 
takes made in hearing what is 
Bald. . . . 

"Careful observation and long 
experience lead to the uonciusloa 
that the most common defects in 
Bonnd perceptions exist because of 
lack of proper training is childhood 
to develop this power of the mind 
into actlTity throngh the sense of 
bearing. It becomes, therefore, a 
s, matter of great impottance In edu- 
cation, that in the training of chil- 
dren dne attenflon shall be given to 
' the development of ready and accu- 
rate perceptions of sonnds. 

" How to give this training so as 

to secure the desired results Is a 

subject that deserves the careful 

attention of parents and teachers. 

ScPT. M. A. CuziNs. Much depends upon the manner of 

presenting the soDuds of onr langnage to pnpils, whether or not the 

rfisulU shall be the development In Konnd-perceptlona that will Irain 

l/ietarand twice to habits of distinctness and accuracy In speaking and 

" The methods of teaching given In this book are Uie resolls of an 
extended experience onder Huch varied conditions as may be found 
with pnpils representing all nationalities, both of native and foreign 
bom children. The plana described will enable teachers to lead thdr 

Suplls to acquire ready and distinct perceptions throngh sense traln- 
ig, and cause them to know the sounds of our language in a manner 
that will give practical aid in learning both the spoken and the written 
language. The simplicity and usefulness of the lessons need only to be 
luiown to be appreciated and nsed." 



BEND ALL OROKR8 TO 

B. L. KELLOGG A CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 31 

Dewey's How to Teacb Manners in the 

School-Room. By Mrs. Julia M. Dbwby, Principal of the 
Konnal School at Lowell, Mass. , formerly Supt. of Scfiools 
at Hoosick Palls, N. Y. Cloth, 16mo, 104 pp. Price, 50 
cents; to teachers, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

Many teachers consider the manners of a pupil of little impor- 
tance so long as he is industrious. But the boys and girls are to 
be fathers and mothers; some of the boys will stand in places of 
importance as professional men, and they will carry the mark of 
ill-breeding all their lives. Manners can be taught in the school- 
room: they render the school-room more attractiye; they banish 
tendencies to misbehavior. In this volume Mrs. Dewey has shown 
how manners can be taught. The method is to present some fact 
of deportment, and then lead the children to discuss its bearings; 
thus they learn wh^ good manners are to be learned and practised. 
The printing and binding are exceedingly neat and attractive." 

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS. 

Introduction. 

General Directions. 

Special Directions to Teachers. 



Lessons on Mannbrs fob Toungbst 
Pupils. 

Lessons on Manners — Second Two 

^iTears. 
Manners in School— First Two Tears. 

" ** Second 

Manners at Home— First *'■ 

** " Second " 

Manners in Public— First ** 

♦• '* Second " 



Table Manners— First Two Tears. 
Second 

Lessons on Manners fob Advanced 

Pupils. 
Manners in School. 
Personal Habits. 
Manners in Publlo. 
Table Manners. 
Manners in Society. 
Miscellaneous Items. 
Practical Traininj; in Manners. 
Suggestive Stories, Fables, Anec- 
dote, and Poems. 
Memory Gems. 



Central School Journal.— ^* It furnishes illustrative lessons." 
Texas School Journal.—*' They (the pupils) will carry the mark of ill- 
breeding ail their lives (unless taught otherwise).'* 

Paeiflo Ed. Journal.—** Principles are enforced by anecdote and conver- 
sation." 
Teaeher's Exponent.—*' We believe such a book will be very welcome.'^ 
national Educator.—" Common -sense suggestions." 
Ohio Ed. Monthly.—" Teachers would do well to get it." 
Ifebraska Teacher.— '* Many teachers consider manners of little im- 
portanon, but soroe of the boys will stand in places of importance." 
School Ednttitor.— "The spirit of the author is commendable." 
School Heitud.— " These lessons are full of suggestions." 
Ya. ^hool Journal.— " Lessons furnished in a delightful style." 
Kiss. Teacher.—" The best presentation we liavejseen." 
Ed. Conrant.— " It is simple, straightforward, and plain." 
Iowa Normal Honthly.— ** Practical and well-arranged lessons on man- 
nerR." 

Progrossiye Edneatar.— ** Will prove to be most helpful to the teacher 
who desires her pupils to be well-mannered." 



a E. L. KBLLOaa & CO.. NEW YORK A CHICAGO. 

Autobiography of FroebeL 

HaTERIALA to Aid a CoUPHEHENaiOH OF TBI WOBKS OF THE 

FoDNDEn OF THE KiMTiBiiOAKTBN. 16mo, iMge, Clear tY|>C, 
I'm pp. Cloth, miDO, 50 cents; (o lauAen, 40 cenlsi by mail, 5 



This volume coDlaltu besides the 
antob iography — 

1. Important dates connected with 
the kInderKBrten. 

2. Froebel and the kinderearten 
^'Btem ol education by Joseph 
Payne. 

S. Froebel and hU edacatlonal 

4. Froebol's educational vteivB (a 
Bummary). 

In tbis volume the student of edu- 
cation will find materiula tor con- 
Btmctin^, in an intflll)(ent manner, 
an estimate and comprehension of 
tho kindergarten. 11ie lite of 
Froebel, mainly by h<8 own hand, is 
very helptul. In this we see the 
working o[ bis mind nbpn a yonib; 
he lets US see bow be felt at beins 
misunderstood, at being called a bad 
boy, and his pleasure when tace to face with Natnre. tiTadnnlly wc 
see there was cryslallliinB In him a comprehension o( the means that 
would bring harmony and peace to the minds of yanng people. 

The analysis of tic views of Froebel will be of great aid. We see 
tllat there was a deep philosophy in this plain German man ; lie was 
Btndying out a plan by which the usually wasted jeare of yonns <liil- 
dren could be made productive. Tbe volnme will be of f^reat value not 
only to every kinilergartner, but to all wbo wish to understand the 
philosophy ol mental development. 

!», Jonmkl of EdnoatloD.—" An excellent little work." 

W. Ta, BohODi Journal,-" Will be of great value." 

Edntatlontl Conrant, Xj.— "OiiehttohaTe areiy extensile clniulatloa 

Ednoatioual BMOrd, Can.— "Oufht to be in tbe hands ot every pro- 



Freidhiob Fboebbi. 



WMtmn SollMl Jonnul.— " Teacbere will and in this * clear account of 
FroebersUf"." 
Sohool EdaOaUon.— " Froebel tells hb own story better than any com- 

Talue to all who wtih to onder- 



BKKD AUi ORDERS TO 

K L, KELLOGG db CO., KEW YORK & CHICAGO. 43 

Brownings Educational Theories. 

By OscAB Browning, M.A., of King's College, Cambridge, 
£ng. No. 8 of Beading Circle Libra/ry Series, Clofh, 16mo, 
237 pp. Price, 50 cents; to teachers, 40 cents; by mail, 5 
cents extra. 

This work has been before the public some time, and for a 
general sketch of the History of Education it has no superior. 
Our edition contains several new features, making it specially 
valuable as a text-book for Normal Schools, Teachers' Classes, 
Beading Circles, Teachers' Institutes, etc., as well as the student 
of education. These new features are: (1) Side-heads giving the 
subject of each paragraph; (2) each chapter is followed by an 
analysis; (3) a very full new index; (4) also an appendix on 
** Froebel," and the " American Common School." 

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS. 

I. Education among the Greeks — ^Music and Qymnastic Theo- 
ries of Plato and Aristotle; II. Boman Education — Oratory; III. 
Humanistic Education; IV. The Bealists— Batich and Comenius; 
V. The Naturalists — Babelais and Montaigne; VI. English 
Humorists and Bealists— Boger Ascham and John Milton; YII. 
Locke; VIII. Jesuits and Jansenists; IX. Bousseau; X. Pes- 
talozzi; XI. Kant, Fichte, and Herbart; XII. The English Pub- 
lic School; Xni. Froebel; XIV. The American Common 
School. 

1>RE8S NOTICES. 

Ed. (€oiirailt.^"^TblB> edition. BUfpagsefr others in its adaptability to gen- 
eral use.** 

Col. MhOOl lTQ|ini4l.—**Canibetused:a8 a text-book in the Histoiy.of 
Education." 

Pa. Sd."!! ewi.-^** Avolumeitfaatcan :be.U8ed. as a text-book on the His- 
tory of Education.** 

Sehool Eduestioiltfllinn.— " Befrinnine with the Greeks, the author pre- 
sents a brief but dear outline of (he leading. educational theories down to 
the present time.*' 

Ed. Beview, Can.— "A book like this, introducinfi: the teacher to the gr(>at 
minds that have worked.in the same field, cannot but be a powerfql stimuli^ 
ii) Jhim in JWs jrork.** 



BEND ALIi OBDBBS TO 

41 E, Z. KELLOGG & CO., 25 CLINTON PLAGE, N F. 



-INDUSTRIAL. 
=EDUCATlON^ 



Loves Industrial Education. 

Industrial Education ; a guide to Manual Training. By 
Samuel G. Love, principal of the Jamestown, rN. Y.) 
public schools. Cloth, 12mo, 830 pp. with 40 full-page 
plates containing nearly 400 figures. Price, $1.75 ; to 
Teachers, $1.40 ; ly mail, 12 cents extra. 
1. Indiistrial Education not understood. Probably the only 
omn. who has wrought out the problem in a practical way is 

^ Samuel G. Love, the superin- 
tendent of the Jamestown (N. 
Y.) schools. Mr. Love has now 
about 2,400 children in the 
primary, advanced, and high 
schools under his charge ; he 
is assisted b^ fifty teacners, so 
that an adnurable opportunity 
was offered. In 1874 (about 
fourteen years ago) Mr. Love 
began his experiment ; gradu- 
allj[ he introduced one occu- 
pation, and then another, uiitil 
at last nearly all the pupils are 
following some form of educate 
ing work. 

2. Why it is demanded. The 
reasons for introducing it are 
clearly stated by Mr. Love. It 
was done because the educa^ 
tion of the books left the pu^ 
pils unfitted to meet the prac^ 
tical problems the world asks them to solve. The world does 
not have a field readv for the student in book-lore. The state^ 
ments of Mr. Love should be carefully read. 

8. It is an educational hook, Aiiy one can give some 
formal work to girls and boys. What has been needed has 
been some one who could find out what is sui^?d to the little 
child who is in the ** First Reader," to the one who is in the 
'* Second Beader," and so on. It must be remembered the 
effort is not to make carpenters, and type-setters, and dress- 
makers of bovs and girls, but to educate them by these occupO' 
tions better than vnmout them* 




:LOVE« 



8KND AM. ORDBB8 TO 

46 E. L. KELLOOO <fe CO., NEW YORK cfc CHICAOO. 

Leland's Practical Education. 

By Chas. 6. Lbland, late director of the Public Indufltrial Art 
School, Phila., Pa., and author of books on Industrial Education. 
Cloth, 12mo, 280 pp. Price, |2.00; to teachers^ $1.60; by mail, 10 
cents extra. 

This is a valuable volume on manual training, recently published 
by Mr. Leland in England. It treats of the development of Memory, 
the increasing quickness of perception, and training the constructive 
faculty. 

Mr. Leland was the first person to introduce Industrial Art as a 
branch of education in the public schools of America. The Bureau of 
Education at Washington, observing the success of his work, employed 
him in 1862 to write a pamphlet showing how hand-work could be taken 
or taught in schools and families. It is usual to issue only 15,000 of 
these pamphlets, but so great was the demand for this that in two years 
after its issue more than 60,000 were given to applicants. This work 
will be found greatly enlarged in *' Practical Education.'* Owing to it 
thousands of schools, classes, or clubs of industrial art were established 
in England, America, and Austria. As at present a great demand exists 
for information as to organizing Technical Education, this forms the 
first part of the work. In it the author indicates that all the confusion 
and difference of opinion which at present prevails as to this subject 
may very easily be obviated by simply beginning by teaching the 
youngest the easiest arts of which they are capable, and by thence 
gradually leculing them on to more advanoed work. 

" The basis of Mr. Leland's theory," says a reviewer, " is that before 
learning, children should acquire the art of learning. It is not enough 
to fill the memoiy : memory must first be created. By training children 
to merely memorize, extraordinary power in this respect is to be attained 
in a few months. With this is associated exercices in quickness of per- 
ception, which are at first purely mechanical, and range from merely 
training the eye to mental arithmetic, and problems in all branches of 
education. Memory and quickness of perception blend in the develop- 
ment of the constructive faculties or h^d-work. Attention or interest 
is the final factor in this system.'' 

CONTENTS. 

On Creating Quickness of Fer- 



Industrlal Art in Education, . . 1 
Desii^n as a Preparation for In- 
dustrial Art Work, .... 22 
General Observations, .... 87 
On Developing Memory, ... 120 



ception, 151 

Eye Memory, 185 

On Taking an Interest, .... 214 

Conclusion, 2Si 

Appendix, 24S-272 

BritiBh Architect.—" Mr. Leland's book will have a wide circulation. It 
deals with the whole subject in such a downright practical fashion, and is 
so much the result of long personal experience and observation, as to render 
it a veritable mine of valuable sugisrestions.'* 

SoottisJb Educational News.—'* It has little of the dryness usually asso- 
ciated with such books; and no teacher can read its thoughtful pages with- 
out imbibfngnaany valuable ideas.** 

Chemical news.— " Strongly to be recommended." 

Liverpool Bally Post.— "This valuable littie work." 



B. L, KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK AND CHICAGO. 47 



Sbaw's Rational Question "Book. 

** The National Question Book," A graded course of 
study for those prepaiing to teach. By Edward R. Shaw, 
Principal of the High School, Yonkers, N. Y., author of 
"School Devices,' etc Bound in durahle English huck- 
ram cloth, with beautiful side-stamp. 12mo, 400 pp. 
Price, $1.50 ; net to teaehers, postpaid. 

A new edition of this popular book is now ready, containing 
the foUovnng 

NEW FEATURES: 

READING. An entirely new chapter with answers. 

ALCOHOL and its effects on the body. An entirely new 
chapter with answers. 

THE PROFESSIONAL GRADE has been entirely re- 
written and now contains answers to every question. 

litis work contains 0,500 Questions and Answers on 24; 
Different Branches of Study, 

ITS DISTINGUISHING FEATURES. 

1. It aims to make the teacher a bbtteb tbacheb. 

'* How to Make Teaching a Profession" has challenged t- e 
attention of the wisest teacher. It is plain that to accomphsh 
this the teacher must pass from the stage of a knowledge of 
the rudiments, to the stage of somewhat extensive acquire- 
ment. There are steps in this movement; if a teacher will 
take the first and see what the next is, he will probably go on 
to the next, and so on. One of the reasons why there has 
been no movement forward by those who have made this first 
step, is that there was nothing marked out as a second step. 

2. This book will show the teacher how to go forward. 

In the preface the course of study usually pursued in our 
best normal schools is given. Tms proposes four grades ; 
third, second, first, and professional. Then, questions are 
given appropriate for each of these grades. Answers follow 
each section. A teacher will use the book somewhat as 
follows : — ^If he is in the third grade he will put the questions 
found in this book concerning numbers, geography, history, 
grammar, orthography, and theory and practice of teaching 
to himself and get out the answer. Haying done this he will 
^o on to the other grades in a similar manner. In tliis way 
ho will know as to his fitness to pasB an examination for 



fnum AUi OBBBRfl to 

4S S.L. KELLOGG db CO., NEW YORK db CHICAGO. 



tiiese grades. The selection of questions is a good one. 

8. It prcmoses questions concerning teaching itself. 

The need of studying the Art of Teaching is becoming more 
and more apparent. There are questions l£at will prove visry 
suggestive and valuable on the Tneory and Practice of Educa- 
tion. 

4. It is a general review of the common school and higher 
studies. 

Each department of questions is followed by department of 
answers on same subject, each question being numbered, and 
answer having corresponding number. 

Arithmetic, Sd ermde. Bnglish literature, 1st grade. 

Geoirrapliy, 2d and Sd grade. Katund Philosophy, ** 

n. 8. History, ^ and Sd grade. Algebra, professional grade. 

Grammar, 1st, 2d, and 3d grade. General History, profess, grade. 

Orthography and Orthoepy,3d grade. Geometry, ^ ** 

Theory and Practioe of Teaohing, Latin, ** ^ 

1st, 2d, and Sd grade. Zoology, *' ** 

Rhetoric and Composition, 2d grade. Astronomy, ** " 

Physiology, 1st and 2d grade. Botany, ^ ** 

Bookkeeping, Ist and 2d grade. Physios, ** ** 

Giyll Government, 1st and 2d grade. Chemistry, ** '* 

Physical Geography, Ist grade. Gtoology, " " 

5. It is carefully graded into grades corresponding to those 
into which teachers are usually classed. 

It is important for a teacher to know what are appropriate 
questions to ask a third grade teacher, for example. Exam- 
iners of teachers, too, need to know what are appropriate 
questions. In fact, to put the examination of the teacher into 
a proper system is most important. 

6. A^ain, this book broadens the field, and will advance 
education. The second grade teacher, for example, is exam- 
ined in rhetoric and composition, physiology, book-keeping, 
and civil government, subjects usually omitted. The teacher 
who follows this book faithfully will become as near as possi- 
ble a normal school gradttate. It is really a contribution to 
pedago^c progress. It points out to the teacher a 7*oad to 
professional jSness. 

7. It is a useful reference work for every teacher and priv- 
ate library. 

Everv teacher needs a book to turn to for questions, for 
example, a history class. Time is precious ; he gives a pupil 
the book saying, ** Write five of those questions on the black- 
board ; the class may bring in answers to-monow.** A book, 



B, X. KBILLOQQ & CO,, NEW YORK A CHICAQO. Si 

Soutbwtck's Quii Manual of tbe Theory 

AND Pbacticb of Tbachino. By A. P. Southwick, 
author of " Handy Helps," "Quizzism and Key," etc. Can- 
vas binding, 16mo, 183 pp. rrice, 75 cents; to teachera, 60 
cents; by mail, 6 cents extra. 

Much real aid to all classes of teachers may be sot from a 
volume like this. To county superintendents, exammers, prin- 
cipals, it will be specially helpful in suggesting proper questions 
for examinations. There is more attention every year being 
given to Theory and Practice of Teaching, once wholly neglected. 

This is one of the six books recommended by the "N. Y. State 
Department to teachei-s preparing for an examination in State 
certificates. 

THIS VOLUME CONTAINS 
The following questions on Thaching these subjects: 



28 questions on Education. 



67 

31 

3 

37 
6 
40 
13 
58 
6 



<i 



it 



ti 



t€ 



tt 



it 



*€ 



tl 



tt 



Arithmetic. 

Composition. 

Etymology. 

Orthography. 
Natural Science. 
Geography. 
Penmanship. 
Discipline. 
Manual Training. 



47 questions on Reading. 



3 

3 

13 

3 

34 
33 
10 
13 
54 



Natural History. 

Rhetoric. 

Literature. 

Psychology. 

Physiology. 

History. 

Drawing. 

Attention. 

Miscellaneous. 



Making in all over 500 questions; each question being concisely 
yet fully answered. 

The answers are printed on the back of the book, numbered to 
correspond with the questions. 

Ed. Beoord (Can.).— "To anyone preparing: for an examination in profes- 
sional subjects, no better book tlian tbis could be found." 

Can. Ed. Journal.—" Cannot fail to prove of great service to young 
teachers." 

Keb. Teacher.— " The answers are of sufBcient length to be of real 
service." 

Western School Journal.—" The section on discipline abounds in golden 
and practical suggestions." 

Pa. School Jounml.— " Well-arranged, comprehensive, reliable, and thor- 
oughly adapted to fulfil its purpose.'^ 

La. Prog. Teacher.— The wisdom of a dozen works boiled down in get-at- 
able question-and-answer form." 

Central School Journal.—" A helpmeet to teachers of all grades. Every 
subject taught in common and high schools is treated. It contains 606 
questions and answers, simple and leading. We recommend the work M 
one of the best published." 



■nro JlIIi OBDSB0 to 
62 E. L. KELLOQQ A CO., NEW YORK A CmCAQO. 

Soutbwick's Handy Helps. 

Hand^ Helps. A Mannal of Curious and Interestiiig Inf or- 
matiou. By Albert P. Sotjthwick, A.M., Author of 
<< Quizdsm and Its Key," etc. 16mo, cloth, 290 pp. Price, 
fl.OO ; to teachers, 80 cents ; by mail, 8 cents extra. 

1. This volume contains five hundred questions that are of 
interest to every reading man and woman in the United 
States. To hunt up an answer to even one of these would 
require sometimes days of research. 

2. The volume will be valuable to the teacher especially, 
because he is surrounded with an inquiring set of young 
beings* For instance, " What is the origin of the term John 
Bull r' If asked this the teacher might be unable to answer 
it, yet this and many other similar queries are answered by 
this book. 

Such a volume can be used in the school-room, and it will 
enliven it, for many young people are roused hj the questions 
it contains. Somethmg new can be found in it every day to 
interest and instruct the school. It is an invaluable aid in 
oral teaching, unequaled for general exercises, and interesting 
dull pupils. 

4. It will afford refined entertainment at a gathering of 
young people in the evening, and really add to their knowl- 
edge. 

5. The queries in it pertain to matters that the well- 
informed should know about. Here are a few of them : 

Animal with Eight Eyes ; The Burning Lakes ; Boycotting ; 
Burial Place of Columbus ; Bride of Death ; Bluebeard's Ca^ 
tie ; Citv of the Violet Crown ; Dead Sea Fruit ; Doors that 
are Books ; Derivation of the words, Uncle Sam ; First use of 
the expression, '< Defend me from mj friends"; Floored for 
Kiasing his Wife ; How Pens ai« Sht ; Key of the joastile ; 
Mother Qoose ; Origin of All Fooi's Day ; Reason Rhode Island 
has two capitals ; Silhouette ; Simplest Post-office in the 
VVorid; Umbrella a mile Wide; ''Sharpshooters" among 
fishes ; Unlucky davs for matrimony ; Year with 445 days ; 
Why black is used for mourning ; etc., etc. 

6. It is a capital book to ts3:e on a railroad journey; it 
entertains, it instructs. 

Home Journal.— "One can scarcely turn a paffo without finding 
something he de^res to learn, and which every well-read man oiisht to 

latorlor.—** Immensely instructive and entertalniiiff in acbool-rooiBai 
— *^ and reading oirolcs.. 



^lAtorlc 



Song Treasures. 



Compiled by Auoa H. Kelloqo, editor of tlie Bchool Jouk- 
NAL. Beautiful aud durable postal-card manilla cover, 
prtated Id two colors, 64 pp. Price, 15 cents eacb; to teachers, 
13 cents; by mail, 3 cents extra. 30th thousand. WriUfar 
our tpeeial lerm» to tehixMfoT qaanliUe*. Bpe^al temafor use 
at Teaehen' /iwft'fufet. 
Tliiaiaamost .|| 

viiluftble col- [j'l 

lection of mu-SI 

Hie for alll 

schools and in-I|j 

sUtulcs. FIJI 

1. Most of Pi 

the pieces have| 

been selected y 

bythe teachers A 

ss favorites iu 'k 

the schools. ^ 

They are the | 

ones the pupils ' 

It contai 
nearly lOOJjj 
pieces. * 

3. All the pieces " have a ring to iheni ;" they are easily 
learned, and will not be forgotten. 

8. The themes and words are appropriate for young people. 
In these respects the work will be found to possess unusual merit. 
Niiture, the Flowers, the Beaaons. the Home, our Duties, our 
Creator, are entuned with beautiful music. 

4 Great ideas may find an entrance into the mind through 
music. Aspirations for the good, the beautiful, and the true are 
preseuled here in a musical form. 

5. Many of the words have been written especially for the 
book. One piece, " The Voice Within Us," p. 67, is wortb the 
price of the book. 

6. The titles here given show the teacher what we mean : 

Ask the Children. Beaiitr Evfrjwhcre. Be In Time, Cheerfulnfsa, 
CbrlMmas Bells. Days or Siimnur Glorj', The DeAn>Bt Spot. Evening Sodk. 
'Vorda, UolnK to School, Hold up ibe Ri^hC Hand. I Love ibe Meny, 



.64 R L KSLLOaa A CO.. JfEW YORK A CBICAQO. 

Reception Day. 6 3^os. 

A collectioD of fresh Kod original dialogue?, recilatloiiB, decls- 
malions, and abort pieces foi practical use io Public and 
Privute Scliools. Bouod fa tuDOBome new paper cover, 160 
pages eacb, printed on litld paper. Price, HO ceuta each; to 

teaelien, 31 cents; by moil, 3 cents extra. 
The exercises in these books bear upon education; have a rela- 
tion to the school-room. 

1, recitatlo__. . .„ 

this Tolume being msh, abort, 
S and easy to bu comprehended, are 
I wellflltcd for tlieaverage scholars 
^ of our schools. 



8. They coveradlSerentground 
from the speeches of Dv'mosthenea 
and Cicero — which are unfitted 
for boys of twelve lo sixteen 
ycara of age. 

4. Theybavo Home practical in- 
terest for those who use them. 

5. There is not a vicious sen- 
tence uttered. In some dialofruc 
books profanity is found, or dis- 
obedience lo parents encouraged, 
or lying laughed at. Letteacbers 
look out for this. 

„ 6. There is something for the 

wiw ooTBK. youngest pupils, 

7. "Memorial Day Exercises" for Bryant, Garfield, Lincoln, 
etc., will be found. 

8. Several Triee Planting eiercises are included. 

9. The exerclsea have relation to the school-room, and bear 
upon education. 

10. An important point Is the freshness of these pieces. Most 
of them were written expressly for this coUectiop, and can be 
found nowhere elae. 

Boston Joumal of Edneatiou.— " it is of practical lalue." 
Dstltit Jnt Ftm*.— " BuiUblB tor public and priTsCe Bchools." 
WMtarn Ed, Jovnial.— " a serlea of very sood wleotlQiu." 



8SMD ALL ORDlEftJS TO 

B. L, KELLOOQ <fc CO., NEW YORK A CHICAGO. 66 



WHAT EACH NUMBER CONTAINS. 



No. 1 

Is a specially fine number. One dia- 
logue in it, called *' Work Conquei's," 
for 11 girls and 6 boys, has been given 
huncU'eds of times, and is alone worth 
the price of the book. Then there 
are 21 other dialogues. 
29 Recitations. 
14 Declamations. 
17 Pieces for the Primary Class. 

No. 2 Contains 

29 Recitations. 

12 Declamations. 

17 Dialogues. 

24 Pieces for the Primary Class. 

And for Class Exercise as follows: 

The Bird's Party. 

Indian Names. 

Valedictory. 

Washington's Birthday. 

Garfield Memorial Day. 

Grant " ** 

Whittier " ** 

Sigoumey " 



(t 



No. 3 Contains 

Fewer of the longer pieces and more 
of the shorter, as follows : 
18 Declamations. 

21 Recitations. 

22 Dialogues. 

24 Pieces for the Primary Class. 
A Christmas Exercise. 
Opening Piece, and 
An Historical Celebration. 



4( 



44 
4( 



it 



44 



It 



No. 4 Contains 

Campbell Memorial Day. 

Longfellow ** 

Michael Angelo " 

Shakespeare 

Washington 

Christmas Exercise. 

Arbor Day 

New Planting 

Thanksgiving 

Value of Knowledge Exercise. 

Also 8 other Dialogues. 

21 Recitations. 

23 Declamations. 

No. 5 Contains 

Browning Memorial Day. 
Autumn Exercise. 
Bryant Memorial Day. 
New Planting Exercise. 
Christmas Exercise. 
A Concert Exercise. 

24 Other Dialogues. 
16 Declamations, and 
86 Recitations. 

No. 6 Contains 

Spring; a flower exercise for very 

young pupils. 
Emerson Memorial Da^r. 
New Year's Day Exercise. 
Holmes' Memorial Da;)r. 
Fourth of July Exercise. 
Shakespeare Memorial Day. 
Washington's Birthday Exercise. 
Also 6 other Dialogues. 
6 Declamations. 
41 Recitations. 

15 Recitations for the Primary Class. 
And 4 Songs. 



Our Reception Day Series is not sold largely by booksellers, 
who, if they do not keep it, try to have you buy something else 
similar, but not so good. Therefore send direct to the publishers, 
by mail, the price as above, in stamps or postal notes, and your 
order will be filled at once. Discount for quantities. 



SPECIAL OFFER. 

If ordered at one time, we will send postpaid the entire^ 
6 Nos. for $1.40. Note the reduction. 



M E. L. RSLLOOO & CO., NEW YORK <fi CmOAOO. 

Gardner's Town and Country School 

Buildings. A collection of plaua and desii,'U9 for schools of 
various sizes, graded and ungraded, with descriplionti of con- 
Blruttion. of sanitary nrrangemeDls, light, heat, and vootila- 
tion. By E. C. Gahdnek, architect, author of " The House 
that Jill Built," etc. Cloth, small quarto, 150 pp. Price, 
(3.00; to Uachera, 13.00; by mail, 12 cenlsextra. Illustrated 
vrlLti nearly 150 eiigraviugs. 



TMi is nndonbtedly the most important work ever 
isBued on this subject. 

It l9 plain that in the revival of education tlint is apparently 
begun there are to be better buildings erected for educational 
purposes. The unsightly, iuconveulerit, badly-lighted, unventl- 



lated Olid ugly structures are to give way to Ihose that a 
venlcnt and elegant. The author is an earnest advocate of Im- 
proved methods of education, and feels that suitable buUdlngB 
will bear an imporljint part in the movement. 

POINTS OF THE WORK. 

1. It is not a book that presents places for bouses that will 
simply eoit more money— \«t that be borne in mind. It is a book 
that shows how to spend money so aa to get the value of the 
money. 

S. Better buildings are sure to be erected— this cannot be 
stopped; tlie people are feeling the importance of education as 
they never did before. They will express their feeling br erect- 



8KND ALL ORDERS TO 

58 E. L. KELLOGG & GO,, NEW YORK & CHICAGO, 

IVilbeMs Student's Calendar. 

Compiled by N. O. Wilhslm. Bound in paper. 76 pp. Double iDdezed. 
Price, 80 cents; to teacliers^ 24 cents; by mall, 8 cents extra. 

This is a perpetual calendar and book of days. It consists of Short Biog- 
raphies of Greatest Men, arranged according to Birthdays and Deathdays, 
covering every day of the year. 

These can be used for opening exercises in schools, for memorial days, 
and for giving pupils some information about the great men of the world 
about whom everybody ought to know something. Just the thing for 
families where there are young people. 

The condensed information in this little book would in other form cost 
you many dollars to own. Here are a few of the names of persons whose 
Biographies are found in the ** Student's Calendar:*' 

John Adams, 
J. Q. Adams. 
Joseph Addison, 
Alexand'r the Grc't, 
HIchael Angelo, 
Aristotle, ' 
Ascham, 
Audubon, 
Francis Bacon, 
Geo. Bancroft, 
Venerable Bcde, 
Von Bisnmrck, 
Tycho Brabe, 
Lord Brougham, 
Mrs. Browning, 
W. C. Bryant. 
Edmund Burke, 
Robert Burns, 
Ben. F. Butler, 
Lord Byron, 
Caasar, 

John Calhoun, 
Thos. Campbell, 
Thos. Carlyle, 
Phoebe Cary, 
Cervantes, 
Salmon P. Chase, 
Thos. Chatterton, 
Ruf U8 Choate, 
Cicero, 
Henry Clay, 
Cleopatra, 
Coleridge, 
Schuyler Colfax, 
Anthony Collins, 
Cornwallis, 



Queen Elizabeth, 

K. W. Emerson, 

Robert Emmet, 

Euripi<lefl, 

Edw. Everett, 

Faraday, 

Farrnguc, 

F^nelon, 

M. Fillmore, 

Chas. J. Fox, 

Ben. Franklin, 

Sir J. Franklin, 

Frederick the Great 

J. C. Fremont, 

Frobisher, 

Froebel, 

Froude, 

Robert Fulton, 

Galileo. 

Vasco da Gama, 

Gambetta, 

Garfield. 

Garibaldi, 

D. Garrick, 

Horatio Gates, 

R. Gkttllng, 

George IIL, 

Stephen Girard, 

Gladstone, 

Goethe, 

Goldsmith, 

U. S. Grant, 

Henry Grattan, 

Asa Gray, 

Horace Greeley, 

Nath. Greene, 



John Hancock, 
Hamilton, 
Hannibal, 
W. H. Harrison, 
Nath. Hawthorne, 
Hay den, 
Mrs. Hcnians, 
T. A. Hendricks, 
Patrick Henry, 
Sir Wm. Herschel, 
O. W. Holmes, 
Thomas Hood, 
Jos. Hooker, 
Horace, 
Sam. Houston, 
Ellas Howe, 
Victor Hugo, 
Humboldt, 
David Hume, 
Wash. Irving, 
Andrew Jackson, 
Jacotot, 
Jos. Jacquard, 
James L, 
James II., 
John Jay, 
Thos. Jefferson, 
Francis Jeffrey, 
Dr. Ed. Jen tier, 
Joan of Arc, 
Sam'l Johnson, 
John Paul Jones. 
Dr. Kane, 
John Keats, 
John Kitto, 
Henry Knox, 



Abraham Lincoln, 

Jenny Liud, 

Linnaeus, 

Dr. Livingstone, 

H. W. Longfellow, 

Lowell, 

Lubbock, 

Martin Luther, 

Macaulay, 

Macready, 

Mohammed, 

Horace Mann, 

Maria Theresa, 

Marie Antoinette, 

Mary, Qu'n of Scots, 

J. Montgomery, 

Sir J. Moore, 

Mozart, 

Napoleon I., 

Nelson, 

Sir Isaac Newton, 

Daniel O'Connell, 

Charles O'Conor, 

Thos. Paine, 

Geo. Peabody, 

Wm. Penn, 

Peter the Great, 

Pizarro, 

Plato, 

E. A. Foe, 

W. H. Prescott, 

Pulaski, 

Queen Victoria, 

Kiohelien, 

J. P. Richter, 

Rltter, 



Lubbock's Best loo Books. 



By Sir John Lubbock. 64 pages, paper. Price, 20 cents; to teachers^ 16 
cents; by mail, 2 cents extra. 

Sir John Lubbock, in an address last year before the Workingmen's College 
of London, England, gave a list of what he deemed the Best 100 Books, fife 
said, in giving his list, that if a few good guides would draw up similar lists, 
it would be most useful. 

The Pall Mail Gazette published Sir John Lubbock's list, and invited 
eminent men in England to give their opinions concerning it. We have just 
reprinted them in neat pamphlet form. Qladstone, Stanley, Black, and 
many others are represented. 



SVNB AI«Ii OBDBR8 TO 

E, L, KELLOGG & CO.; NE W TOUK & CHICAGO, 59 

Aliens Temperament in Education. 

With directions concerning; How to Become A Successful 
Teacher. By Jerome Allen, Ph.D., Author of '* Mind 
Studies for Young Teachers," etc. Cloth, 16mo. Price, 50 
cents, to teOfChera, 40 cents ; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

There is no book in the English language accessible to 
students on this important subject, yet it is a topic of so much 
importance to all who wish to become better acquainted with 
themselyes that its suggestions will find a warm welcome 
everywhere, especially by teacheis. The value of the book will 
be readily seen oy noticing the subjects discussed. 

CONTENTS :— How we can know Mind— Native Gharacteristios of 
Children— How to Study Ourselves— The Sanguine Temperament— The 
Bilious Temperament— The Lymphatic Temperament— The Nervous 
Temperament— Physical Charabtenstios of each Temperament : Tabula- 
ted—The best Temperament— How to Oanduot Self Study— Many Per- 
sonal Questions for Students of Themselves— How to Improve— Specific 
Directions— How to Study ChUdren— How Children are Alike, How 
Different— Eacts in Child Growth : Tabulated and Explained— How to 
Promote Healthy Child Growth. Full directions concerning how to 
treat temperamental differences. How to effect change in tempera- 
ment. 

Under "How to Become A Successful Teacher," the 
following topics are discussed: "What books and papers to 
read."— "What schools to visit."—" What associates to select." 
-^" What subjects to study."—" How to find helpful critics."— 
"How to get the greatest good from institutes."— " Shall 1 
attend a Normal school f " "How to get a good and perman- 
ent position f " " How to get good pay ? " " How to grow a 
better teacher yeftr after year." " Professional honesty and 
dishonesty." — " The best and most enduring reward." 

^Pooler's N, Y. School Laws. 

A Manual of the School Laws of N . Y. State. By Ch akijBS T. Pooleii, 
conductor of Institutes. 60 pp., limp cloth. Price, 90 cents; to 
teachers^ S4 cents ; by mail, 3 cents extra. 

A large majority of all the school district difficulties, culmin- 
ating too often in petty lawsuits, and oftener still in social quar- 
rels that seldom die, grow out of ignorance of a few points 
in the school law. Tne object of this book is to give the school 
law governing citizens, teachers, and school officers. Reference 
is made by figures to the Code of Public Instruction. 

CONTENTS: School Year and Annual School Meeting— Votes at 
School-Meetings— Census of Children of School Age— School District 
Meetings— Trustees : Powers and Duties— Teachers : Powers and Re- 
striction-District Clerk: Duties— Supervisor— School Commissioner- 
Superintendent of Public Instruction— The Teacher's Bights— Child- 

^n*9 Bights— Parent's Rights, 



8BND ALL ORDBIIS TO 

E. L. KELLOGG d CO,, NEW YORK & CHICAGO, 68 

THE 

NEW YORK EDUCATIONAL BUREAU, 

E. L. KELLOGG & CO., Proprietors, 

OUR AIMS. 

THIS Bnrean will make a specialty of fninishlng to Parents, School 
Officers, Principals, Heads of Colleges, and others, capable 
Governesses, Tutors, Teachers, Principals, Superintendents, and 
Special Teachers. It will aid Parents by giving trustworthy informa- 
tion and advice concerning Colleges, Schools, and Seminaries. It will 
supply Teachers to Academies, Seminaries, Private Schools, Colleges, 
Public and High Schools, also Teachers of Music, Art, French, German, 
Kindergarten System, Gymnastics, etc. It will aid to sell and rent 
desirable school property. 

VALUABLE CONNECTION- 

THIS Bureau is directly connected with the firm of E. L. Eellogff 
<&; Co., Educational Publishers, of New York and Chicago, and 
therefore has a very large acquaintance with qualified teachers 
and school officers. It knows of many hundreds who are rapidly 
growing in value, who are imbued with new ideas asked so often of 
principals and leading teachers. It is intended to supply only good 
tecichers, and from our extensive acquaintance the selection will be 
found reliable by those who give a fair trial to the facilities afforded by 
this Bureau. 

EXCLUSIVE INFORMATION, 

ONLY the most desirable teacher is recommended for a place by 
this Bureau. You can see that it would not be wise for us to 
put an incompetent person in any position. Thus the can^date 
who is nominated for a position will have the satisfaction of knowing 
that he is being worked for (for his success is our success), and that 
there will not be a dozen or more persons, recommended by us, itfter 
the same position. 

CONFIDENTIAL DEALINGS. 

ALL of the dealings with this Bureau are, of course, confidential. 
The letters of our correspondents are carefully guarded, their 
wants carefully looked after. The Application Blank when re- 
turned to us is immediately filed and references looked up. Letters of 
recommendation are carefully read and filed for reference. These 
letters of recommendation are inviolable, and only shown to those who 
wish to ascertain the qualifications of our candidates. 

Our relations with school boards and school officers are also confi- 
dential. They are under no obligation to take the candidate recom- 
mended by this Bureau; and even if they should take some one else not 
recommended by us, we cannot complain, nor can the teacher nomi- 
nated. But we will do our best for those who register with us. 

Let it be clearly understood that all information this Bureau receives 
is of a confidential nature. It is not told unless we have permission to 



SBND ALL niU)BIl8 TO 

64 E. L. KELLOQO iSb CO,, NEW YORK d CHIC AGO. 

tell. In the same way no nomination for a vacancy is given to other 
than registered members, and then only for personal use. A clause in 
our Contract explains this. 

CERTAINTY OF POSITION. 

WE cannot fftiarantee any teaeher a position. We will enter all 
who register, but we ai'e desirous to enrol only those who arc 
especially competent, for we know that their success will be 
ours. But teachers who do not respond to our cidl for answers to 
special questions, to inquiries concerning ability, and proofs of same 
when not known directly to us; or who do not advise us promptly con- 
cerning their acceptance of nomination, etc.. cannot stand the same 
chance that those who come up to all our requirements do. We simply 
want an earnest effort in co-operation. In regard to those who are 
willing to thoroughly aid us, we would know to a certainty what we 
recommended, and in the other case we might take a great risk in nomi- 
nating a teacher if we did not know all we desired about him. 

ABOUT REGISTERING. 

DO this at once. If you do not happen to have one of our application 
forms, a stamp will bring it to you by return mail. Tour appli- 
cation and consultation fee will hold good for one year from the 
time it is received and recorded here. In filling out the blank, be sure 
to read it over carefully and then fill in all the particulars carefully. 
It is also well to send on a separate sheet such other particulars that 
the blank has not room for. Be sure to use good ink. Write neatly. 
See that your name and address are correctly written. Any changes of 
address must be promptly forwarded to the Bureau. State what diplo- 
mas and certificates you hold. Give details about your present work, 
your experience, wishes for change, etc. 

It is well in sending your application to enclose a photograph. 
Many school boards and officers will not listen to the qualifications of 
a teacher unless they can first see a photograph. Your photograph 
will be kept with your application blank in an envelope and returned 
when called for. In giving references, give as many as possible. Give 
the names of people who huno you toeU and vouch for your (1) educa- 
tional advantages, (2) ability and experience, and (3) character. Write 
these names plainly and correctly. Let there be no indefiniteness 
about your communications. Write plainly your needs, any difficul- 
ties you have at present and conditions that you would avoid. This is 
necessary for intelligent help from us. Many of our teachers write us 
a confidential letter that we file with the application, and from it we 
are able to judge more clearly of their abilities, chance of success, etc. 

TERMS- 

THESE will be found on the application blank which each appli- 
cant must properly fill out and return to us. Our Terms of Con- 
tract will explain itself. The fee of $2.00 does not cover the 
actual cost to us of enrolling a name on our books, writing to refer- 
ences, postage, time, etc. The entire time of a skilled clerk is taken 
with these details alone. 

REGISTER AT ONCE. 

Send stamp for blank to H. S. Kei^logg, Manager, 25 CUnton H., N. Y, 












# 
i